Title of Invention

A METHOD OF PREPARING A SOLID BLEND OF POLYMERS

Abstract An immiscible polymer blend including a first polymer component including a paint polymer phase and a second polymer component immiscible with the first polymer component and selected from polyolefins and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). A method of recycling paint by blending a first polymer component including a paint polymer phase with a second polymer component immiscible with the first polymer component and selected from polyolefins and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is also presented.
Full Text METHOD OF RECYCLING PAINTS AS A COMPONENT OF AN IMMISCIBLE
POLYMER BLEND
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application Serial No.
60/748,612, which was filed on December 9, 2005. The disclosure of this application
is incorporated herein by reference.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, unwanted
paint is the largest component of residential household hazardous waste across the
country. It is estimated that 34 million gallons of leftover consumer paint is generated
annually in the United States. However, this estimate does not include significant
amounts of waste paint generated by contractors, retailer mis-tints, paint
manufacturers, private corporations or other businesses, schools, and other public
agencies.
The primary component of paint retailers' waste stream consists of unused full
containers of paint that are returned as a mis-tint or other mistake. The cost of final
disposition, a per container cost for either recycling or hazardous waste disposal, is
very high for the retailer. Much of this paint could be re-blended and converted into
paint for use by either government or private entities, particularly the unused gallons
returned to retailers. However, markets for re-blended paint have not proven
profitable as of yet.
Currently, latex paint is the most popular paint on the market. In 1997,
$270,000 was spent collecting and recycling 1.3 million pounds of latex paint. The
amount of post-consumer latex paint has grown each year, and in 2003, the quantity
of latex paint collected increased to two million pounds.

This high volume of waste or unwanted latex paint in the municipal solid
waste stream makes it an attractive material to recycle. Moreover, many jurisdictions
prohibit waste paint disposal in a liquid state, due to its propensity to spill on route to
the landfill or incinerator that may cause equipment contamination.
Latex paint is composed of 59.3 % water, 15.7 % latex polymer concentration,
12.5 % titanium dioxide concentration, 12.5 % extender pigments, and 1.1 % ethylene
glycol concentration. However in the 1980s and earlier, mercury was used as a
preservative in latex paint. Thus, liquid waste paint collected at recycling facilities
must be tested for mercury and other contaminants prior to deciding its fate: recycled
for reuse or use in non-traditional products, landfill, or hazardous waste. Latex paint
manufactured after the 1980s may be legally disposed of in a dried, solid form
without going to a hazardous waste landfill. Drying waste paint to a solid state
releases only water and fractional amounts of safe, non-organic volatiles into the
environment. However it is time consuming, and requires considerable effort due to
weather conditions and safety.
Thus, there is a need to develop a proactive, voluntary recycling program and
technology for reusing this material while simultaneously creating financial benefits.
Such a program must be successful in removing a large percentage of unused paint
from the waste stream to negate the need for a mandatory or special taxation program.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention utilizes recycled paint for preparing immiscible polymer
blends. An immiscible polymer blend is presented, which includes a first polymer
component having a paint polymer phase and a second polymer component
immiscible with the first polymer component and selected from polyolefins and
polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA).
One embodiment includes a method of recycling paint by blending a first
polymer component having a paint polymer phase with a second polymer component
immiscible with the first polymer component and selected from polyolefins and
polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA).
Yet another embodiment includes an article of an immiscible polymer blend,
wherein the blend includes a first polymer component having a paint polymer phase

and a second polymer component immiscible with the first polymer component and
selected from polyolefms and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA).
An additional embodiment includes an article formed using a method for
recycling paint, wherein the method includes blending a first polymer component
having a paint polymer phase with a second polymer component immiscible with the
first polymer component and selected from polyolefms and polymethylmethacrylate
(PMMA).
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is depicts mass loss as a function of drying time for two paint samples,
A and B;
FIG. 2 is a graph depicting tensile modulus as a function of weight percent
paint in paint/HDPE blends;
FIG. 3 is a graph depicting tensile modulus as a function of weight percent
paint in paint/PMMA blends;
FIG. 4 depicts tensile ultimate strength as a function of weight percent paint in
paint/PMMA and paint/HDPE blends;
FIG. 5 represents stress-strain curves for gloss and flat paint/HDPE blends;
FIG. 6 represents stress-strain curves for gloss and flat paint/PMMA blends;
FIG. 7 shows differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) scans of a 35/65 % by
weight Gloss/HDPE blend; and
FIG. 8 shows differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) scans of a 35/65 % by
weight Gloss/PMMA blend.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The present invention provides pigmented immiscible polymer blends formed
using paint as one of the polymer components. An immiscible polymer blend in
accordance with the present invention includes a first polymer component, which
includes a paint polymer phase, and a second polymer component immiscible with the
first polymer component and selected from polyolefins and polymethylmethacrylate
(PMMA).
The first polymer component includes a paint polymer phase preferably
derived from water-based paints, oil-based paints, or solvent-based paints. Preferably,
the paint is collected from a waste treatment facility or directly from the unwanted
supply of a retailer or consumer. The paint is collected in either a liquid or a dried
form. In one embodiment, the paint is collected in a liquid form and blended with the
second immiscible polymer component in the liquid form. In another embodiment,
the paint is collected in a liquid form and dried to reduce water, oil, and/or solvent
content prior to melt-blending with the second immiscible polymer component.
In one embodiment, the first polymer component is a latex paint polymer
phase preferably derived from flat latex paint or gloss latex paint. The terms "gloss
paint" and "gloss latex paint" as used herein include semi-gloss and high-gloss paints.
The polymer phase of paint is typically formed from one or more polymers
including acrylates, vinyl acrylates, vinyl acetates, styrene acrylates, polyurethanes,
epoxies, neoprenes, polyesters, and alkyd polyesters. Paint containing acrylate and/or
polyester polymers are preferred. The paint polymer phase can be blended with
another miscible polymer before blending with an immiscible polymer component.
Examples of miscible blends include polystyrene/polyphenylene oxide and
polycarbonate/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene.
The paint polymer phase is blended with a second immiscible polymer
component to form the immiscible polymer blends of the present invention. The
second polymer component is selected from polyolefins and polymethylmethacrylate
(PMMA). Exemplary polyolefins include polyethylene and polypropylene.
Preferably, the second polymer component is selected from PMMA and high-density
polyethylene (HDPE). A preferred blend includes a latex paint polymer phase
derived from gloss paint and PMMA.

One embodiment includes a blend ratio of paint/second polymer component
selected from 20/80, 30/70, and 35/65, wherein the ratio of 35/65 is preferred. In one
embodiment, the second polymer component includes between about 65 and about 80
% PMMA or HDPE by weight. In another embodiment, the first polymer component
includes about 65 % PMMA by weight.
Articles formed from the polymer blend are also presented. Suitable articles
include those usually formed from polyolefins or PMMA. For example, a typical use
for PMMA is as an impact resistant substitute for glass. Exemplary HDPE articles
include packaging articles, preferably, containers, merchandise bags, shrink films,
grocery sacks, and industrial liners.
The present invention also includes a method of recycling paint by blending a
first polymer component comprising a paint polymer phase with a second polymer
component immiscible with the first polymer component and selected from
polyolefins and PMMA. In one embodiment, the first polymer component and the
second immiscible polymer component are both in a liquid form prior to blending.
An additional embodiment includes reducing the water, oil, and/or solvent content of
the paint polymer phase after combining it with the second immiscible polymer
component. For example, the water, oil, and/or solvent content of the paint polymer
phase can be removed by heating and/or drawing a vacuum on the first polymer
component/second immiscible polymer component blend. Exemplary devices for
reducing waiter, oil, and/or solvent content of the paint polymer phase include twin
screw extruders made by, for example, Leistritz Corp., Allendale, NJ, and paint
devolatilizers. In one embodiment, the first polymer component and the second
immiscible polymer component, both in liquid form, are blended in a twin screw
extruder just prior to extrusion.
An additional embodiment includes the step of forming an article with the
polymer blend. In one embodiment, the forming step includes injection molding,
blow molding, thermoforming, rotational molding, or extrusion molding. Another
embodiment includes an article formed according to the method of the present
invention.
The following non-limiting examples set forth hereinbelow illustrate certain
aspects of the invention.

EXAMPLES
Example 1: Paint preparation and analysis
Thirteen cans of post-consumer paint were collected, separated by gloss
content, and labeled gloss or flat. Both high-gloss and semi-gloss paint were
categorized as gloss, and the flat paint labeled flat.
A small sample was collected from each can, weighed, and weighed again
after five days to determine changes in mass. Following this preliminary experiment,
samples of both gloss and flat paint were poured into 25 by 55 cm Teflon baking
sheets, dried under room temperature conditions over night in order to form a thin
layer or solid layer at the surface, and placed in a Precision Mechanical Convectional
Oven at 85°C for a period of twelve hours. The twelve-hour period was repeated for
each sample until the paint could be peeled off of the tray neatly. The total drying
time varied due to gloss content. The flat paint total drying time was three to four
days, while the gloss paint total drying time was five to seven days.
The resulting solid sheets of gloss paint were then cut into ten 5x9 cm
sections and labeled A - J. The initial mass of the rectangular samples was recorded.
The samples were dried further in a Fisher Scientific Isotemp Oven at a temperature
of 85°C for twenty-four hour periods, and the mass was recorded after each
increment. Samples were dried until the change in mass after each period was
minimal. The length, width, and height were measured and the density calculated for
each sample.
The preliminary study for determining average weight loss of the gloss and
flat paints resulted in average weight losses of 48.2 % for gloss paint and 47.0 % for
flat paint. Table 1 shows the weight loss of the thirteen samples of paint collected
after a five-day drying period. While there were only three samples of flat paint, it
was hypothesized that the flat paint would have a lower weight percent loss than gloss
paint due to the higher ceramic content in flat paint.


Table 2 shows the calculated density of ten samples of gloss paint, labeled A-
J. The average density of the gloss samples is 1.45 g/cm3. Figure 1 depicts the mass
loss as a function of drying time for two of the samples, A and B, over a period of 180
hours. As expected, the curve decreases at a decreasing rate until it levels off
asymptotically and the weight change is minimal.

Example 2: Preparation and analysis of polymer blends
The second phase of experiments involved blending various compositions of
the dried, solid latex paint with HDPE or PMMA to produce paint/polymer blends.

Composition ratios of 20/80 %, 30/70 %, and 35/65 % by weight of Flat/HDPE,
Gloss/HDPE, Flat/PMMA, and Gloss/PMMA were prepared, as well as 100 % HOPE
and 100 % PMMA. The mixes were co-extruded using a Brabender Inteli-Torque
Plasti-Corder extruder operating at 50 RPM at a temperature of 180°C. Once cooled,
the extrudate was ground in a Nelmor grinder. Each blend was injection molded into
tensile specimens using a Negri Bossi V55-200 injection molding machine operated at
205°C.
Tensile mechanical properties were determined using a MTS QTest/25 Elite
Controller, according to ASTM D 638. Modulus, ultimate stress, and percent strain at
fracture were calculated. The average results of five specimens are reported for each
composition.
Thermal properties were determined using a TA Instruments Q 1000
Differential Scanning Calorimeter in modulated DSC mode (MDSC) under an
atmosphere of dry nitrogen. Approximately 8 mg samples of 35/65 Gloss/HDPE and
35/65 Gloss/PMMA were encapsulated in standard aluminum pans and sealed by
crimping. DSC scans for each sample were conducted at 3°C/minute while
simultaneously modulating at 2°C every 40 seconds. The Gloss/HDPE sample was
scanned over a temperature range of-20 - 200°C, and the Gloss/PMMA sample was
scanned over a temperature range of-20 - 160°C. Each sample was heated, cooled,
and reheated over the respective temperature range.
Table 3 shows the average tensile mechanical properties (modulus, ultimate
stress, and strain at fracture) of Gloss/HDPE, Flat/HDPE, Gloss/PMMA, and
Flat/PMMA paint/polymer blends. Strain at fracture is reported, although not all of
the specimens fractured. The value represents the highest percent strain prior to test
termination. Of the five specimens tested at each composition of 100 % HDPE,
Gloss/HDPE, Flat/HDPE, and Gloss/PMMA none fractured. However, for the
Flat/PMMA compositions, none of the five specimens fractured at the 35/65 %
Flat/PMMA composition, but several samples did fracture at the 30/70 % and 20/80
% Flat/PMMA compositions. For the 100 % PMMA composition, all five specimens
tested fractured. The Gloss/PMMA blends have a higher percent strain at failure than
neat PMMA.


Figures 2 and 3 graphically depict a comparison of the tensile modulus as a
function of paint content between Gloss/HDPE and Flat/HDPE blends and
Gloss/PMMA and Flat/PMMA blends, respectively. The modulus of 100 % HDPE
(720 MPa) increases dramatically with the addition of 20 % flat or gloss paint but
then decreases back toward 720 MPa. With the addition of 35 % flat paint, the
modulus decreases below 720 MPa. As shown in Figure 3, any addition of flat paint
to PMMA increases the modulus over that of 100 % PMMA (3,480 MPa). However,
gloss paint has the opposite effect, and the modulus decreases from 3,480 MPa with
any addition of gloss paint.
Figure 4 graphically depicts a comparison of the tensile ultimate strength as a
function of paint content between Gloss/HDPE and Flat/HDPE blends and
Gloss/PMMA and Flat/PMMA blends. The ultimate strength increases from 14.5
MPa for neat HDPE with gloss paint content but is fairly constant with the addition of
flat paint. The ultimate strength of PMMA decreases linearly from 65.0 MPa with the
addition of gloss paint and approximately linearly with the addition of flat paint.

Figures 5 and 6 present the stress-strain curves for the gloss and flat
Paint/HDPE and Paint/PMMA blends, respectively. Gloss and flat Paint/HDPE
blends behave in a similar manner as neat HDPE. This result suggests that
Paint/HDPE blends can replace HDPE in some applications. However, gloss and flat
Paint/PMMA blends have a greatly increased toughness value, as is evident by the
area under the stress-strain curves limited by the strain of failure. The enhanced
toughness of Paint/PMMA blends is an astonishing result that provides an enhanced
alternative to neat PMMA.
Figures 7 and 8 present differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) scans of
35/65 % by weight Gloss/HDPE and Gloss/PMMA, respectively. The total heat flow
and the derivative of the reversing heat flow are plotted against temperature for both
samples. In Figure 6, the Gloss/HDPE sample, a glass transition of the paint
component occurs at 14°C, and a melting transition of the HDPE component occurs
around 129°C. In Figure 7, the Gloss/PMMA sample, a glass transition of the paint
component occurs at 14°C, and a glass transition of the PMMA component occurs at
approximately 104°C.
The foregoing examples and description of the preferred embodiments should
be taken as illustrating, rather than as limiting the present invention as defined by the
claims. As will be readily appreciated, numerous variations and combinations of the
features set forth above can be utilized without departing from the present invention
as set forth in the claims. Such variations are not regarded as a departure from the
spirit and script of the invention, and all such variations are intended to be included
within the scope of the following claims.

What is claimed is:
1. An immiscible polymer blend comprising (a) a first polymer
component comprising a paint polymer phase and (b) a second polymer component
immiscible with the first polymer component and selected from the group consisting
of polyolefms and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA).
2. The blend of claim 1, wherein said paint is selected from the group
consisting of water-based paints, oil-based paints, and solvent-based paints.
3. The blend of claim 2, wherein said water-based paint is latex paint.
4. The blend of claim 3, wherein said latex paint is selected from the
group consisting of flat paint and gloss paint.
5. The blend of claim 1, wherein said polyolefin is high-density
polyethylene (HDPE).
6. The blend of claim 3, wherein said latex paint is gloss paint and said
second polymer component is PMMA.
7. The blend of claim 5, wherein said second polymer component
comprises between about 65 and about 80 % PMMA by weight.
8. The blend of claim 7, wherein said second polymer component
comprises about 65 % PMMA by weight.
9. The blend of claim 5, wherein said second polymer component
comprises between about 65 and about 80 % HDPE by weight.
10. The blend of claim 1, wherein said first polymer component further
comprises a polymer miscible with said paint polymer phase.
11. The blend of claim 1, wherein said first polymer component consists of
a latex paint polymer phase.
12. The blend of claim 1, wherein said paint polymer phase comprises
acrylates, vinyl acrylates, vinyl acetates, styrene acrylates, polyurethanes, epoxies,
neoprenes, alkyd polyesters, or a combination thereof.
13. A method of recycling paint, said method comprising blending (a) a
first polymer component comprising a paint polymer phase with (b) a second polymer

component immiscible with the first polymer component and selected from the group
consisting of polyolefins and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA).
14. The method of claim 13, wherein said first polymer component and
said second polymer component are both in a liquid form prior to blending.
15. The method of claim 13, wherein said paint is selected from the group
consisting of water-based paints, oil-based paints, and solvent-based paints.
16. The method of claim 15, wherein said water-based paint is latex paint.
17. The method of claim 13, wherein said polyolefin is high-density
polyethylene (HDPE).
18. The method of claim 16, wherein said latex paint is selected from the
group consisting of flat paint, semi-gloss paint, and gloss paint.
19. The method of claim 13, further comprising forming an article with the
polymer blend.
20. The method of claim 19, wherein said forming step comprises injection
molding, blow molding, thermoforming, rotational molding, or extrusion molding.
21. An article comprising the polymer blend of claim 1.
22. The article of claim 21, wherein said article is selected from the group
consisting of impact resistant substitutes for glass and packaging articles.
23. The article of claim 22, wherein said packaging articles are selected
from the group consisting of containers, merchandise bags, shrink films, grocery
sacks, and industrial liners.
24. An article formed by the method of claim 13.
25. The article of claim 24, wherein said article is selected from the group
consisting of impact resistant substitutes for glass and packaging articles.
26. The article of claim 25, wherein said packaging articles are selected
from the group consisting of containers, merchandise bags, shrink films, grocery
sacks, and industrial liners.

An immiscible polymer blend including a first polymer component including a paint polymer phase and a second
polymer component immiscible with the first polymer component and selected from polyolefins and polymethylmethacrylate
(PMMA). A method of recycling paint by blending a first polymer component including a paint polymer phase with a second polymer
component immiscible with the first polymer component and selected from polyolefins and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)
is also presented.

Documents:

http://ipindiaonline.gov.in/patentsearch/GrantedSearch/viewdoc.aspx?id=zZ+I4w/BKjUVO4kkAN42Fg==&loc=wDBSZCsAt7zoiVrqcFJsRw==


Patent Number 269253
Indian Patent Application Number 2616/KOLNP/2008
PG Journal Number 42/2015
Publication Date 16-Oct-2015
Grant Date 12-Oct-2015
Date of Filing 27-Jun-2008
Name of Patentee RUTGERS, THE STATE UNIVERSITY
Applicant Address OLD QUEENS, SOMERSET STREET NEW BRUNSWICK, NJ 08909
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 HAMILL, ROBERT 33 MORRIS AVENUE, WEST MILFORD NJ 07480
2 LYNCH, JENNIFER 138 SAPPHIRE LANE, FRANKLIN, NJ 08823
3 NOSKER, THOMAS J THOMAS NOSKER, 4 GREEN FARM LANE, STOCKTON, NJ 08559
4 LEHMAN, RICHARD 26 LAVENDER DRIVE, PRINCETON, NJ 08540
PCT International Classification Number C08F 120/18
PCT International Application Number PCT/US2006/061870
PCT International Filing date 2006-12-11
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 60/748612 2005-12-09 U.S.A.