|Title of Invention||
Method To Mitigate Effects Of Inter-Cell Interference in a Cellular Communication System
|Abstract||An embodiment herein provides a method to mitigate effects of inter-cell interference in cellular communications, thereby maximizing SIR of a cellular device, due to a serving base station selecting a transmission strategy which places average signal strength of the cellular device utilising the base station in its in-phase region and average inverse of interference signal strength received by the cellular device from interfering base stations in their out-of phase region.|
|Full Text||FIELD OF INVENTION
1. The embodiments herein generally relate to inter-cell interference mitigation, and,
more particularly, to mitigation using beamforming angles of base stations.
BACKGROUND AND PRIOR ART
2. Interference mitigation has been studied extensively in the context of CDMA systems. Here power control is employed to limit interference power, which is best understood as interference avoidance. Cellular capacity with spatially coloured interference, while employing multiple antennas is also well studied. Signal processing techniques such as successive interference cancellation, minimum-mean-square error combining, multiuser detection etc. are also available, which can cancel interference and is applicable for a broad category of systems employing wireless physical layer techniques like OFDM / OFDMA, SC-FDMA, CDMA, FDM / FDMA etc.
3. Interference avoidance can also be achieved through resource allocation methods such as sectorization, joint power allocation and channel-aware user scheduling. Another method to handle interference is to consider the links between several base stations (BS) and multiple users as a larger multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antenna system, over which the so-called centralized, multi-user beamforming or precoding can be performed. This is feasible when the channel state information (CSI) of the channels seen between the base stations and all interfering mobile terminals are available at a central controller, along with the multiple data streams to be transmitted to these terminals. Mitigating or minimizing the effect of interference adaptively maximizes the signal to interference ratio (SIR) and hence the rate. Full CSI feedback, as well as fast and tight inter-cell coordination, requires substantial communication resources, which is the price to pay for achieving the gains of multi-user beamforming.
4. Consider a case where link specific optimization is done to increase SIR of the subscriber station (SS). The natural tendency is to increase the transmitting power of
the serving BS. However, this degrades SIR of the neighbouring cells due to an increased interference power level. Though techniques like sectorization, user scheduling and other resource allocation techniques try to avoid this by reusing channels only at distant geographical locations, such that interference is minimized, it is a very limiting approach due to shrinking cell sizes and increasing demand for system capacity.
5. Consider BSs employing two transmit antennas. Using the Alamouti code, a code
used to obtain diversity without losing on data rate in case of two transmit antennas, it
can be seen that there is no improvement in signal strength due to the use of two
antennas over the single transmit antenna for the SSs near the boundary of the cells.
SUMMARY OF INVENTION
6. In view of the foregoing, an embodiment herein provides a method to mitigate the effects of inter-cell interference in cellular communications, thereby maximizing SIR of a cellular device, due to a serving base station selecting a transmission strategy which places average signal strength of the cellular device utilising the serving base station in its in-phase region and the average inverse of interference signal strength caused to cellular device(s) served by adjacent cell base stations in their out-of phase region; the method comprising the steps of a cellular device estimating channel from serving base station and interfering base stations; the cellular device calculating co-phasing angle(s) for all the channels seen from the base stations and constructing a vector of uniformly quantized values for each base station. The cellular device forwards said vectors to the serving base station and the serving base station forwarding interference vectors to the corresponding interfering base stations; the serving base station deciding on a beamforming angle; and the serving base station communicating the beamforming angle to said cellular device.
7. These and other aspects of the embodiments herein will be better appreciated and understood when considered in conjunction with the following description and the
accompanying drawings. It should be understood, however, that the following descriptions, while indicating preferred embodiments and numerous specific details thereof, are given by way of illustration and not of limitation. Many changes and modifications may be made within the scope of the embodiments herein without departing from the spirit thereof, and the embodiments herein include all such modifications.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
8. The embodiments herein will be better understood from the following description
with reference to the drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 illustrates inter-cell interference;
FIG. 2 illustrates the effect of beamforming angle on the SIR;
FIG. 3 illustrates an example of the embodiment for the selection of the beamforming
FIG. 4 is a flowchart wherein a method of execution of the embodiment is shown; and
FIG. 5 is illustrates the single bit feedback on the relative signal strength to control
DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS
9. The embodiments herein and the various features and advantageous details
thereof are explained more fully with reference to the non-limiting embodiments that
are illustrated in the accompanying drawings and detailed in the following description.
Descriptions of well-known components and processing techniques are omitted so as
to not unnecessarily obscure the embodiments herein. The examples used herein are
intended merely to facilitate an understanding of ways in which the embodiments
herein may be practiced and to further enable those of skill in the art to practice the
embodiments herein. Accordingly, the examples should not be construed as limiting
the scope of the embodiments herein.
10. As mentioned, there remains a need for inter-cell interference mitigation. The embodiments herein achieve this by providing a method for the base stations to choose beamforming angle, which can maximize the Signal-to-Interference ratio (SIR) in a distributed manner. Referring now to the drawings, and more particularly to FIGS. 1 through 5, where similar reference characters denote corresponding features consistently throughout the figures, there are shown preferred embodiments.
11. The embodiments described herein provide inter-cell interference mitigation wherein a wireless communication system consisting of N cell-sites with spectral resources are reused in each cell. When the interference power dominates over the variance of the Gaussian noise (σ2) at the receiver, the link signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) can take the role of signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR). It is assumed herein that every cell-site (or sector) has a base station (BS) of K antenna in each of the said cell-sites. For illustrative purposes, the BSs described in here employ two antennas each. Further, it is assumed that the said BS serves a subscriber (SS) in the cell during a channel use wherein the said channel may be described as a time-frequency slot. The SSs can employ multiple antennas for communication. For illustrative purposes, the SSs described herein are assumed to employ one antenna. The receiver equation for SS-i can now be given as follows,
are the symbols transmitted from both the antennas of BS-i.
12. The embodiments herein describe inter-cell interference mitigation of SSs
wherein downlink signals of a SS from BS of the said SS interferes with the downlink
signal of adjacent cell SSs, received from their respective BS, especially near the cell
boundaries as shown in FIG 1, FIGl illustrates a two-cell interference model wherein
SSs (102) and (104) are at the boundary of the cells. The BSs (101) and (103)
comprising of two antennas each send signals to their respective SS which interferes
with the SSs in the neighboring cell as illustrated in FIG. 1.
13. FIG. 2 illustrates the effect of the beamforming angle u on the SIR. Curve (201) corresponds to average signal strength (S-) wherein \ (202) corresponds to average inverse of interference signal strength (1/1) wherein
15. According to an embodiment herein the BSs can choose the beamforming angle wherein to minimize interference signal strength to the SS of the co-channel cell.
16. Further in an embodiment herein values of the beamforming angle is chosen wherein the BS places S, of its own SS in the in-phase region and l/Ij of its co-channel SS in the out-of-phase region.
wherein is in the out-of-phase region. In FIG 3 value of
points (308) or (309). The maximum gain described herein above can be achieved by employing selection of channels as described herein.
21. In an embodiment of the invention an adaptive transmission strategy at BSs
employing multiple transmit antennas through cooperation amongst interfering cells
wherein BSs exchange minimal feedback information of channel state obtained from
user terminals is described. Further, in said embodiment the numerator and
denominator terms in the GNA expression is improved wherein the sum SIR value is
22. In this embodiment, 'θiis selected using quantized channel phase information
wherein SS-i estimates the channel from serving BS, hkj and interfering BSs,
The numbers of possible values of quantized angles for 1-bit quantization
are given by 2' wherein one value can be used for co-phasing the channels; further,
2(1-1) of these entries are co-phasing angles wherein said co-phasing angles are in-phase. Further, entries remaining after co-phasing angles are chosen as canceling angles which result in loss of signal strength wherein canceling angles are out-of-phase.
23. Further, in this embodiment, a vector of uniformly quantized values θji is
/ constructed according to received signal strength. In an example of embodiment θji values are arranged in decreasing order of received signal strength for each BS-j by each SS. Said SS forwards said vectors to serving base station (BS-i). Said base
station (BS-i) retains its own vector θii, forwards the interference vectors
to interfering BS (BS-j). Said interference vectors are sent to interfering BS using a network wherein the network can include but is not limited to a back-haul network.
24. Further, in this embodiment, BS-i decides the value for θi wherein vectors θji are available. The said value for θh is decided by the said BS such that SS in its cell (BS-i) can receive signal with diversity by having its transmission in the in-phase region. Further, said value of 'θiis decided by said BS such that interference caused to other cell SSs (SS-j) which receive downlink from base stations BS-j is lowered.
25. Further, in this embodiment, prior to decoding, SS-i is sent value of θi for equalizing. The transmission of said value of θi to the said SS (SS-i) can include but is not limited to explicit feed forward transmission.
26. FIG 4 is a flowchart wherein a method of execution of the embodiment is shown. The cellular device, SS-i estimates channel from serving BS (BS-i) and interfering base stations (BS-j) (401) and constructs a vector of uniformly quantized values for each base station (402) and forwards said vector to serving base station (BS-i) (403). Said base station (BS-i) retains its vector (404) and forwards the interfering vectors to respective interfering base stations (BS-j) (405). Said BS-i decides a beamforming angle (t^) (406) and further forwards said angle to the said device (SS-i) (407).
27. Further, said transmission can include using pilots to help the said SS in channel estimation wherein pilots only enable said SS-i to estimate combined
channel ^' " . Further, only one element of the vector wherein said element is
a value which best co-phases signal from BS-i to SS-i is fed back wherein said vector is ordered as described hereinabove. Further, the information of the order of the elements including but not limited to decreasing order is fed back to said SS (SS-i) using a bit which indicates order of elements. The said feed back uses 1+1 bits for feedback.
28. The two-user cooperation can be stated as shown in an algorithm as shown below
wherein the quantized information is available to BSs. Said algorithm is based on
relative channel phase and can obtain improvements to the array-gain.
The BS-i tries to identify the element in the vector which matches with the interest of the SS-i, wherein the matching is started from the right most entry of quantization
vector θ. which is most interference canceling angle and from the left most entry of
θ, the most co-phasing angle. Said matching of the interest of said SS by BS matches any value from first half of order of vectors wherein the left-most is the most preferred value. Said iteration is repeated until a match is found or until the 2(1-1)th value is reached, which is a match. In the event of a match of the value between θy
and 6.. (which cancels much interference but still co-phases for SS-i as described
above), the matching value is decided as the favorable value ^».
29. While the preferred embodiment is described for two user cooperation, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that said embodiment can be extended to include more than two users without departing from the spirit and scope of the embodiment.
30. While the preferred embodiment is described for two cells, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that said embodiment can be extended to include more than two cells without departing from the spirit and scope of the embodiment.
31. Further, in embodiment, a scheduler can be used wherein said scheduler can be
used in conjunction with described algorithm for optimal allocation of spectrum to
SSs in the cell. The available spectrum can be loaded optimally in all cells wherein
selection of best bands from interference point can be first done for co-channel cell-
edge users. The users at cell boundary can be assigned frequency bands by said
scheduler based on .' values for said bands from all SSs wherein ^n values for all
bands from all co-channel users can be estimated preferably using the method of transmitting the pilot bits as described hereinabove.
32. Further, in accordance with various embodiments the array gain achieved can be improved further by using information on relative channel strengths wherein said information can be in the form of a single bit wherein said single bit
In the above equation, denotes either the numerator or denominator wherein the subscript is removed:
35. Further, power level used on stronger link antenna is represented by a and the power levels used in the weaker link antenna be represented by 1 - a].
The optimal value of a can be calculated by taking mean value of above mentioned equation for and solving for the below equation:
The optimal value of a2which is calculated above is given by:
36. FIG 5 illustrates the single bit feedback on the relative signal strength to control
power wherein the interference can be minimized. Curve (502) represents S1 with no
power control and (501) represents said S1 with power control. Further, (504)
representsI/ij with no power control and (503) represents the said 1/Ii with power
37. The foregoing description of the specific embodiments will so fully reveal the
general nature of the embodiments herein that others can, by applying current
knowledge, readily modify and/or adapt for various applications such specific
embodiments without departing from the generic concept, and, therefore, such
adaptations and modifications should and are intended to be comprehended within the
meaning and range of equivalents of the disclosed embodiments. It is to be understood
that the phraseology or terminology employed herein is for the purpose of description
and not of limitation. Therefore, while the embodiments herein have been described in
terms of preferred embodiments, those skilled in the art will recognize that the
embodiments herein can be practiced with modification within the spirit and scope of
the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A method to mitigate effects of inter-cell interference in cellular
communications, thereby maximizing SIR of a cellular device, due to a
serving base station selecting a transmission strategy which places average
signal strength of said cellular device utilising said base station in in-phase
region and average inverse of interference signal strength received by said
cellular device from interfering base stations in the out-of phase region; said
method comprising the steps of:
a cellular device estimating channel from serving base station and interfering
said cellular device calculating co-phasing angle for all the base stations;
said cellular device constructing a vector of uniformly quantized values for
each base station;
said cellular device forwarding said vectors to said serving base station;
said serving base station forwarding interference vectors to said interfering
said serving base station deciding on a beamforming angle; and
said base station communicating said beamforming angle to said cellular
2. A method, as claimed in claim 1, where said vector is constructed by said cellular device in decreasing order of received signal strength.
3. A method, as claimed in claim 1, where only one element of said vector needs to be communicated by said cellular device to said serving base station.
4. A method, as claimed in claim 3, where one bit indicating order of elements of said vector needs to be communicated by said cellular device to said serving base station.
5. A method, as claimed in claim 1, where elements of said vectors are in increasing order.
6. A method, as claimed in claim 1, where elements of said vectors are in decreasing order.
7. A method, as claimed in claim 1, where said serving base station forwards interference vectors to said interfering base stations through a backhaul network.
8. A method, as claimed in claim 1, where said serving base station starts checking said interference vector for beamforming angle from right most entry of said vector.
9. A method, as claimed in claim 1, where said base station communicates said beamforming angle to said cellular device through explicit feed forward
10. A method, as claimed in claim 1, where said base station communicates said
beamforming angle to said cellular device by using pilots to help said cellular
device in channel estimation.
|Indian Patent Application Number||355/CHE/2008|
|PG Journal Number||06/2017|
|Date of Filing||12-Feb-2008|
|Name of Patentee||Indian Institute of Technology Madras|
|Applicant Address||Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IIT Madras), IIT PO, Chennai - 600036|
|PCT International Classification Number||H 04 M 03/00|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|