When the history of mathematics is analyzed, it is very easy to see that there is an explicit relationship between mathematics and various other topics such as science and arts. This article analyses the relationship between mathematics and art, giving examples from painting and world’s most famous painters.

Abstract

Mathematics is in every single place of the world and it is used all around the world as one of the most important parts of every humanbeing’s life. Engineers use mathematics to design, architects use mathematics for their architectural plans, bankers use mathematics to carry on banking and some painters use mathematics while painting. In this article, the painters, who deal with mathematics to paint, these painters’ paintings and their proporties in terms of mathematics are going to be written about. Firstly, I will write about the painters, who used mathematics in their arts, and then I will show some of their paintings and explain their proporties

Mathematics And Art

The term mathematics is defined as “a science (or group of related sciences) dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement” in dictionaries but it is nearly impossible to answer the question “what is mathematics” with just one definition. There are many definitions of mathematics but the most accurate definition is this one. Mathematics is looking at the events with different points of view and creating new solution techniques by implication. Having as many points of view as possible for different problems creates the basis of mathematics.

Art is the collection of the ways of manifesting an emotion, plan or it is the creativity that exists after manifesting. The words “collection of the ways” overlaps with the definition of mathematics and the artistic value of mathematics exists here. For example, a painting of Leonardo da Vinci, called “Mona Lisa” is brilliant in terms of perspective plan. There is something related to mathematics in his painting. While looking from three different angels, three different paintings are seen, that means there is a great perspective plan. Perspective plan is the base of mathematical imlication so, a product of mathematics is used in this painting and there is a relation between this painting and mathematics.

There are many paintings that has a relation between themselves and mathematics. The painters who created these kinds of paintings are Leonardo da Vinci, Maurits Cornelis Escher, Vincent Willem van Gogh, Jackson Pollock.

Leonardo Da Vinci

He lived between April 15, 1452 and May 2, 1519. He was an Italian polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist and writer. He is considered as the one of the greatest painters of the world and one of the most talented person who has ever live on the earth. An art historian, Helen Gardner, says “”his mind and personality seem to us superhuman, the man himself mysterious and remote” for Leonardo da Vinci. He was an engineer, so he used mathematics for his engineering inventions. He was used to mathematics and he was good at mathematics, so he used mathematics in his every area of studies, like painting, sculpturing, science, engineering. Since he was used to use mathematics, he used mathematics in many of his paintings like “Mona Lisa” and “The Vitruvian Man”.

Maurits Cornelis Escher

M.C. Escher lived between 17 June 1898 and 27 March 1972. He was a Dutch graphic artist. He is known for his often mathematically inspired woodcuts, lithographs, and mezzotints. He painted many paintings that have a relation between them and mathematics. In his late life, Escher Studied mathematical concepts of topology. British mathematician Roger Penrose thought some additional mathematical concepts to Escher. From his additional knowledge, Escher created Waterfall and Up and Down by using irregular perspectives. Some other paintings of Escher, that has a relationship with mathematics, are Drawing Hands (1948), Relativity (1953), Circle Limit III (1959), Waterfall (1961). These paintings of Escher will be mentioned deeply in the following parts of this essay

Vincent van Gogh

Vincent Willem van Gogh lived between 30 March 1853 and 29 July 1890. He was a Dutch post-Impressionist painter. Vincient van Gogh used watercolors to paint at school, but after that he changed his technique and he set about using colors to capture mood and emotion, rather than using colors realistically.“Room In Arles” is the most known painting of van Gogh that has a relationship between itself and mathematics. . The commonly known facts about Van Gogh is that he cut off his left ear, sold just one of his paintings in his whole life and he commited a suicide because of his mental problems.

Jackson Pollock

Jackson Pollock lived between January 28 and 1912 – August 11, 1956. He was an influential American painter from whom many painters were influenced. He was influenced by Thomas Hart Benton, Pablo Picasso. It is examined that Pollock’s painting technique displays the proporties of mathematical fractals.It is said that Pollock’s works became more fractal-like chronologically through his carreer. Jackson Pollock is known with his drip fractal paintings and he painted many paintings that are fractal. Often, there is a relationship between Jackson Pollock’s paintings and mathematics

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