Title of Invention

NON-TACK CHEWING GUM

Abstract Non-tack chewing gum comprising chewing gum ingredients is disclosed. Said chewing gum comprises at least one elastomer and at least one resin, said at least one resin comprising at least one synthetic homopolymer resin, said synthetic homopolymer being biodegradable, the amount of said synthetic homopolymer of said chewing gum being from ½% to 60% by weight of said chewing gum, wherein said at least one homopolymer has a polydispersity of 1.1 to 20.
Full Text

Field of the invention
The invention relates to a chewing gum according to the provisions of claim 1.
Background of the invention
Non-tack properties have been desired for decades in relation to chewing gum and
have been pursued by several technical approaches.
One approach has been to apply different variants of poly vinyl acetate (PVA)-based
gum base compositions.
Another approach has been to apply different types of biodegradable polymers in
different chewing gum compositions.
The latter approach has among several other technical paths been solved by use of
polyesters obtained through polymerization of cyclic esters.
One problem in relation to the use of such polymers is, however, that such polyesters
may often have undesired properties in connection with chewing gum.
Thus, e.g. the homopolymer of L-lactide (LPLA) is a semicrystalline polymer. These
types of material exhibit high-tensile strength and low elongation, and consequently
have a high modulus that makes them more suitable for load-bearing applications in
other applications than chewing gum.
In order to improve the desired properties of the polymers, extensive research has
been performed by the provision of different copolymers of L-lactide and D,L-
lactide. Specifically, attempts have been made to disrupt the crystallinity of L-lactide
by the use of other monomers in the polymer chains, such as e-caprolactone.

Such research has resulted in more amorphous polymers applicable for chewing gum
application.
Other attempts following the same path have been to apply significant amounts of
softeners in order to change the property of the individual polymers.
A problem relating to the above approaches is, however, that improved amorphous
properties of the individual polymers obviously may invoke modifications of other
structural features of the polymer in the direction of the typical conventional
polymers with respect to the desired amorphous as well as the more undesired
tackiness properties. This may result in an undesired tackiness when a user is
chewing the chewing gum. Moreover, when the chewing gum is disposed in the
environment it tends to tack to surfaces in the same way as conventional chewing
gum.
It is the object of the invention to provide a chewing gum which benefits of
acceptable chew feel as well as improved non-tackiness.
Summary
The invention relates to a non-tack chewing gum comprising chewing gum
ingredients,
said chewing gum comprising at least one elastomer and at least one resin,
said at least one resin comprising at least one synthetic homopolymer resin,
said synthetic homopolymer being biodegradable,

the amount of said synthetic biodegradable homopolymer of said chewing gum being
from about Vz% to 60% by weight of said chewing gum.
Improved non-tack properties of a chewing gum have been obtained by the
application of a synthetic homopolymer according to the provisions of the invention
combined with acceptable chew feel during use.
The obtained non-tack properties combined with acceptable chew feel is according to
an embodiment of the invention obtained by a combination of a biodegradable
homopolymer and an elastomer in the chewing gum.
The brittleness of the homopolymer may thus, during chewing, be compensated by
the elastomer and the tackiness may be counteracted, especially after disposal, when
the homopolymer induces brittleness into the chewing gum lump.
Such inducing of brittleness has been observed to influence the brittleness of the
complete chewing gum and counteract floating.
Specifically, it has been observed that improved non-tack properties may be obtained
in environments where the temperature is below or well below the glass transition
temperature of the homopolymer.
According to the invention, biodegradable homopolymer resin designates that the
homopolymer has resinous properties and has the function of a resin in the chewing
gum.
The chewing gum according to the provisions of the invention may be regarded as
having improved non-tack properties.

In an embodiment of the invention, the amount of said synthetic homopolymer of
said chewing gum is from about 2% to 50% by weight of said chewing gum,
preferably from about 2% to 30% by weight of said chewing gum.
Experiments have shown that a synthetic biodegradable homopolymer present in a
significant amount leads to further improved non-tack properties compared to
different co-polymers.
In an embodiment of the invention, said synthetic homopolymer is resinous.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the homopolymer forms a
resinous part of a resin and elastomer mixture forming at least a part of the gum base
of the chewing gum.
In an embodiment of the invention, the synthetic homopolymer comprises a polyester
polymer.
According to an embodiment of the invention, a biodegradable polyester
homopolymer may advantageously be applied as the resin or as the main resinous
component of the chewing gum, thereby obtaining improved non-tack properties.
In an embodiment of the invention, said biodegradable polyester polymer is
obtainable by ring-opening polymerization of cyclic monomers.
In an embodiment of the invention, said biodegradable polyester polymer is
obtainable by ring-opening polymerization of cyclic monomers selected from the
group of cyclic esters and cyclic carbonates.
In an embodiment of the invention, said biodegradable polyester polymer is
obtainable by ring-opening polymerization of cyclic monomers selected from the

group of D,L-Iactide, L-lactide, glycolide, s-caprolactone, δ-valerolactone,
trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and dioxanone.
In an embodiment of the invention, said at least one homopolymer is selected from
the group of poly(D,L-lactide) and poly glycolide.
Another homopolymer, such as poly(D,L-lactide) is a more amorphous polymer
exhibiting a random distribution of both isomeric forms of lactic acid, and
accordingly is unable to arrange into an organized crystalline structure. This material
has lower tensile strength, higher elongation, and a much more rapid degradation
time and is advantageous for use in chewing gum according to the invention.
According to an advantageous embodiment, it will thus be preferred to avoid using
L- or D- lactic acid, respectively, as the sole monomers of a poly lactide.
In an embodiment of the invention, said at least one homopolymer is selected from
the group of poly(D,L-lactide) and wherein the ratio between D and L - lactic acid
monomers is between about 1:10 and 10:1.
In an embodiment of the invention, said at least one homopolymer is selected from
the group of poly(D,L-lactide) and wherein the ratio between D and L - lactic acid
monomers is about 1:1.
According to an advantageous embodiment, a one to one relationship between L and
D-lactic acid monomers may be preferred in order to obtain an amorphous polymer
suitable for use in chewing gum.

In an embodiment of the invention, said homopolymer comprises a polyester
produced through reaction of at least one di- or polyfunctional alcohol or derivative
thereof and at least one di- or polyfunctional acid or derivative thereof.
In an embodiment of the invention, said acid derivative comprises esters, anhydrides
or halides of di- or polycarboxylic acids.
In an embodiment of the invention, said acid derivative comprises methyl or ethyl
esters of acids.
In an embodiment of the invention, said homopolymer comprises a polyester
produced through reaction of at least one di- or polyfunctional hydroxy carboxylic
acid or derivative thereof such as L-lactic acid, D-lactic acid or glycolic acid.
In an embodiment of the invention, said at least one homopolymer has a PD of 1.1 to
20, preferably 1.3 to 12.
In an embodiment of the invention, said homopolymer has a glass transition
temperature (Tg) above 20°C, preferably above 30°C and most preferably above
about 35 °C.
According to an embodiment of the invention improved non-tack properties may be
obtained by the application of a homopolymer having relative high glass transition
temperature(s), as a relative high glass transition temperature may be applicable
when applying the homopolymer as resinous component of a chewing gum and
moreover increase an advantageous change of structural properties when disposed in
the environment at moderate temperatures.
In an embodiment of the invention, the molecular weight of said at least one resin is
less than 400,000 g/mol Mn.

In an embodiment of the invention, the molecular weight of said at least one resin is
less than 200,000 g/mol Mn.
In an embodiment of the invention, the molecular weight of said at least one resin is
less than 60,000 g/mol Mn.
According to an embodiment of the invention relatively low molecular weight of the
homopolymer may be applicable and preferred in order to obtain an acceptable
texture.
In an embodiment of the invention, the molecular weight of said at least one resin is
about 60,000 g/mol Mn.
In an embodiment of the invention, the molecular weight of said at least one resin is
within the range of 500 g/mol Mn to 60,000 g/mol Mn.
In an embodiment of the invention, the molecular weight of said at least one resin is
within the range of 5000 g/mol Mn to 30,000 g/mol Mn.
In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum comprises at least one resin in
the amount of at least 5% by weight of the chewing gum.
In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum comprises at least one resin in
the amount of at least 8% by weight of the chewing gum.
In an embodiment of the invention, said chewing gum comprises at least one resin in
the amount of about 2 to about: 60% wt of the chewing gum.

In an embodiment of the invention, said chewing gum comprises at least one resin in
the amount of about 5 to about 25% wt of the chewing gum.
In an embodiment of the invention, said at least one resin is substantially formed by
said homopolymer.
According to an advantageous embodiment of the invention, substantially all of the
resin comprises one or a combination of homopolymers, thereby invoking acceptable
chew feel as well as advantageous non-tack properties under typical conditions of
disposal.
In an embodiment of the invention, said resins or resinous polymers comprise at least
one natural resin, at least one synthetic resin or any combination thereof.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum comprises other
resin(s) than the homopolymer.
In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum comprises said at least one
elastomer in the amount of at least 3% by weight, preferably at least 5% by weight of
said chewing gum.
In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum comprises said at least one
elastomer in the amount of at least 8% by weight of the chewing gum.
In an embodiment of the invention, said chewing gum comprises said at least one
elastomer in the amount of about 0.5 to about 70% wt of the chewing gum,
In an embodiment of the invention, said chewing gum comprises said at least one
elastomer in the amount of about 2 to about 20% wt of the chewing gum.

In an embodiment of the invention, said elastomer comprises styrene-butadiene,
isobutylene-isoprene, polyisobutylene, polyisoprene or any combination thereof.
In an embodiment of the invention, said elastomer is biodegradable.
In an embodiment of the invention, said elastomer comprises a polyester.
In an embodiment of the invention, said elastomer is obtainable by ring-opening
polymerization of cyclic monomers.
In an embodiment of the invention, said elastomer is obtainable by the
polymerization of at least one di- or polyfunctional alcohol or derivative thereof and
at least one di- or polyfunctional carboxylic acid or derivative thereof.
In an embodiment of the invention, the weight ratio between the resin having an
average molecular weight of about 500 to 60000 g/mol Mn and the elastomer having
an average molecular weight of about 30000 g/mol to 1000000 g/mol Mn is within
the range of about 1:5 and 20:1.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the ratio between the resin
and the elastomer should be kept within a certain range in order to obtain the desired
texture. The average molecular weight of the resin and the elastomer, respectively,
may e.g. be obtained through a mixture of two or further resins and a mixture of two
or further elastomers. Thus, an average molecular weight of a certain value of e.g.
the elastomer may be obtained by mixing a high and low molecular weight elastomer
in an appropriate ratio. Specifically, a mixture of about 2/3 low molecular elastomer
(30000 g/mol) and 1/3 "high molecular weight elastomer (400000) would result in an
average molecular weight of about 153000.

In an embodiment of the invention, the weight ratio between the resin having an
average molecular weight of about 500 to 60000 g/mol Mn and the elastomer having
an average molecular weight of about 30000 g/mol to 1000000 g/mol Mn is within
the range of about 1:3 and 10:1.
According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the ratio between the
resin and the elastomer should be kept within a relatively narrow range of 1:3 and
10:1 in order to obtain the desired texture.
In an embodiment of the invention, said chewing gum comprises one or more
chewing gum ingredients selected from the group comprising flavoring agents,
sweetening agents, fillers, softeners, emulsifiers, and active ingredients.
In an embodiment of the invention, said flavoring agents comprise natural and
synthetic flavorings in the form of natural vegetable components, essential oils,
essences, extracts, powders, including acids and other substances capable of affecting
the taste profile.
In an embodiment of the invention, said chewing gum comprises flavor in an amount
of 0.01 to about 25 wt %, preferably in an amount of 0.1 to about 5 wt %, said
percentage being based on the total weight of the chewing gum.
In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum is prepared with about 2-15%
by weight of a syrup blend; wherein the syrup blend includes about 25-45% glycerin,
about 55-75% hydrogenated starch hydrolysates.
According to an advantageous embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum
comprises a non-tack chewing gum in which the ingredients exhibit excellent
cohesive strength between each other without causing the gum to stick to external
surfaces such as teeth and dentures. The chewing gum, according to the embodiment,

does typically not exhibit short texture and does not easily break, rupture or separate
during processing and handling. The chewing gum also has good sensory qualities.
An essential ingredient in the non-tack sugarless chewing gum of the present
embodiment is a coevaporated blend including glycerine and hydrogenated starch
hydrolysates. This syrup blend is prepared by mixing glycerine with a commercially
available mixture of water and hydrogenated starch hydrolysates to form a three-
component blend, and then evaporating most of the water from the blend. This
coevaporated blend is in the form of syrup prior to addition into the chewing gum. It
has been discovered that this syrup blend serves as an excellent binder between non-
tack chewing gum ingredients, including the gum base ingredients, without causing
adhesion to teeth or dentures. The syrup blend may be added after manufacture of the
gum base, and during manufacture of the final chewing gum product. The syrup
blend should constitute about 2 to about 15% by weight of the chewing gum.
As explained above, the syrup blend is added during manufacture of the chewing
gum. Except for the addition of the syrup blend, the underlying chewing gum
composition may be any non-tack chewing gum which could stand to benefit from
improved binding between its ingredients. Generally, such chewing gums would
include any gum having a non-tack gum base which could stand to benefit from
improved binding. Often, the cohesiveness of a conventional chewing gum product,
or lack thereof, has been dependent upon the cohesiveness of the gum base used in
the chewing gum, or lack thereof.
In an embodiment of the invention, the syrup blend is present at about 2-15% by
weight of the chewing gum.
In an embodiment of the invention, the syrup blend is present at about 5-10% by
weight of the chewing gum.

In an embodiment of the invention, the syrup blend includes about 25-45% glycerin,
about 55-75% hydrogenated starch hydrolysates.
In an embodiment of the invention, the syrup blend comprises a coevaporated blend
of glycerin mixed with hydrogenated starch hydrolysates and water.
In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum comprises at least one softener
in an amount of about 0 to about 20% by weight of the chewing gum, more typically
about 0 to about 10% by weight of the chewing gum.
In an embodiment of the invention, the amount of emulsifier is in the range of 0 to
18% by weight of the chewing gum.
In an embodiment of the invention, said sweetening agents are selected from the
group comprising bulk sweeteners, and high-intensity sweeteners, and combinations
thereof.
In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum comprises sugar.
In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum is sugar free.
In an embodiment of the invention, said bulk sweeteners comprises an amount of
about 5 to about 95%, preferably about 20 to about 80% by weight of the chewing
gum.
In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum comprises high-intensity
sweeteners in an amount of about 0 to about 1.2%, preferably about 0.1 to about
0.6% by weight of the chewing gum-

In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum comprises filler in an amount
of about 0 to about 50% by weight of the chewing gum, more typically about 5 to
about 20% by weight of the chewing gum.
In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum comprises at least one coloring
agent.
In an embodiment of the invention, said chewing gum ingredients comprise active
ingredients.
In an embodiment of the invention, said chewing gum is coated with an outer coating
selected from the group comprising hard coating, soft coating and edible film-
coating.
In an embodiment of the invention, the outer coating comprises at least one additive
component selected from the group comprising a binding agent, a moisture-
absorbing component, a film-forming agent, a dispersing agent, an antisticking
component, a bulking agent, a flavoring agent, a coloring agent, a pharmaceutically
or cosmetically active component, a lipid component, a wax component, a sugar, an
acid and an agent capable of accelerating the after-chewing degradation of the
degradable polymers.
In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum is wax free.
In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum is made by tableting.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum may advantageously
be processed and formed as a compressed chewing gum due to the fact that the
homopolymer has advantageous non-tack properties, which may ease the granulation
of the gum or gum base prior to the final compression.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION
According to a preferred definition of biodegradability according to the invention,
biodegradability is a property of certain organic molecules whereby, when exposed
to the natural environment or placed within a living organism, they react through an
enzymatic or microbial process, often in combination with a chemical process such
as hydrolysis, to form simpler compounds, and ultimately carbon dioxide, nitrogen
oxides, methane, water and the like.
In the present context the term 'biodegradable polymers' means environmentally or
biologically degradable polymer compounds and refers to chewing gum base
components which, after dumping the chewing gum, are capable of undergoing a
physical, chemical and/or biological degradation, whereby the dumped chewing gum
waste becomes more readily removable from the site of dumping or is eventually
disintegrated to lumps or particles, which are no longer recognizable as being
chewing gum remnants. The degradation or disintegration of such degradable poly-
mers may be effected or induced by physical factors such as temperature, light,
moisture, etc., by chemical factors such as oxidative conditions, pH, hydrolysis, etc.
or by biological factors such as microorganisms and/or enzymes. The degradation
products may be larger oligomers, trimers, dimers and monomers.
Preferably, the ultimate degradation products are small inorganic compounds such as
carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, methane, ammonia, water, etc.
As referred to herein, the glass transition temperature (Tg) may be determined by for
example DSC (DSC: differential' scanning calorimetry). The DSC may generally be
applied for determining and studying of the thermal transitions of a polymer and
specifically, the technique may be applied for the determination of a second order
transition of a material. The transition at Tg is regarded as such a second order
transition, i.e. a thermal transition that involves a change in heat capacity, but does

not have a latent heat. Hence, DSC may be applied for studying Tg. Unless otherwise
indicated, a heating rate of 10°C/min will be applied.
Unless otherwise indicated, as used herein with regard to polymers, the term
"molecular weight" means number average molecular weight (Mn) in g/mol.
Furthermore, as used herein the short form PD designates the polydispersity of
polymers, polydispersity being defined as Mw /Mn, where Mw is the weight average
molecular weight of a polymer. A well-established technique for characterization of
biodegradable polymers is gel permeation chromatography (GPC).
In the present text, it is assumed that the temperature in the mouth of the chewing
gum consumer is about human body temperature, although it may in praxis during
chewing be a few degrees below body temperature. A glass transition temperature
above mouth temperature is herein referred to as a high Tg, whereas a Tg below
mouth temperature is herein referred to as a low Tg.
Chewing gum of the present invention typically comprises a water-soluble bulk
-portion, a water-insoluble chewable gum base portion and flavoring agents. The
water-soluble portion dissipates with a portion of the flavoring agent over a period of
time during chewing. The gum base portion is retained in the mouth throughout the
chew. The term chewing gum refers to both a chewing and bubble type gum in its
general sense.
The gum base is the masticatory substance of the chewing gum, which imparts the
chew characteristics to the final product. The gum base typically defines the release
profile of flavors and sweeteners and plays a significant role in the gum product.
The insoluble portion of the gum typically may contain any combination of
elastomers, vinyl polymers, elastomer plasticizers, waxes, softeners, fillers and other
optional ingredients such as colorants and antioxidants. Polymeric elastomer

plasticizers may also according to the invention generally be referred to as a resin or
as a resinous compound.
The composition of gum base formulations can vary substantially depending on the
particular product to be prepared and on the desired masticatory and other sensory
characteristics of the final product. However, typical ranges (% by weight) of the
above gum base components are: 5 to 80% by weight elastomeric compounds, 5 to
80% by weight elastomer plasticizers, 0 to 40% by weight of waxes, 5 to 35% by
weight softener, 0 to 50% by weight filler, and 0 to 5% by weight of miscellaneous
ingredients such as antioxidants, colorants, etc. The gum base may comprise about 5
to about 95 percent, by weight, of the chewing gum, more commonly, the gum base
comprises 10 to about 60 percent of the chewing gum.
Elastomers provide the rubbery, cohesive nature to the gum, which varies depending
on this ingredient's chemical structure and how it may be compounded with other
ingredients. Elastomers suitable for use in the gum base and gum of the present
invention may include natural or synthetic types.
The elastomer may be any water-insoluble polymer known in the art, and includes
those polymers utilized for chewing gum and bubble gum listed in Food and Drug
Administration, CFR, Title 21, Section 172,615, as "Masticatory Substances of
Natural Vegetable Origin" and "Masticatory Substances, Synthetic"
Useful natural elastomers include natural rubber such as smoked or liquid latex and
guayule, natural gums such as jelutorig, lechi caspi, perillo, sorva, massaranduba
balata, massaranduba chocolate, nispero, rosidinha, chicle, gutta percha, gutta kataiu,
niger gutta, tunu, chilte, chiquibul, gutta hang kang.
Useful synthetic elastomers include high molecular weight elastomers such as
butadiene-styrene copolymers, polyisoprene and isobutylene-isoprene copolymers,

low-molecular weight elastomers such as polybutene, polybutadiene, polyisoprene
and polyisobutylene, vinyl polymeric elastomers such as polyvinyl acetate,
polyethylene, vinyl copolymeric elastomers such as vinyl acetate/vinyl laurate, vinyl
acetate/vinyl stearate, ethylene/vinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol or mixtures thereof.
Butadiene-styrene type elastomers (SBR) typically are copolymers of from about
20:80 to 60:40 styrene:butadiene monomers. The ratio of these monomers affects the
elasticity of the SBR as evaluated by mooney viscosity. As the styrene:butadiene
ratio decreases, the mooney viscosity decreases.
The structure of SBR typically consists of straight chain 1,3-butadiene
copolymerized with phenylethylene (styrene) and provides the non-linear molecular
nature of these elastomers. The average molecular weight of SBR is g/mole.
Isobutylene-isoprene type elastomers (butyl rubber) have molar percent levels of
isoprene ranging from 0,2 to 4,0. Similar to SBR, as the isoprene:isobutylene ratio
decreases, so does the elasticity, measured by mooney viscosity.
The structure of butyl rubber typically consists of branched 2-methyl-l,3~butadiene
(isoprene) copolymerized with branched 2-methylpropene (isobutylene), and, as with
SBR, this type of structure is non-linear in nature. The average molecular weight of
butyl rubber is in the range from 150,000 g/mole to 1,000,000 g/mole,
Polyisobutylene (PIB) as with SBR and butyl, is also non-linear in nature. The low
molecular weight elastomers provide soft chew characteristics to the polymer system
and still provide the elastic qualities as do the other elastomers. Average molecular
weights may range from about 30,000 to 120,000 g/mole and the penetration may
range from about 4 millimeters to 20 millimeters. The higher the penetration, the
softer the PIB. Similar to the SBR and butyl, the high molecular weight elastomers
provide elasticity the gum. Average molecular weight may range from 120,000 to

1,000,000 g/mole. Again, if used at all, the molecular weight should be relatively
low.
Vinyl copolymeric types of polymers may also be applied as a supplementary
polymer of the gum base. For vinyl copolymeric types, the amount of vinyl laurate,
vinyl stearate, or ethylene present in the vinyl laurate/vinyl acetate (VL/VA), vinyl
stearate/vinyl acetate (VS/VA), or ethylene/vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers
respectively typically ranges from about 10 to about 60 percent by weight of the
copolymer. Average molecular weights of these polymers may range from about
2,000 g/mole to about 100,000 g/mole.
The vinyl polymers as polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinyl acetate having an average
molecular weight from about 5,000 g/mole to about 65,000 g/mole.
The elastomer compounds may be of natural origin but are preferably of synthetic
origin.
Elastomer plasticizers vary the firmness of the gum base. Their specificity on
elastomer inter-molecular chain breaking (plasticizing) along with their varying
softening points cause varying degrees of finished gum firmness and compatibility
when used in base. This may be important when one wants to provide more
elastomeric chain exposure to the alkanic chains of the waxes.
According to the present invention, the chewing gum comprises one plasticizer, also
referred to as a resin, comprising one or several biodegradable homopolymers.
Furthermore, according to the present invention, these biodegradable polymers are
very suitable as resinous compounds in combination with one or further elastomers
in the chewing gum.

Further polymeric or non-polymeric plasticizers may be applied according to the
present invention are triacetine, acetylated mono-and di-and triglycerides of short
chain fatty acids, acetylated mono-and di-and triglycerides of medium chain fatty
acids, acetylated monoglycerides of long chain fatty acids, glycerol ester of rosin and
low molecular weight PVAc. The two latter may also be referred to as a natural and
synthetic resin, respectively, within the art.
The plasticizers used may be of one type or of combinations of more than one type.
Typically, the ratios of one to the other are dependent on each respective softening
point, the effect on flavor release, and the respective degree of tack they cause to the
gum.
Examples of such generally non-biodegradable synthetic resins include polyvinyl
acetate, vinyl acetate-vinyl laurate copolymers and mixtures thereof. Examples of
non-biodegradable synthetic elastomers include, but are not limited to, synthetic
elastomers listed in Food and Drug Administration, CFR, Title 21, Section 172,615,
(the Masticatory Substances, Synthetic) such as polyisobutylene. e.g. having a gel
permeation chromatography (GPC) average molecular weight in the range of about
10,000 to 1,000,000 including the range of 50,000 to 80,000, isobutylene-isoprene
copolymer (butyl elastomer), styrene-butadiene copolymers e.g. having styrene-
butadiene ratios of about 1:3 to 3:1, polyvinyl acetate (PVA), e.g. having a GPC
average molecular weight in the range of 2,000 to 90,000 such as the range of 3,000
to 80,000 including the range of 30,000 to 50,000, where the higher molecular
weight polyvinyl acetates are typically used in bubble gum base, polyisoprene,
polyethylene, vinyl acetate-vinyl laurate copolymer e.g. having a vinyl laurate
content of about 5 to 50% by weight such as 10 to 45% by weight of the copolymer,
and combinations hereof.
Examples of natural resins are: Natural rosin esters, often referred to as ester gums
including as examples glycerol esters of partially hydrogenated rosins, glycerol esters

of polymerized rosins, glycerol esters of partially dimerized rosins, glycerol esters of
tall oil rosins, pentaerythritol esters of partially hydrogenated rosins, methyl esters of
rosins, partially hydrogenated methyl esters of rosins, pentaerythritol esters of rosins,
synthetic resins such as terpene resins derived from alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and/or
d-limonene, and natural terpene resins.
It is common in the industry to combine in a gum base a synthetic elastomer having a
high molecular weight and a synthetic elastomer having a low molecular weight.
Examples of such combinations of are polyisobutylene and styrene-butadiene,
polyisobutylene and polyisoprene, polyisobutylene and isobutylene-isoprene co-
polymer (butyl rubber) and a combination of polyisobutylene, styrene-butadiene
copolymer and isobutylene isoprene copolymer, and all of the above individual
synthetic polymers in admixture with polyvinyl acetate, vinyl acetate-vinyl laurate
copolymers, respectively and mixtures thereof.
According to an advantageous embodiment of the invention, the homopolymer is a
polyester.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the polymerization process to obtain
the biodegradable homopolymer or further synthetic polymers, which is applied in
the chewing gum of the present invention, may be initiated by an initiator such as a
polyfunctional alcohol, amine or other molecules or compounds with multiple
hydroxyl or other reactive groups or mixtures thereof.
According to an embodiment of the invention, examples of suitable multifunctional
initiators include but are not limited to glycerol, trimethylolpropane, pentaerythritol,
dipentaerythritol, and ethoxylated or propoxylated polyamines.
Furthermore, in a preferred embodiment of the invention, the initiator may be di-
functional, and examples of applicable di-functional initiators include di-functional

alcohols, and non-limiting examples include 1,2-propane diol, 1,3-butane diol, other
alkane diols, ethylene glycol, generally alcohols having two hydroxyl groups, and
other di-functional compounds capable of initiating a ring-opening polymerization.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the fraction of initiators in the biode-
gradable polymer being difunctional or higher functional may be regulated, whereby
the degree of linearity and branching may be controlled.
In an embodiment of the invention, the difunctional initiators comprise at least 50
mol % of the total content of initiator molecules applied. Hereby, a considerable
liniarity may be introduced in the biodegradable polymer according to the present
invention, and a certain desired crystallinity may be obtained. Hereby, the
biodegradable polyester polymer may gain very suitable properties as elastomer
plasticizer, and hence ah advantageous biodegradable resin may be provided in the
chewing gum of the present invention. To increase the liniarity to improve the
crystallinity, plasticizing properties and robustness of the chewing gum in an
embodiment of the invention, the content of difunctional initiators may be raised to
e.g. 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, or about 100% of the total content of moles initiator
molecules applied.
Accordingly, a substantially linear polyester polymer may according to an embodi-
ment of the invention comprise above e.g. 50 or 80 percent linear polymer chains.
The biodegradable resinous homopolymers of the present invention are preferably
obtainable by ring-opening polymerization. However, the method of production is
not limiting for the scope of the present invention. As an example, ring-opening
polymerization of lactide is more commonly used as production method than
polycondensation of lactic acid (e.g. a-hydroxypropionic acid). This, however, is
mainly a matter of process conditions and ease of production. As concerns the
resulting polymers, they may be provided with substantially the same composition

and properties and being equally applicable in chewing gum according to the present
invention. The naming of such polymers is often regarded inter-changeable, thus the
names poly(lactide) and poly (lactic acid) may be used for the same polymer.
Useful polymers, which may be applied as elastomers in the chewing gum of the
present invention, may generally be prepared by step-growth polymerization of di-,
tri- or higher-functional alcohols with di-, tri- or higher-functional aliphatic or
aromatic carboxylic acids or esters thereof. Likewise, also hydroxy acids or
anhydrides and halides of polyfunctional carboxylic acids may be used as monomers.
The polymerization may involve direct polyesterification or transesterification and
may be catalyzed.
Because polyfunctional carboxylic acids in general are high-melting solids that have
very limited solubility in the polycondensation reaction medium, esters or anhydrides
of the polyfunctional carboxylic acids are often used to overcome this limitation.
Furthermore, polycondensations involving carboxylic acids or anhydrides produce
water as the condensate, which requires high temperatures to be driven off. Thus,
polycondensations involving transesterification of the ester of a polyfunctional acid
are often the preferred process. For example, the dimethyl ester of terephthalic acid
may be used instead of terephthalic acid itself. In this case, methanol rather than
water is condensed, and the former can be driven off more easily than water. Usually,
the reaction is earned out in the bulk (no solvent) and high temperatures and vacuum
are used to remove the by-product and drive the reaction to completion.
Specific examples of aliphatic polyfunctional carboxylic acids, which may be useful
in the preparation of an elastomer applied in the chewing gum of the present
invention, include oxalic, malonic, citric, succinic, malic, tartaric, fumaric, maleic,
glutaric, glutamic, adipic, glucaric, pimelic, suberic, azelaic, sebacic, dodecanedioic
acid, etc. Likewise, specific examples of aromatic polyfunctional carboxylic acids

may be terephthalic, isophthalic, phthalic, trimellitic, pyromellitic and naphthalene
1,4-, 2,3-, 2,6-dicarboxylic acids and the like.
For the purpose of illustration and not limitation, some examples of carboxylic acid
derivatives, which may be used for preparation of the elastomer used in the chewing
gum of the present invention, include hydroxy acids such as 3-hydroxy propionic
acid and 6-hydroxycaproic acid and anhydrides, halides or esters of acids, for
example dimethyl or diethyl esters, corresponding to the already mentioned acids,
which means esters such as dimethyl or diethyl oxalate, malonate, succinate,
fumarate, maleate, glutarate, adipate, pimelate, suberate, azelate, sebacate,
dodecanedioate, terephthalate, isophthalate, phthalate, etc. Generally speaking,
methyl esters are sometimes more preferred than ethyl esters due to the fact that
higher boiling alcohols are more difficult to remove than lower boiling alcohols.
The usually preferred polyfunctional alcohols contain 2 to 100 carbon atoms as for
instance polyglycols and polyglycerols.
In the polymerization of an elastomer for use in the chewing gum of the present
invention, some applicable examples of alcohols, which may be employed as such or
as derivatives thereof, include polyols such as ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, 1,3-
propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,6-hexanediol, diethylene glycol, 1,4-
cyclohexanediol, 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol, neopentyl glycol, glycerol,
trimethylolpropane, pentaerythritol, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.
Generally, the elastomer polymers used in the chewing gum of the present invention
may be homopolymers, copolymers or terpolymers, including graft- and block-
polymers.
Further suitable examples of additional environmentally or biologically degradable
chewing gum base polymers, which may be applied in accordance with the gum base
of the present invention, include degradable polyesters, polycarbonates, polyester

amides, polypeptides, homopolymers of amino acids such as polylysine, and proteins
including derivatives hereof such as e.g. protein hydrolysates including a zein
hydrolysate.
In accordance with the general principles in manufacturing a chewing gum within the
scope of the invention, variations of different suitable ingredients are listed and
explained below.
The chewing gum according to the invention may comprise coloring agents.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum may comprise color
agents and whiteners such as FD&C-type dyes and lakes, fruit and vegetable
extracts, titanium dioxide and combinations thereof.
Further useful chewing gum base components include antioxidants, e.g. butylated
hydroxytoluene (BHT), butyl hydroxyanisol (BHA), propylgallate and tocopherols,
and preservatives.
In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum comprises softeners in an
amount of about 0 to about 18% by weight of the chewing gum, more typically about
0 to about 12% by weight of the chewing gum.
Waxes may be optional depending on the properties of the individual formulations.
Petroleum waxes aid in the curing of the finished confectionery product made from
the polymer system as well as improve shelf-life and texture. Wax crystal size
influences the release of flavor. Those waxes high in iso-alkanes have a smaller
crystal size than those waxes high in normal-alkanes, especially those with normal-
alkanes of carbon numbers less than'30. The smaller crystal size allows slower
release of flavor since there is more hindrance of the flavor's escape from this wax
versus a wax having larger crystal sizes. The compatibility of polymer systems made

using normal-alkanic waxes is less when compared to polymer systems made with
iso-alkanic waxes.
Waxes and fats may moreover be used for the adjustment of the consistency and for
softening of the chewing gum base when preparing chewing gum bases.
Petroleum wax (refined paraffin and microcrystalline wax) and paraffin wax is
composed of mainly straight-chained normal-alkanes and branched iso-alkanes. The
ratio of normal-alkanes to iso-alkanes varies.
The normal-alkanic waxes typically have carbon chain lengths >C-18 but the lengths
are not predominantly longer than C-30. The branched and ring structures are located
near the end of the chain for those waxes that are predominantly normal-alkanic. The
viscosity of normal-alkanic waxes is number average molecular weight is The iso-alkanic waxes typically have carbon lengths that are predominantly greater
than C-30. The branched chains and ring structures are located randomly along the
carbon chain in those waxes that are predominantly iso-alkanic. The viscosity of iso-
alkanic waxes is greater than 10 mm2/s (at 100 PC) and the combined number
average molecular weight is >600 g/mole.
Synthetic waxes are produced by means atypical of petroleum wax production and
thus are not considered petroleum wax. The synthetic waxes may include waxes
containing branched alkanes and copolymerized with monomers such as but not
limited to propylene and polyethylene and Fischer Tropsch type waxes. Polyethylene
wax is a synthetic wax containing alkane units of varying lengths having attached
thereto ethylene monomers.

The natural waxes may include rice bran wax, bees' wax, carnauba wax or candelilla
wax.
In connection with the present invention, any conventionally used and suitable type
of wax and fat may be used, such as for instance rice bran wax, polyethylene wax,
petroleum wax (refined paraffin and microcrystalline wax), paraffin, beeswax,
carnauba wax, candelilla wax, cocoa butter, degreased cocoa powder and any
suitable oil or fat, as e.g. completely or partially hydrogenated vegetable oils or
completely or partially hydrogenated animal fats.
Softeners/emulsifiers may according to the invention be added both in the chewing
gum and the gum base.
The selection of softeners has an influence on the softness of the base. Softeners
modify the texture, cause the hydrophobic and hydrophilic components of the base to
be miscible, and may further plasticize the synthetic polymers of the polymer system.
The emulsifiers, which belong to the group of softeners, provide the polymer system
with water-binding properties, which confer to the polymer system a pleasant smooth
surface and reduce its adhesive properties.
Softeners suitable for use in the polymer system include triglycerides of non-
hydrogenated, partially hydrogenated and fully hydrogenated vegetable oils and
tallow, cocoa butter and degreased cocoa powder and in addition to these the
emulsifiers.
The group of triglycerides include cottonseed, palm, palm kernel, coconut, safflower,
rapeseed, sunflower, tallow, soybean, cocoa butter, medium chained triglycerides
and the like.
The caproic, caprylic, capric, myristic, lauric and palmitic fatty acids of the

triglycerides tend to plasticize the synthetic elastomers more than triglycerides
containing predominantly stearic fatty acid.
To the group of emulsifiers belong the monoglycerides, diglycerides, acetylated
mono and diglycerides, distilled mono- and diglycerides, glycerol monostearate,
propylene glycol monostearate, Na-, K-, Mg- and Ca-stearates, glycerol triacetate,
fatty acid monoglycerides (e.g. stearic, palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids), lactic acid
esters and acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, sugar esters of edible fatty
acids also referred to as sucrose polyesters including those disclosed in WO
00/25598 hereby included by reference, lecithin and hydroxylated lecithin, most of
these may contain triglyceride levels less than 2 percent by weight from their
manufacturing processing,
The softeners including the emulsifiers may be used alone or at least two or more in
combination.
Fillers used in polymer system modify the texture of the polymer system and aid in
processing. Particle size has an effect on cohesiveness, density and processing
characteristics of the polymer system and its compounding. The smaller the particle
size, the more dense and cohesive the final polymer system. Also, by selecting fillers
based on their particle size distribution, initial mass compounding may be varied,
thus allowing alteration of the compounding characteristics of the initial mass during
polymer system processing and ultimately the final chew characteristics of gums
made from these polymer systems.
Fillers suitable for use in the polymer system include magnesium and calcium
carbonate, ground limestone and silicate types such as magnesium and aluminum
silicate, kaolin and clay, aluminum oxide, silicium oxide, talc, as well as titanium
oxide, mono-, di- and tricalcium phosphate, sodium sulphate, cellulose polymers
such as ethyl, methyl and wood or mixtures thereof.

Talc filler may be used in the polymer system and confectionery product of the
present invention that may come in contact with or employ acid flavors or provide an
acidic environment needed to prevent degradation of an artificial sweetener by
reacting with calcium carbonate type fillers. Mean particle size for calcium carbonate
and talc fillers typically range from about 0.1 micron to about 15 microns.
The fillers may also include natural organic fibers such as fruit vegetable fibers,
grain, rice, cellulose and combinations thereof.
In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum comprises filler in an amount
of about 0 to about 50% by weight of the chewing gum, more typically about 5 to
about 20% by weight of the chewing gum.
In addition to a, typically, water insoluble gum base portion, a typical chewing gum
includes a water soluble bulk portion and one or more flavoring agents. The water-
soluble portion may include bulk sweeteners, high intensity sweeteners, flavoring
agents, softeners, emulsifiers, colors, acidulants, fillers, antioxidants, and other
components that provide desired attributes.
Suitable bulk sweeteners include both sugar and non-sugar sweetening components.
Bulk sweeteners typically constitute from about 5 to about 95% by weight of the
chewing gum, more typically about 20 to about 80% by weight such as 30 to 60% by
weight of the gum.
Useful sugar sweeteners are saccharide-containing components commonly known in
the chewing gum art including, but not limited to, sucrose, dextrose, maltose,
dextrins, trehalose, D-tagatose, dried invert sugar, fructose, levulose, galactose, corn
syrup solids, and the like, alone or in combination.

Sorbitol can be used as a non-sugar sweetener. Other useful non-sugar sweeteners in-
clude, but are not limited to, other sugar alcohols such as mannitol, xylitol,
hydrogenated starch hydrolysates, maltitol, isomalt, erythritol, lactitol and the like,
alone or in combination.
High-intensity artificial sweetening agents can also be used alone or in combination
with the above sweeteners. Preferred high-intensity sweeteners include, but are not
limited to sucralose, aspartame, salts of acesulfame, alitame, neotame, twinsweet,
saccharin and its salts, cyclamic acid and its salts, glycyrrhizin, dihydrochalcones,
thaumatin, monellin, stevioside and the like, alone or in combination. In order to
provide longer lasting sweetness and flavor perception, it may be desirable to
encapsulate or otherwise control the release of at least a portion of the artificial
sweetener. Techniques such as wet granulation, wax granulation, spray drying, spray
chilling, fluid bed coating, coascervation, encapsulation in yeast cells and fiber
extrusion may be used to achieve the desired release characteristics. Encapsulation of
sweetening agents can also be provided using another chewing gum component such
as a resinous compound.
Usage level of the high intensity artificial sweetener will vary considerably and will
depend on factors such as potency of the sweetener, rate of release, desired sweetness
of the product, level and type of flavor used and cost considerations. Thus, the active
level of high potency artificial sweetener may vary from about 0 to about S% by
weight, preferably 0.001 to about 5% by weight. When carriers used for encapsu-
lation are included, the usage level of the encapsulated sweetener will be
proportionately higher.
Combinations of sugar and/or non-sugar sweeteners can be used in the chewing gum
formulation processed in accordance with the invention. Additionally, the softener
may also provide additional sweetness such as aqueous sugar or alditol solutions.

If a low-calorie gum is desired, a low-caloric bulking agent can be used. Examples of
low caloric bulking agents include polydextrose, Raftilose, Raftilin,
fructooligosaccharides (NutraFlora®), palatinose oligosaccharides; guar gum
hydrolysates (e.g. Sun Fiber®) or indigestible dextrins (e.g. Fibersol®). However,
other low-calorie bulking agents can be used.
The chewing gum according to the present invention may contain aroma agents and
flavoring agents including natural and synthetic flavorings e.g. in the form of natural
vegetable components, essential oils, essences, extracts, powders, including acids
and other substances capable of affecting the taste profile. Examples of liquid and
powdered flavorings include coconut, coffee, chocolate, vanilla, grape fruit, orange,
lime, menthol, liquorice, caramel aroma, honey aroma, peanut, walnut, cashew,
hazelnut, almonds, pineapple, strawberry, raspberry, tropical fruits, cherries,
cinnamon, peppermint, wintergreen, spearmint, eucalyptus, and mint, fruit essence
such as from apple, pear, peach, strawberry, apricot, raspberry, cherry, pineapple,
and plum essence. The essential oils include peppermint, spearmint, menthol,
eucalyptus, clove oil, bay oil, anise; thyme, cedar leaf oil, nutmeg, and oils of the
fruits mentioned above.
The chewing gum flavor may be a natural flavoring agent, which is freeze-dried, pre-
ferably in the form of a powder, slices or pieces or combinations thereof. The particle
size may be less than 3 mm, less than 2 mm or more preferred less than 1 mm, calcu-
lated as the longest dimension of the particle. The natural flavoring agent may in a
form where the particle size is from about 3 µm to 2 mm, such as from 4 µm to 1
mm. Preferred natural flavoring agents include seeds from fruit e.g. from strawberry,
blackberry and raspberry.
Various synthetic flavors, such as mixed fruit flavors may also be used in the present
chewing gum centers. As indicated above, the aroma agent may be used in quantities
smaller than those conventionally used. The aroma agents and/or flavors may be used

in the amount from 0.01 to about 30% by weight of the final product depending on
the desired intensity of the aroma and/or flavor used. Preferably, the content of
aroma/flavor is in the range of 0.2 to 3% by weight of the total composition.
In an embodiment of the invention, the flavoring agents comprise natural and
synthetic flavorings in the form of natural vegetable components, essential oils,
essences, extracts, powders, including acids and other substances capable of affecting
the taste profile.
Further chewing gum ingredients, which may be included in the chewing gum
according to the present invention, include surfactants and/or solubilisers, especially
when pharmaceutically or biologically active ingredients are present. As examples of
types of surfactants to be used as solubilisers in a chewing gum composition
according to the invention, reference is made to H.P. Fiedler, Lexikon der Hilfstoffe
fur Pharmacie, Kosmetik und Angrenzende Gebiete, pages 63-64 (1981) and the lists
of approved food emulsifiers of the individual countries. Anionic, cationic,
amphoteric or non-ionic solubilisers can be used. Suitable solubilisers include
lecithin, polyoxyethylene stearate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid esters, fatty
acid salts, mono and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono and diglycerides of edible
fatty acids, citric acid esters of mono and diglycerides of edible fatty acids,
saccharose esters of fatty acids, polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, polyglycerol esters
of interesterified castor oil acid (E476), sodium stearoyllatylate, sodium lauryl sul-
fate and sorbitan esters of fatty acids and polyoxyethylated hydrogenated castor oil
(e.g. the product sold under the trade name CREMOPHOR), block copolymers of
ethylene oxide and propylene oxide (e.g. products sold under trade names
PLURONIC and POLOXAMER), polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ethers,
polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid esters, sorbitan esters of fatty acids and
polyoxyethylene steraric acid esters.

Particularly suitable solubilisers are polyoxyethylene stearates, such as for instance
poIyoxyethylene(S)stearate and polyoxyethylene(40)stearate, the polyoxyethylene
sorbitan fatty acid esters sold under the trade name TWEEN, for instance TWEEN
20 (monolaurate), TWEEN 80 (monooleate), TWEEN 40 (monopalmitate), TWEEN
60 (monostearate) or TWEEN 65 (tristearate), mono and diacetyl tartaric acid esters
of mono and diglycerides of edible fatty acids, citric acid esters of mono and
diglycerides of edible fatty acids, sodium stearoyllatylate, sodium laurylsulfate,
polyoxyethylated hydrogenated castor oil, blockcopolymers of ethylene oxide and
propyleneoxide and polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ether. The solubiliser may either
be a single compound or a combination of several compounds. In the presence of an
active ingredient, the chewing gum may preferably also comprise a earner known in
the art.
Emulsifiers, which are used as softeners may include tallow, hydrogenated tallow,
hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, cocoa butter, glycerol
monostearate, glycerol triacetate, lecithin, mono-, di-and triglycerides, acetylated
monoglycerides, fatty acids (e.g. stearic, palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids), and com-
binations thereof.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum may comprise a
pharmaceutically, cosmetically or biologically active substance. Examples of such
active substances, a comprehensive list of which is found e.g. in WO 00/25598,
which is incorporated herein by reference,
The active agents to be used in connection with the present invention may be any
substance desired to be released from the chewing gum. If an accelerated rate of
release is desired, corresponding to the effect obtained for the flavor, the primary
substances are those with limited water solubility, typically below 10g /100 ml
including substances which are entirely water insoluble. Examples are medicines,

dietary supplements, oral compositions, anti-smoking agents, highly potent
sweeteners, pH adjusting agents, etc.
Further examples of active ingredients include paracetamol, benzocaine, cinnarizine,
menthol, carvone, caffeine, chlorhexidine-di-acetate, cyclizine hydrochloride, 1,8-
cineol, nandrolone, miconazole, mystatine, aspartame, sodium fluoride, nicotine,
saccharin, cetylpyridinium chloride, other quaternary arnmoniumcompounds, vitamin
E, vitamin A, vitamin D, glibenclamide or derivatives thereof, progesterone, ace-
tylsalicylic acid, dimenhydrinate, cyclizine, metronidazole, sodium hydrogencarbo-
nate, the active components from ginkgo, the active components from propolis, the
active components from ginseng, methadone, oil of peppermint, salicylamide,
hydrocortisone or astemizole.
Examples of active agents in the form of dietary supplements are for instance salts
and compounds having the nutritive effect of vitamin B2 (riboflavin), B12, folic acid,
niacine, biotine, poorly soluble glycerophosphates, amino acids, the vitamins A, D, E
and K, minerals in the form of salts, complexes and compounds containing calcium,
phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, iodine, manganese, chromium, selenium,
molybdenum, potassium, sodium or cobalt.
Furthermore, reference is made to lists of nutritients accepted by the authorities in
different countries such as for instance US code of Federal Regulations, Title 21,
Section 182.5013.182 5997 and 182.8013-182.8997.
Examples of active agents in the form of compounds for the care or treatment of the
oral cavity and the teeth are for instance bound hydrogen peroxide and compounds
capable of releasing urea during chewing.
Examples of active agents in the form of antiseptics are for instance salts and
compounds of guanidine and biguanidine (for instance chlorhexidine diacetate) and

the following types of substances with limited water-solubility: quaternary
ammonium compounds (for instance ceramine, chloroxylenol, crystal violet,
chloramine), aldehydes (for instance paraformaldehyde), compounds of dequaline,
polynoxyline, phenols (for instance thymol, para chlorophenol, cresol)
hexachlorophene, salicylic anilide compounds, triclosan, halogenes (iodine,
iodophores, chloroamine, dichlorocyanuric acid salts), alcools (3,4 dichlorobenzyl
alcohol, benzyl alcohol, phenoxyethanol, phenylethanol), cf. furthermore Martindale,
The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 28th edition, page 547-578; metal salts, complexes and
compounds with limited water-solubility, such as aluminum salts, (for instance
aluminum potassium sulfate AIK (S04) 2,12H20) and furthermore salts, complexes
and compounds of boron, barium, strontium, iron, calcium, zinc, (zinc acetate, zinc
chloride, zinc gluconate), copper (copper chloride, copper sulfate), lead, silver,
magnesium, sodium, potassium, lithium, molybdenum, vanadium should be
included; other compositions for the care of mouth and teeth: for instance; salts,
complexes and compounds containing fluorine (such as sodium fluoride,
sodiummonofluorophosphate, aminofluorides, stannous fluoride), phosphates,
carbonates and selenium.
Cf. furthermore J. Dent. Res. Vol. 28 No. 2, page 160-171,1949, wherein a wide
range of tested compounds are mentioned.
Examples of active agents in the form of agents adjusting the pH in the oral cavity
include for instance: acceptable acids, such as adipinic acid, succinic acid, fumaric
acid, or salts thereof or salts of citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, acetic acid, lactic
acid, phosphoric acid and glutaric acid and acceptable bases, such as carbonates,
hydrogen carbonates, phosphates, sulfates or oxides of sodium, potassium,
ammonium, magnesium or calcium especially magnesium and calcium.
Examples of active agents in the form of anti-smoking agents include for instance:

nicotine, tobacco powder or silver salts, for instance silver acetate, silver carbonate
and silver nitrate.
Further examples of active agents are medicines of any type.
Examples of active agents in the form of medicines include caffeine, salicylic acid,
salicyl amide and related substances (acetylsalicylic acid, choline salicylate,
magnesium salicylate, sodium salicylate), paracetamol, salts of pentazocine
(pentazocine hydrochloride and pentazocinelactate), buprenorphine hydrochloride,
codeine hydrochloride and codeine phosphate, morphine and morphine salts
(hydrochloride, sulfate, tartrate), methadone hydrochloride, ketobemidone and salts
of ketobemidone (hydrochloride), beta-blockers, (propranolol), calcium antagonists,
verapamil hydrochloride, nifedinpine as well as suitable substances and salts thereof
mentioned in Pharm. Int., Nov. 85, pages 267-271, Barney H. Hunter and Robert L.
Talbert, nitroglycerine, erythrityl tetranitrate, strychnine and salts thereof, lidocaine,
tetracaine hydrochloride, etorphine hydrochloride, atropine, insulin, enzymes (for
instance papain, trypsin, amyloglucosidase. glucoseoxidase, streptokinase,
streptodornase, dextranase, alpha amylase), polypeptides (oxytocin, gonadorelin,
(LH. RH), desmopressin acetate (DDAVP), isoxsuprine hydrochloride, ergotamine
compounds, chloroquine (phosphate, sulfate), isosorbide, demoxytocin, heparin.
Other active ingredients include beta-lupeol, Letigen, Sildenafil citrate and
derivatives thereof.
Dental products include Carbami, CPP Caseine Phospho Peptide; Chlorhexidine,
Chlorhexidine di acetate, Chlorhexidine Chloride, Chlorhexidine di gluconate,
Hexetedine, Strontium chloride, Potassium Chloride, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium
carbonate, Fluor containing ingredients, Fluorides, Sodium fluoride, Aluminum
fluoride, Ammonium fluoride, Calcium fluoride, Stannous fluoride, Other fluor
containing ingredients Ammonium fluorosilicate, Potasium fluorosilicate, Sodium

fluorosilicate, Ammonium monofluorphosphate, Calcium monofluorphosphate,
Potassium monofluorphosphate, Sodium monofluorphosphate, Octadecentyl
Ammonium fluoride, Stearyl Trihydroxyethyl Propylenediamine Dihydrofluoride,
Vitamins include A, B1, B2, B6, B12, Folic acid, niacin, Pantothensyre, biotine, C,
D, E, K.
Minerals include Calcium, phosphor, magnesium, iron, Zink, Cupper, lod, Mangan,
Crom, Selene, Molybden. Other active ingredients include:[email protected], enzymes. Natural
drugs including Ginkgo Biloba, ginger, and fish oil. The invention also relates to use
of migraine drugs such as Serotonin antagonists: Sumatriptan, Zolmitriptan,
Naratriptan, Rizatriptan, Eletriptan; nausea drags such as Cyclizin, Cinnarizin,
Dimenhydramin, Difenhydrinat; hay fever drugs such as Cetrizin, Loratidin, pain
relief drugs such as Buprenorfm, Tramadol, oral disease drugs such as Miconazol,
Amphotericin B, Triamcinolonaceton; and the drugs Cisaprid, Domperidon,
Metoclopramid.
Active ingredients may comprise the below-mentioned compounds or derivates
thereof but are not limited thereto: Acetaminophen, Acetylsalicylic acid
Buprenorphine Bromhexin Celcoxib Codeine, Diphenhydramin, Diclofenac,
Etoricoxib, Ibuprofen, Indometacin, Ketoprofen, Lumiracoxib, Morphine, Naproxen,
Oxycodon, Parecoxib, Piroxicam, Pseudoefedrin, Rofecoxib, Tenoxicam, Tramadol,
Valdecoxib, Calciumcarbonat, Magaldrate, Disulfiram, Bupropion, Nicotine,
Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Clotrimazole, Erythromycin, Tetracycline,
Granisetron, Ondansetron, Prometazin, Tropisetron, Brompheniramine, Ceterizin,
leco-Ceterizin, Chlorcyclizine, Chlorpheniramin, Chlorpheniramin, Difenhydramine,
Doxylamine, Fenofenadin, Guaifenesin, Loratidin, des-Loratidin, Phenyltoloxamine,
Promethazin, Pyridamine, Terfenadin, Troxerutin, Methyldopa, Methylphenidate,
Benzalcon. Chloride, Benzeth. Chloride, Cetylpyrid. Chloride, Chlorhexidine,
Ecabet-sodium, Haloperidol, Allopurinol, Colchinine, Theophylline, Propanolol,
Prednisolone, Prednisone, Fluoride, Urea, Miconazole, Actot, Glibenclamide,

Glipizide, Metformin, Miglitol, Repaglinide, Rosiglitazone, Apomorfin, Cialis,
Sildenafil, Vardenafil, Diphenoxylate, Simethicone, Cimetidine, Famotidine,
Ranitidine, Ratinidine, cetrizin, Loratadine, Aspirin, Benzocaine, Dextrometorphan,
Ephedrine, Phenylpropanolamine, Pseudoephedrine, Cisapride, Domperidone,
Metoclopramide, Acyclovir, Dioctylsulfosucc, Phenolphtalein, Almotriptan,
Eletriptan, Ergotamine, Migea, Naratriptan, Rizatriptan, Sumatriptan, Zolmitriptan,
Aluminum salts, Calcium salts, Ferro salts, Silver salts, Zinc-salts, Amphotericin B,
Chlorhexidine, Miconazole, Triamcinolonacetonid, Melatonine, Phenobarbitol,
Caffeine, Benzodiazepiner, Hydroxyzine, Meprobamate, Phenothiazine, Buclizine,
Brometazine, Cinnarizine, Cyclizine, Difenhydramine, Dimenhydrinate, Buflomedil,
Amphetamine, Caffeine, Ephedrine, Orlistat, Phenylephedrine, Phenylpropanolamin,
Pseudoephedrine, Sibutramin, Ketoconazole, Nitroglycerin, Nystatin, Progesterone,
Testosterone, Vitamin B12, Vitamin C, Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E,
Pilocarpin, Aluminumaminoacetat, Cimetidine, Esomeprazole, Famotidine,
Lansoprazole, Magnesiumoxide, Nizatide and or Ratinidine.
In one embodiment of the invention, the flavor may be used as taste masking in
chewing gum comprising active ingredients, which by themselves have undesired
taste or which alter the taste of the formulation.
The chewing gum may optionally contain usual additives, such as binding agents,
acidulants, fillers, coloring agents, preservatives, and antioxidants.
Materials to be used for the above-mentioned encapsulation methods for sweeteners
might e.g. include Gelatine, Wheat protein, Soya protein, Sodium caseinate, Caseine,
Gum arabic, Mod. starch, Hydrolyzed starches (maltodextrines), Alginates, Pectin,
Carregeenan, Xanthan gum, Locus bean gum, Chitosan, Bees wax, Candelilla wax,
Camauba wax, Hydrogenated vegetable oils, Zein and/or Sucrose.

In general, chewing gum may he manufactured by sequentially adding the various
chewing gum ingredients to a commercially available mixer known in the art.
A mixing of chewing gum and gum base may generally be performed by a batch or a
continuous processing technique. An example of basic applicable mixing principles
is explained below.
After the initial ingredients have been thoroughly mixed, the chewing gum mass is
discharged from the mixer and shaped into the desired form such as by rolling into
sheets and cutting into sticks, extruded into chunks or casting into pellets.
Generally, the ingredients may be mixed by first melting the gum base and adding it
to the running mixer. Colors, active agents and/or emulsifiers may also be added at
this time. A softener such as glycerin may also be added at this time, along with
syrup and a portion of the bulking agent/sweetener. Further portions of the bulking
agent/sweetener may then be added to the mixer. A flavoring agent is typically added
with the final portion of the bulking agent/sweetener. A high-intensity sweetener is
preferably added after the final portion of bulking agent and flavor has been added.
The entire mixing procedure typically takes from five to fifteen minutes, but longer
mixing times may sometimes be required. Those skilled in the art will recognize that
many variations of the above described procedure may be followed. Including the
one-step method described in US patent application 2004/0115305 hereby
incorporated as reference.
The final chewing gums are formed by extrusion, compression, rolling and may be
centre filled with liquids and/or solids in any form.
The chewing gum according to the invention may be formed as conventional pellets,
centre filled, etc.

The chewing gum according to the present invention may also be provided with an
outer coating, which may be a hard coating, a soft coating, a film coating, or a
coating of any type that is known in the art, or a combination of such coatings. The
coating may typically constitute 0.1 to 75 percent by weight of a coated chewing
gum piece.
One preferred outer coating type is a hard coating, which term is including sugar
coatings and sugar-free (or sugarless) coatings and combinations thereof. The object
of hard coating is to obtain a sweet, crunchy layer, which is appreciated by the
consumer and to protect the gum centers. In a typical process of providing the
chewing gum centers with a protective sugar coating the gum centers are
successively treated in suitable coating equipment with aqueous solutions of
crystallizable sugar such as sucrose or dextrose, which, depending on the stage of
coating reached, may contain other functional ingredients, e.g. fillers, colors, etc.
In one presently preferred embodiment, the coating agent applied in a hard coating
process is a sugarless coating agent, e.g. a polyol including as examples sorbitol,
maltitol, mannitol, xylitol, erythritol, lactitol and isomalt or e.g. a mono- di-saccha-
ride including as example trehalose.
Or alternatively a sugar free soft coating e.g. comprising alternately applying to the
centers a syrup of a polyol or a mono- di-saccharide, including as examples sorbitol,
maltitol, mannitol, xylitol, erythritol, lactitol, isomalt and trehalose.
In further useful embodiments a film coating is provided by film-forming agents
such as a cellulose derivative, a modified starch, a dextrin, gelatine, zein, shellec,
gum arabic, a vegetable gum, a synthetic polymer, etc. or a combination thereof.
In an embodiment of the invention, the outer coating comprises at least one additive
component selected from the group comprising of a binding agent, a moisture-

absorbing component, a film-forming agent, a dispersing agent, an antisticking
component, a bulking agent, a flavoring agent, a coloring agent, a pharmaceutically
or cosmetically active component, a lipid component, a wax component, a sugar, an
acid
A coated chewing gum center according to the invention may have any form, shape or dimension that permits the chewing gum center to be coated using any
conventional coating process.
The gum centre of coated chewing gum element according to the invention can have
any form, shape or dimension that permits the chewing gum centre to be coated using
any conventional coating process. Accordingly, the gum centre may be e.g. in a form
selected from a pellet, a cushion-shaped pellet, a stick, a tablet, a chunk, a pastille, a
pill, a ball and a sphere, and typically the weight of a gum center may be 0.5 to 5
grams.
Note that the description, and specifically the claims, designates e.g. 1000 as 1,000
and ½ as 0.5.
The following non-limiting examples illustrate the manufacturing of a chewing gum
according to the invention.
EXAMPLE 1
Preparation of polyester elastomer obtained by ring-opening polymerization
An elastomer sample is synthesized within a dry N2 glove box, as follows. Into a 500
mL resin kettle equipped with overhead mechanical stirrer, 3.143 g pentaerythritol
and 0.5752 g Sn(Oct)2 (2.0 ml of a 1.442gSn(Oct)2/5 mL in methylene chloride) are
charged under dry N2 gas purge. The methylene chloride is allowed to evaporate
under the N2 purge for 15 min. Then e-caprolactone (1144g, 10 mol), Trimethylene
carbonate (31 g, 0.30 mol) and δ-valerolactone (509g, 5.1 mol) are added. The resin

kettle is submerged in a 130°C constant temperature oil bath and stirred for 13.9 h.
Subsequently the kettle is removed from the oil bath and allowed to cool at room
temperature. The solid, elastic product is removed in small pieces using a knife, and
placed into a plastic container.
Characterization of the product indicates Mn = 56,000 g/mol and Mw = 98,700 g/mol
(gel permeation chromatography with online MALLS detector). And Tg = -58.9°C
(DSC, heating rate 10°C/min).
EXAMPLE 2
Preparation of polyester elastomer obtained by ring-opening polymerization
An elastomer sample is synthesized within a dry N2 glove box, as follows. Into a 500
mL resin kettle equipped with overhead mechanical stirrer, 3.152 g pentaerythritol
and 0.5768 g Sn(Oct)2 (2.0 ml of a 1.442gSn(Oct)2/5 mL in methylene chloride) are
charged under dry N2 gas purge. The methylene chloride is allowed to evaporate
under the N2 purge for 15 min. Then s-caprolactone (1148g, 10 mol), Trimethylene
carbonate (31 g, 0.30 mol) and S-valerolactone (511g, 5.1 mol) are added. The resin
kettle is submerged in a 130°C constant temperature oil bath and stirred for 13.4 h.
Subsequently the kettle is removed from the oil bath and allowed to cool at room
temperature. The solid, elastic product is removed in small pieces using a knife, and
placed into a plastic container.
Characterization of the product indicates Mn = 88,800 g/mol and Mw = 297,000
g/mol (gel permeation chromatography with online MALLS detector). And Tg = -
59.4°C (DSC, heating rate 10°C/min).
EXAMPLE 3
Preparation of polyester resin obtained by ring-opening polymerization
A resin sample is produced using a cylindrical glass, jacketed 10 L pilot reactor
equipped with glass stir shaft and Teflon stir blades and bottom outlet. Heating of the
reactor contents is accomplished by circulation of silicone oil, thermo stated to
130°C, through the outer jacket, s-caprolactone (358.87 g, 3.145 mol) and 1,2-

propylene glycol (79.87 g, 1.050 mol) are charged to the reactor together with
stannous octoate (1.79 g, 4.42 x 10-3mol) as the catalyst and reacting in about 30
rain, at 130°C. Then molten D,L-lactide (4.877 kg, 33.84 mol) are added and
reaction continued for about 2 hours. At the end of this period, the bottom outlet is
opened, and molten polymer is allowed to drain into a Teflon-lined paint can.
Characterization of the product indicates Mn = 6,000 g/mol and Mw = 7,000 g/mol
(gel permeation chromatography with online MALLS detector) and Tg = 25-3Q°C
(DSC, heating rate 10°C/min).
EXAMPLE 4
Preparation of polyester elastomer obtained by step-growth polymerization
An elastomer sample is produced using a 500 mL resin kettle equipped with an
overhead stirrer, nitrogen gas inlet tube, thermometer, and distillation head for
removal of methanol. To the kettle are charged 83.50 g (0.43 mole) dimethyl
terephthalate, 99.29 g (0.57 mole) dimethyl adipate, 106.60 g (1.005 mole)
di(ethylene glycol) and 0.6 g calcium acetate monohydrate. Under nitrogen, the
mixture is slowly heated with stirring until all components become molten (120- 140°C). Heating and stirring are continued and methanol is continuously distilled.
The temperature slowly rises in the range 150-200°C until the evolution of methanol
ceases. Heating is discontinued and the content is allowed to cool to about 100°C.
The reactor lid is removed and the molten polymer is carefully poured into a
receiving vessel.
Characterization of the product indicates Mn = 40,000g/mol and Mw = 190,000g/mol
(gel permeation chromatography with online MALLS detector) and Tg - -30°C
(DSC, heating rate 10cC/min).
Example 5
A homopolymer by Nature Works® PLA 4060 D (amorph) poly D,L-lactide was
provided as a resin. The homopolymer has a Tg of about 56 °C. (Mn ~ 100.000)

Example 6
A homopolymer by Nature Works® PLA 5500 D (amorph) poly D,L-Iactide was
provided as a resin. The homopolymer has a Tg of about 50°C (Mn ~ 50.000)
EXAMPLE 7
Preparation of gum bases
The process of preparing gum bases is carried out in the following way: The gum
base components are added to a mixing kettle provided with mixing means like e.g.
horizontally placed Z-shaped arms. The kettle has been preheated to a temperature of
about 140°C. The mixture is mixed for 30-120 minutes until the whole mixture
becomes homogeneous. The mixture is then discharged into the pan and allowed to
cool to room temperature.



EXAMPLE 8
Preparation of chewing gum
The gum bases of example 7 were used in the preparation of peppermint flavored
chewing gum formulations 1001-1009 with the basic formulations shown in table 2
and where gum base 001 is applied for the preparation of chewing gum 1001, gum
base 002 is applied for the preparation of chewing gum 1002 and so forth.

Example 9:
Evaluation of the chewing gum of table 2.
A test-setup for the evaluation of non-tack properties of the chewing gums of table 2
was established. The test involved the steps of
- chewing of chewing gum lumps of the chewing gum formulations of table 2
in a chewing machine in 8 minutes,
- fastening of the chewing gum lumps on concrete slabs,

- evaluating the chewing gum lumps in three different controlled climate
setups:
(a) 0 °C
(b) 21 °C og 55% RH
(c) 30 °C og 70% RH
The chewing gum lumps were evaluated visually and by attempting removal of the
chewing gum lumps by means of a spatula.
It was generally observed that the non-tack properties of the tested samples had an
improved non-tackiness compared to the comparative sample 1001 at the low test
temperature 0 °C of test (a).
It was furthermore concluded that the chewing gum formulations 1003,1004, 1006,
1008 and 1009 featured an improved non-tackiness at all temperatures (a), (b) and
(c), thereby indicating that the non-tackiness is depending less on environment
temperature.
A further test with respect to texture of the chewing gum formulations 1003,1004,
1006,1008 and 1009 indicated that the best texture could be obtained by the use of
the lowest -molecular weight resin, namely chewing gum samples 1004,1006, and
1009.
EXAMPLE 10:
Preparation of gum bases
A further number of gum bases were prepared according to the process described in
example 7 now with a slightly changed composition where the gum bases comprises
conventional elastomer and a homopolymer as a resin.


EXAMPLE 11
Chewing gum formulations based on the gum bases of example 10 are illustrated in
table 4.


Example 12:
Evaluation of the chewing gum of table 4.
The chewing gum 2009 formed on the basis of the gum base 209 is dominated by the
elastomer. The elastomer content in the gum base of this chewing gum is about 45%
(w/w) and regarded to be too high in combination with the homopolymer but could
be compensated by a further softening and modification of the elastomer blend.
Specifically, a reduction of the molecular weight could be considered.
It is on the other hand observed that the desired non-tackiness of the chewing gum is
inferior when the ratio between the resin and elastomer is lower than about 1:5.
The chewing gum 2002, i.e. the chewing gum formed on the basis of an elastomer
content in the gum base of only 1%, lacks the desired chew feel. It is assumed that
this lack of the desired chew feel resides in the very low elastomer content.

Chewing gums 2003 to 2008 were regarded acceptable with respect to both chew feel
and tackiness.
According to an advantageous embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum may
be prepared with about 2-15% by weight of a syrup blend; wherein the syrup blend
includes about 25-45% glycerin, about 55-75% hydrogenated starch hydrolysates.

WE CLAIM :
1. Non-tack chewing gum comprising chewing gum ingredients,
said chewing gum comprising at least one elastomer and at least one resin,
said at least one resin comprising at least one synthetic homopolymer resin,
said synthetic homopolymer being biodegradable,
the amount of said synthetic homopolymer of said chewing gum being from ½% to 60%
by weight of said chewing gum,
wherein said at least one homopolymer has a polydispersity of 1.1 to 20.
2. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in claim 1, wherein the amount of said synthetic
homopolymer of said chewing gum being from 2% to 50% by weight of said chewing
gum, preferably from 2% to 30% by weight of said chewing gum.
3. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein said synthetic
homopolymer is resinous.
4. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 3, wherein the synthetic
homopolymer comprises a polyester polymer.
5. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 4, wherein said polyester
polymer is obtainable by ring-opening polymerization of cyclic monomers.
6. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 5, wherein said polyester
polymer is obtainable by ring-opening polymerization of cyclic monomers selected from
the group of cyclic esters and cyclic carbonates.
7. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 6, wherein said polyester
polymer is obtainable by ring-opening polymerization of cyclic monomers selected from
the group of D,L-lactide, L-lactide, glycolide, e-caprolactone, 5-valerolactone,
trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and dioxanone.

8. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 7, wherein said at least one
homopolymer is selected from the group of poly(D,L-lactide) and poly glycolide.
9. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 8, wherein said at least one
homopolymer is selected from the group of poly(D,L-lactide) and wherein the ratio
between D and L- lactic acid monomers is between 1:10 and 10:1.

10. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 9, wherein said at least
one homopolymer is selected from the group of poly(D,L-lactide) and wherein the ratio
between D and L - lactic acid monomers is 1:1.
11. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 10, wherein said
homopolymer comprises a polyester produced through reaction of at least one di- or
polyfunctional alcohol or derivative thereof and at least one di- or polyfunctional acid or
derivative thereof.
12. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 11, wherein said acid
derivative comprises esters, anhydrides or halides of di- or polycarboxylic acids.
13. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 12, wherein said acid
derivative comprises methyl or ethyl esters of acids.

14. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 13, wherein said
homopolymer comprises a polyester produced through condensation reaction of at least
one di- or polyfunctional hydroxy carboxylic acid or derivative thereof.
15. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 14, wherein said at least
one homopolymer has a PD of 1.3 to 12.
16. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 15, wherein said
homopolymer has a glass transition temperature (Tg) above 20°C, preferably above 30°C
and most preferably above 35 °C.

17. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 16, wherein the molecular
weight of said at least one resin is less than 400,000 g/mol Mn.
18. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 17, wherein the molecular
weight of said at least one resin is less than 200,000 g/mol Mn.
19. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 18, wherein the molecular
weight of said at least one resin is less than 60,000 g/mol Mn.
20. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 19, wherein the molecular
weight of said at least one resin is 60,000 g/mol Mn.
21. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 20, wherein the molecular
weight of said at least one resin is within the range of 500 g/mol Mn to 60,000 g/mol Mn.
22. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 21, wherein the molecular
weight of said at least one resin is within the range of 5000 g/mol Mn to 30,000 g/mol
Mn.
23. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 22, wherein the chewing
gum comprises at least one resin in the amount of at least 5% by weight of the chewing
gum.
24. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 23, wherein the chewing
gum comprises at least one resin in the amount of at least 8% by weight of the chewing
gum.
25. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 24, wherein said chewing
gum comprises at least one resin in the amount of 2 to 60% wt of the chewing gum.
26. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 25, wherein said chewing
gum comprises at least one resin in the amount of 5 to 25% wt of the chewing gum.

27. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 26, wherein said at least
one resin is formed by said homopolymer.
28.,Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 27, wherein said resins or
resinous polymers comprise at least one natural, at least one synthetic resin or any
combination thereof.
29. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 28, wherein the chewing
gum comprises said at least one elastomer in the amount of at least 3% by weight,
preferably at least 5% by weight of said chewing gum.
30. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 29, wherein the chewing
gum comprises said at least one elastomer in the amount of at least 8% by weight of the
chewing gum.
31. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 30, wherein said chewing
gum comprises said at least one elastomer in the amount of 0.5 to 70% wt of the chewing
gum.
32. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 31, wherein said chewing
gum comprises said at least one elastomer in the amount of 2 to 20% wt of the chewing
gum.
33. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 32, wherein said at least
one elastomer comprises butadiene-styrene, isobutylene-isoprene, polyisobutylene,
polyisoprene or any combination thereof.
34. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 33, wherein said at least
one elastomer is biodegradable.
35. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 34, wherein said at least
one elastomer comprises a polyester.

36. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 35, wherein said at least
one elastomer is obtainable by ring-opening polymerization of cyclic monomers.
37. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 36, wherein said at least
one elastomer is obtainable by the polymerization of at least one di- or polyfunctional
alcohol or derivative thereof and at least one di- or polyfunctional carboxylic acid or
derivative thereof.
38. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 37, wherein the weight
ratio between the resin having an average molecular weight of 500 to 60,000 g/mol Mn
and the elastomer having an average molecular weight of 30,000 g/mol to 1,000,000
g/mol Mn is within the range of 1:5 and 20:1.
39. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 38, wherein the weight
ratio between the resin having an average molecular weight of 500 to 60,000 g/mol Mn
and the elastomer having an average molecular weight of 30,000 g/mol to 1,000,000
g/mol Mn is within the range of 1:3 and 10:1.
40. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 39, wherein said chewing
gum comprises one or more chewing gum ingredients selected from the group comprising
flavoring agents, sweetening agents, fillers, softeners, emulsifiers, and active ingredients.
41. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 40, wherein said flavoring
agents comprise natural and synthetic flavorings in the form of natural vegetable
components, essential oils, essences, extracts, powders, including acids and other sub-
stances capable of affecting the taste profile.
42. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 41, wherein said chewing
gum comprises flavor in an amount of 0.01 to 25 wt %, preferably in an amount of 0.1 to
5 wt %, said percentage being based on the total weight of the chewing gum.

43. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 42, wherein the chewing
gum is prepared with 2-15% by weight of a syrup blend; wherein the syrup blend includes
25-45% glycerin, 55-75% hydrogenated starch hydrolysates.
44. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 43, wherein the syrup
blend is present at 2-15% by weight of the chewing gum.
45. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 44, wherein die syrup
blend is present at 5-10% by weight of the chewing gum.
46. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 45, wherein the syrup
blend includes 25-45% glycerin, 55-75% hydrogenated starch hydrolysates.
47. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 46, wherein the syrup
blend comprises a coevaporated blend of glycerin mixed with hydrogenated starch
hydrolysates and water.
48. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 47, wherein the chewing
gum comprises at least one softener in an amount of 0 to 20% by weight of the chewing
gum, more typically 0 to 10% by weight of the chewing gum.
49. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 48, wherein the amount of
emulsifier is in the range of 0 to 18% by weight of the chewing gum.

50. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 49, wherein said
sweetening agents are selected from the group comprising bulk sweeteners, and high-
intensity sweeteners, and combinations thereof.
51. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 50, wherein the chewing
gum comprises sugar.
52. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 51, wherein the chewing
gum is sugar free.

53. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 52, wherein said bulk
sweeteners comprises an amount of 5 to 95%, preferably 20 to 80% by weight of the
chewing gum.
54. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 53, wherein the chewing
gum comprises high-intensity sweeteners in an amount of 0 to 1.2%, preferably 0.1 to
0.6% by weight of the chewing gum.
55. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 54, wherein the chewing
gum comprises filler in an amount of 0 to 50% by weight of the chewing gum, more
typically 5 to 20% by weight of the chewing gum.
56. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 55, wherein the chewing
gum comprises at least one coloring agent.
57. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 56, wherein said chewing
gum ingredients comprise active ingredients.
58. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 57, wherein said chewing
gum is coated with an outer coating selected from the group comprising hard coating, soft
coating and edible film-coating.
59. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 58, wherein the outer
coating comprises at least one additive component selected from the group comprising a
binding agent, a moisture-absorbing component, a film-forming agent, a dispersing agent,
an antisticking component, a bulking agent, a flavoring agent, a coloring agent, a
pharmaceutically or cosmetically active component, a lipid component, a wax component,
a sugar, an acid and an agent capable of accelerating the after-chewing degradation of the
degradable polymers.
60. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 59, wherein the chewing
gum is wax free.

61. Non-tack chewing gum as claimed in any of the claims 1 to 60, wherein the chewing
gum is made by tableting.


Non-tack chewing gum comprising chewing gum ingredients is disclosed. Said
chewing gum comprises at least one elastomer and at least one resin, said at least one
resin comprising at least one synthetic homopolymer resin, said synthetic homopolymer
being biodegradable, the amount of said synthetic homopolymer of said chewing gum
being from ½% to 60% by weight of said chewing gum, wherein said at least one
homopolymer has a polydispersity of 1.1 to 20.

Documents:

02318-kolnp-2007-abstract.pdf

02318-kolnp-2007-assignment.pdf

02318-kolnp-2007-claims.pdf

02318-kolnp-2007-correspondence others 1.1.pdf

02318-kolnp-2007-correspondence others.pdf

02318-kolnp-2007-description complete.pdf

02318-kolnp-2007-form 1.pdf

02318-kolnp-2007-form 3.pdf

02318-kolnp-2007-form 5.pdf

02318-kolnp-2007-gpa.pdf

02318-kolnp-2007-international publication.pdf

02318-kolnp-2007-international search report.pdf

02318-kolnp-2007-pct request form.pdf

02318-kolnp-2007-priority document.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-(14-11-2011)-CORRESPONDENCE.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-(14-11-2011)-OTHERS.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-(15-11-2011)-CORRESPONDENCE.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-(15-11-2011)-FORM 3.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-(28-10-2011)-CORRESPONDENCE.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-ABSTRACT-1.1.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-AMANDED CLAIMS.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-ASSIGNMENT.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-CORRESPONDENCE OTHERS 1.1.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-CORRESPONDENCE-1.1.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-CORRESPONDENCE.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-EXAMINATION REPORT.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-FORM 1-1.1.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-FORM 18.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-FORM 3-1.1.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-FORM 3-1.2.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-FORM 3-1.3.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-FORM 3.1.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-FORM 3.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-FORM 5.pdf

2318-kolnp-2007-form-18.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-GPA.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-GRANTED-ABSTRACT.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-GRANTED-CLAIMS.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-GRANTED-DESCRIPTION (COMPLETE).pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-GRANTED-FORM 1.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-GRANTED-FORM 2.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-GRANTED-SPECIFICATION.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-OTHERS-1.1.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-OTHERS-1.2.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-OTHERS.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-PETITION UNDER RULE 137.pdf

2318-KOLNP-2007-REPLY TO EXAMINATION REPORT.pdf


Patent Number 252401
Indian Patent Application Number 2318/KOLNP/2007
PG Journal Number 20/2012
Publication Date 18-May-2012
Grant Date 14-May-2012
Date of Filing 22-Jun-2007
Name of Patentee GUMLINK A/S
Applicant Address DANDYVEJ 19, DK-7100 VEJLE
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 WITTORFF, HELLE JOHANNEBJERGPARKEN 25, DK-7120 VEJLE ØST
2 NEERGAARD, JESPER SJÆ LLANDSGADE 133, ST, DK-8000 ÅRHUS C, DENMARK
PCT International Classification Number A23G 4/00
PCT International Application Number PCT/DK2005/000629
PCT International Filing date 2005-10-03
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 PCT/DK2004/000906 2004-12-22 Denmark