|Title of Invention||
A WHOLLY WRAPPED RAILROAD CROSSTIE AND ITS MANUFACTURING METHOD
|Abstract||This invention discloses a wholly wrapped railroad crosstie. It is composed of an inner core and a shell that is made of deformable composite materials. The shell is molten and united together with the inner core as a whole when it is formed. The shell covers the inner core wholly. There"s no seam on the crosstie at all. So it successfully avoids the separation and friction of the crosstie. It greatly increases the reliability and service life of the crosstie. And it reduces the cost of maintenance.|
|Full Text||FORM 2
THE PATENT ACT 1970
(39 of 1970)
The Patents Rules, 2003 COMPLETE SPECIFICATION (See section 10 and rule 13)
1. The Wholly Wrapped Railroad Crosstie and Its Making Process
(A) YUAN, Qiang
(C) Room 101,No.43 Fuyuaner Road,
Shibei District, Qingdao City,
Shandong Province, 266101,
The following specification particularly describes the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed.
Field of the technology This invention relates to a railroad crosstie and a method of making the same.
Background of the technology
Railroad crossties have been made almost exclusively of wood from the beginning of the railroad age. The wooden crossties are held in place by ballast rocks and the rails are secured to the crossties by crosstie plates and spikes.
Because of the nature of timber, the wooden crossties accept and hold spikes, so that the rail and crosstie plate fastening systems may be secured to the crossties. A wood crosstie will flex under load. The resulting flexing is beneficial only in that it helps to provide for a softer ride. However, wooden crosstie is exposed to sunlight, winds and rains, so it is easy to deteriorate and age which shortens its life. Therefore it must be replaced regularly. This increases the cost of replacement and maintenance. Considering that forest resources are going to be short, it is necessary to search for alternative material instead of wood.
Concrete crossties have been developed to solve the disadvantages of the wooden made crosstie.
However, conventional concrete crossties are too hard to use conventional and standard fastening systems (tie plates and spikes). Concrete crossties use pre-casted fasteners that are attached during the curing stage in the crosstie manufacturing process. Furthermore, each crosstie must be individually loaded and obstructed from the mold. At first glance, it would appear that the concrete crossties, since they are stiff and non-flexible, would be advantageous and provide a stiffer track module, improved lateral stability and gauge control, increased rail life, and greater locomotive fuel economy. However, what appeared to have been a significantly lower maintenance cost due to the lack of "pumping" of the ballast rock, has actually become another maintenance cost. The concrete crosstie is so hard that it pulverizes the ballast rock beneath it, which brings bad effects to trains' running. So the ballast rocks need to be periodically replaced. It is far more important that the concrete crosstie does not have shock absorption because of its hardness, so that it limits the speeding up of trains.
Railroad crossties made of material other than wood have been proposed. For example, U. S. Patent No.5238734 to Murray discloses a railroad crosstie made from a mixture of recycled tire fragments and an epoxy mixture. Other patents disclosing railroad crossties made out of composite materials include U. S. Patent No. 4,150,790 (Potter) and U. S. Patent No.4,083,491 (Hill). Although crossties made out of composite materials provide significantly longer life than conventional wooden crossties, it has not been possible to provide composite crossties that are durable enough to withstand the heavy repeated loads of main line railroad tracks. Both wooden and composite railroad crossties tend to pump ballast rock away from the rails, thus requiring frequent reballasting.
A new type of composite crosstie disclosed by Chinese patent No.99815337.0 was developed to obtain the advantages and to overcome those disadvantages of crossties such as wooden made crosstie, concrete made crosstie and the crosstie purely made of composite materials.
The above mentioned railroad crosstie is composed of two main parts. One is an outer casing made of composite materials that are divided into an upper section and a lower section. The other is the reinforcing inner core. The interface of the upper and the lower sections are clung together by urethane adhesive which is mainly used in aviation and is available from Mao Tao Corp.. Then they are secured together by wooden screws, and special caps are put on both ends of the crossties. The reinforcing inner core comprises three parts. The exterior part is a steel sheet shaped like "W" or "H" and stuffed with concrete in order to prevent concrete from being pulverized by long time impact of trains. The reinforcing inner core ensures the integral intensity of a crosstie. In order to fasten the rails to the crosstie by forcing spikes, inserts are placed into the core that are made out of the same composite material from which the casing is made, so that spikes can be driven through the casing, the apertures, and into the inserts.
On one hand, the high intensity and flexibility of the outer casing bring cushion and shock absorption to the heavy impact of trains. It may replace timber and it's more durable than timber. The materials of the outer casing are recycled plastic and recycled rubber that is not degrading. It can not only reduce environmental impact but also protect forest. On the other hand, rigidity of the concrete crosstie and the ballast rocks are so high that the ballast rocks get crushed by constant friction and vibration, which reduces the safety factor of railroad. Therefore periodically manual maintenance used to be done. This results in further cost. In this aspect, the special material and structure of the outer casing of a composite crosstie make the ballast rock embeded in the outer cast by certain depth so as to reduce the relative movement between the crosstie and ballast rocks, it solves the problem of the concrete made crosstie.
However the patent No.99815337.0 also has very clear disadvantages in its technical solution. It is illustrated in Fig.7. The separate casing 19 is composed of top and lower parts and there is a line between the two parts that is the seam 19-1. An appropriate glue is applied to the interfaces of the two parts, and then the wooden screws 17 are used to fasten the two parts. The wooden screws are almost nothing to the force that the crosstie can bear. The wooden screws are very easy to be destroyed and the glue on the interfaces of the two parts is easy to be broken so that it may emerge a disjoin between the top and the lower. Even a small disjoin would keep the two parts separate. So it increases the probability of destruction. When there's a lateral force on it the little space between the shell and the inner casing must accelerate the abrasion and separation of the crosstie as a result of greatly reducing in reliability and service life and even causing the cracks and damage to the outer casing of the crosstie.
In addition, there is great shortage of the manufacture of the composite crosstie said above. The production and assembly of the outer casing are separately done in two production lines, which results in more investment on the equipment, more complicated procedure, more labor as well as lower production rate.
The object of this invention is how to overcome the shortcomings.
The content of the invention
This invention discloses a new type of wholly wrapped railroad crosstie and its making process. It solves the severe problems that exist in the design of the current composite
railroad crosstie such as the abrasion, the lower reliability, short service life and accident cracks.
In order to tackle the problems mentioned above, the technical solution of this invention introduces a new type of wholly wrapped railroad crosstie. It is composed of an inner core and a shell that is made of deformable composite materials. The wholly wrapped shell is molten and united together with the inner core when it is forming.
Furthermore, according to the present invention, the inner core mentioned above consists of a supporting framework and inserts which are filled in the framework.
Still further according to the invention, the shell is made of recycled rubber powder, wasted paint and recycled plastic. The recycled powder that is produced from grinding wasted rubber accounts for 30 to 70 vol.% based on the entire volume. The wasted rubbers include used tires, rubber soles and vulcanized rubbers. The granularity of the wasted rubber is 5 to 80 meshes. The recycled plastics are made into pieces and particles or by reproducing particles.
Still further, according to this invention, the recycled plastics are polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene and polyester.
Still further, according to this invention, the framework is a steel plate that is folded into W cross-section and H cross-section or made into two singular pipes.
Still further, according to this invention, the same materials used in making the shell are also used in producing reinforcing inserts. The reinforcing inserts include concrete and composite inserts. The making process of the crosstie of this invention is as follows:
1. As inner mold, the inner core is towed by a traction machine to the molding machine on the base for wrapping;
2. The mixtures for the shell are prepared according to the following procedures:
A. The granularity of the recycled rubber powder should be 5 to 80 meshes,
Recycled plastics are made into pieces and particles or by reproducing
B. Mix recycled rubber powder which is 30-70% based on the entire volume in the
C. After being mixed, the composite materials are being transferred to the extruder
by the screw pole, During the compressing, those materials are heated from
120°C to 240°C;
After the acceleration of the gearbox, the power of motor is transferred to the extruding screw that rotates to melt and extrude the materials;
Preheating of the inner core makes its steel framework to be covered closely by the materials;
3. When the inner core is being pulled through the head of the molding machine, the material that has just been extruded would fully cover the inner core and form the wholly wrapped shell molten together with the inner core;
4. After cooling and shaping, the crosstie is to be severed;
5. Finally glue is applied on two ends and then caps seal them or to spray rubber or/and
plastics on them.
Based on the total weight of the composite materials, at most 5 percent of additive
should be added to those materials mentioned before. The additive is obtained from antioxidant and/or urethane.
The types of antioxidant said above are UV531, HA88, 1010, 1076, 168. Comparing with the prior-art technology, this invention has following advantages and positive effects.
1. The shell covers the inner core as a whole. There's no seam in the crosstie at all. So
it successfully avoids the separation and friction of the crosstie. It greatly increases
the reliability and service life of the crosstie. And it reduces the cost of maintenance.
2. For the shell directly wraps the inner core through the molding machine, the
procedure in its production is respectively simplified and the assembly of the shell is
no longer needed. So it raises productivity and reduces the money on labor.
3. The materials of the shell such as used rubber and plastics are all recyclable. It uses
a large amount of industrial wastes and family wastes. So it contributes a great deal
to human being in such ways as protection of the environment and forests as well as
reservation of timber.
Illustration with figures
Fig.1: is a three-dimensioned structural view that shows the wholly wrapped railroad
crosstie and how it supports the rails;
Fig.2: is a transverse cross sectioned view taken substantially along lines A-A of Fig. 1; Fig.3: is a cross sectional view of portion taken substantially along lines B-B of Fig.2; Fig.4: is an exploded view that shows the inner core of the crosstie illustrated in Fig.3; Fig.5: shows how the shell is extruded from the extruder;
Fig.6-1: is the side cross-sectioned view that shows how the materials are flowing in the
head of the molding machine of this invention;
Fig.6-2: is the straight severed cross-sectioned view that shows how the materials are
flowing in the head of the molding machine of this invention;
Fig.7: is the 3D view that shows the composite railroad crosstie and how it supports the
No.1 is the wholly wrapped railroad crosstie, No.2 is rails, No.3 is shell, No.4 is Inner
No.4-1 is supporting framework, No.4-1-1 is chamber of the framework,
No.4-2 is reinforcing inserts, No.4-2-1 is concrete inserts, No.4-2-2 is Composite inserts, No.5 is crosstie plate, No.6 is fasteners, No. 7 is spikes, No. 8 is side plate, No.9 is top
No. 10 is head of the molding machine, No. 11 is base, No. 12 is feeding pipe, No. 13 is
No. 14 is gearbox, No. 15 is screw pole, No. 16 is extruder, No. 17 is wooden screw, No. 18 is caps, No. 19 is separate body shell, No. 19-1 is seam.
The followings are the detailed descriptions of this invention
As showed in Fig.1, No.1 represents the railroad crosstie made according to the principle of this invention. It supports substantially paralleled rail by means that is generally know to skilled workers. Crosstie 1 includes the shell 3 that is formed in a way to completely cover the inner core 4. During the making process, the shell 3 melts and
covers on the inner core 4 as a single object. There is therefore not any space between the shell 3 and the inner core 4. In this very example, the thickness of the shell is 25.4mm but it can also be changed according to different requirement.
The supporting areas for the rails 2 are set up on the crosstie plate 5 of the shell 3. The crosstie plates 5 are firmly secured to the crosstie 1 by fasteners 6. The conventional spikes 7 are driven through the apertures of the crosstie plates 5 into the crosstie 1 securing the rails 2 to the crosstie 1. The caps 18 cover both ends of the crosstie 1.
The materials of the shell 3 include recycled rubber powder and recycled plastics in which the amount of recycled rubber powder accounts for 30 percent to 70 percent based on the entire volume. Used rubber materials are obtained from used tires, recycle plastics and sulfurated rubber. The particles of recycled rubber powder should be 5 to 80 meshes. The recycled plastics are made into pieces and particles or by reproducing particles.
Because of the high intensity and flexibility of the material, the ballast rocks actually embeds itself into the composite crosstie, which prevent the crosstie from moving laterally when it receives pressure. So it increases the safety factor of the railroad.
As clearly showed in Fig.2, the reinforcing inserts 4-2 of inner core 4 are stuffed into the supporting framework 4-1 .
In this very case, the supporting framework 4-1 is folded into a "W" cross section. The thickness and the shape of the steel plate according to different rigidity can certainly be changed. The framework can also be folded into H cross-section or two tubular pipes.
As showed in Fig.3, it is very clear that reinforcing inserts 4-2 include composite inserts 4-2-2 and concrete 4-2-1. The materials of the composite inserts 4-2-2 are just the same as the shell 3. The spikes 7 are driven into the composite inserts 4-2-2 to make rails 2 firm. The concrete inserts 4-2-1 are divided into three parts that are put into the chamber of supporting framework 4-1 and formed after cooling.
The concrete 4-2-1 of the reinforcing inserts 4-2 is preferably a fast drying concrete material capable of being pumped into the crosstie. It is often called "flowable concrete" or replaced by material known as fast drying polyurethane. Cement concrete can also be chosen as per requirement. The reinforcing inserts increase the stiffness of the crosstie 1 and firmly secure the rails 2.
Fig.4 is the diagrammatic representation that illustrates the inner core. The framework 4-1 is made of a steel plate that is folded into "W" cross section. Its two sides are welded with plates 8 and its top is welded with plate so as to improve the stiffness and keep the shape of the framework 4-1.
The composite inserts 4-2-2 and concrete 4-2-1 are to be placed in the chamber of the framework 4-1-1 The position to place them is showed in Fig. 13.
Fig.5 mainly illustrates the process of making the shell 3. The head of the molding machine 10 is attached firmly to the base 11. The feeding pipe 12 connects the head of the molding machine 10 and the extruder 16. As the figure shows, the composite materials come into the hopper 13. The power supplied by the motor is accelerated by the gearbox 14 and then transferred to the screw pole 15. The screw pole 15 rotates and extrude the materials. At the same time, the inner core 4 is pulled by the traction machine. (It is an assistant machine known to the skilled people in this field, and not draw.) Through the head of the molding machine 10, the materials extruded fully cover around the inner core .
Then the crosstie goes through the process of cooling and severing. The last step is to apply glue on two ends, and then two special caps 18 stick them. The other way to close the ends is to put rubber and plastics on it by spraying or applying glue.
As the Fig.6-1 and 6-2 show, after being extruded by the extruder 16, the materials flow into the head of the molding machine 10. Those arrows show direction in which they are going.
The details of the process are given by the following:
1. After being made, the inner core that serves as the inner mold is pulled by the traction machine to the molding machine that is located on the base;
2. The composite materials of the shell are prepared in:
A. The particles of recycled rubber powder should be 5 to 80 meshes. The recycled
plastics are made into pieces and particles or by reproducing particles;
B. Mix recycled rubber powder which being 30-70% based on the entire volume in the
C. After being mixed, the composite materials are transferred to the extruder by the
screw pole, During the compressing, those materials are heated from 120°C to
After the acceleration of the gearbox, the power supplied by motor is transferred to the screw that rotates to heat and extrude the materials;
Preheating of the inner core makes its steel framework to be closely covered by the materials;
3. When the inner core is being pulled through the head of the molding machine, the material that has just been extruded would fully cover the inner core forming the wholly wrapped shell;
4. After the cooling and shaping, the crosstie is severed;
5. Finally glue is applied on two ends, and then caps stick to them or to spray rubber
and plastics on them.
Based on the total weight of the composite materials, at most five percent of additive should be added to those materials mentioned before. The additive is obtained from antioxidant and/or urethane.
The types of antioxidant are UV 531, HA88, 1010,1076,168.
It is to be understood that the form of this invention herewith shown and described is to be taken as a preferred example of the same, and that this invention is not to be limited to the exact shown in the accompanying drawings or described in this specification as various changes in the details may be resorted to without departing from the spirit of the invention.
1. A wholly wrapped railroad crosstie comprising an inner core and a shell covering said inner core, said shell being made of composite materials, wherein said shell and said inner core are integrated, and said shell entirely wraps said inner core during forming.
2. The crosstie as defined in claim 1 .wherein said inner core is composed of the supporting framework and reinforcing inserts that are stuffed into said supporting framework.
3. The crosstie as defined in claim 1, wherein said shell is made of recycled rubber powder and recycled plastics, in which said recycled rubber powder accounts for 30 percent to 70 percent, based on the entire volume and said rubber powder being made of smashed used rubber materials including used tires, rubber soles and sulfurated rubber materials, the granularity of the recycled rubber powder being 5 to 80 meshes, the recycled plastic being made into pieces and particles or by reproducing particles.
4. The crosstie as defined in claim 3, wherein said recycled plastics are chemicals such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene and polyester.
5. The crosstie as defined in claim 2, wherein said supporting framework is a steel plate that is folded into "H" cross section or "W" cross section or two tubular beams.
6. The crosstie as defined in claim 2, wherein said reinforcing inserts are made of concrete or a combination of concrete and composite inserts that are made of the same materials as said shell.
7. A process of making said crosstie comprising:
©After being made, said inner core that serves as a inner mold is being by a traction machine to the molding machine that is located on the base; and ©Mixing composite materials of said shell according to the following steps:
A. The particles of recycled rubber powder being 5 to 80 meshes, the recycled
plastics being made into pieces and particles or by reproducing particles; and
B. Mixing recycled rubber powder which being 30-70% based on the entire volume in
said materials; and
C. After being mixed, the composite materials being transferred to a extruder by a
screw pole, and said materials being heated from 120°C to 240°C during
After acceleration of a gearbox, the power supplied by motor being transferred to said
screw that rotates to heat and extrude said materials; and Preheating of said inner core making its steel framework to be closely covered by said materials; and
©When the inner core being pulled through the head of the molding machine, the material that has just been extruded fully covering the inner core and forming the wholly wrapped shell welded together with the inner core; and
©After cooling and shaping, the crosstie being Severed;
©Finally glue being applied on two ends, and then caps sticking them or spraying
rubber and plastics on them, which will prevent the inner core from watering and
8. The process as defined in claim 7, wherein based on the total weight of the composite materials, at most five percent of additive should be added to those materials
mentioned before, and said additive is antioxidant and/or urethane.
9. The process as defined in claim 8, wherein types of antioxidant are UV 531, HA88, 1010,1076,168.
10. The wholly wrapped railroad crosstie and its making process as claimed substantially as herein described with forgoing description & drawings.
This invention discloses a wholly wrapped railroad crosstie. It is composed of an inner core and a shell that is made of deformable composite materials. The shell is molten and united together with the inner core as a whole when it is formed. The shell covers the inner core wholly. There's no seam on the crosstie at all. So it successfully avoids the separation and friction of the crosstie. It greatly increases the reliability and service life of the crosstie. And it reduces the cost of maintenance.
|Indian Patent Application Number||1132/MUMNP/2007|
|PG Journal Number||25/2011|
|Date of Filing||31-Jul-2007|
|Name of Patentee||YUAN QIANG|
|Applicant Address||ROOM 101, NO 43 FUYUANER ROAD, SHIBEI DISTRICT, QINGDAO CITY, SHANDONG PROVINCE|
|PCT International Classification Number||E01B3/46,B29C47/02|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/CN2006/001685|
|PCT International Filing date||2006-07-14|