Title of Invention

NOVEL PHARMACOGENETIC MARKERS FOR DETECTING AND PREDICTING BRONCHODILATORY RESPONSE TO BETA AGONIST

Abstract Present invention relates to a method for predicting an individual's bronchodilatory response to a β agonist. Present invention particularly relates to the detection of specific allelic variants of the β2AR gene and their use as pharmacogenetic markers towards response to β agonist.
Full Text METHOD OF DETECTING AND PREDICTING BRONCHODILATORY RESPONSE TO BETA AGONIST
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
Present invention relates to a method for predicting an individual's bronchodilatory response to a p-agonist. Present invention particularly relates to the detection of specific allelic variants of the J32AR gene and their use as pharmacogenetic markers towards response to P agonist.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, chest tightness and coughing, which vary in severity and frequency from person to person (Suki et al., 2003). It is a condition in which the airways of the lungs become either narrowed or completely blocked, impeding normal breathing. However in asthma this obstruction of the lungs is reversible, either spontaneously or with medication. Currently three main asthma treatments are available (Jeffrey et al., 2000): (a) Inhaled glucosteroids (Martin, 2003; Settipane et al., 2003) (b) beta 2-agonists (Eh et al., 2003) and (c) leukotriene inhibitors (Bjermer et al., 2002). In the patients suffering from asthma with an apparently identical phenotype, response to drug treatment may be remarkably variable (Drysdale et al., 2000). P2AR agonists are recommended for first-line use as bronchodilator therapy in asthma (National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (1997) Expert Panel Report II). Short and long acting P 2 agonists exhibit protective effects against a variety of direct and indirect bronchoconstrictor stimuli (Cockcroft et al., 1996). The beta-adrenergic receptor has been subdivided into at least three distinct groups: PI, P2, P3 classically identified in cardiac, airway smooth muscle, and adipose tissue, respectively (Johnson M, 1998). There is a 65-70 % homology between PI, P2 and P3 receptors. There is now good evidence that beta adrenoreceptors exist in activated and inactivated forms and under resting conditions these two forms are in equilibrium with the inactivated state being predominant (Johnson M, 1998). The P2AR is in the activated form when it is associated with the a subunit of the G protein, together with a molecule of guanosine triphosphate (GTP), and it is through this a subunit that the receptor is coupled to adenylate cyclase. The replacement of the GTP by GDP
catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP by the enzyme and dramatically reduces the affinity of the a subunit for the receptor, causing dissociation and the receptor to return to its low-energy, inactivated form (Johnson M, 1998). The 02 adrenergic receptor is the key target for the [32 agonist drugs used for bronchodilation in asthma. The P2AR is a G protein-coupled, and has an extracellular amino terminus, seven transmembrane spanning domain, three intracellular and three extracellular loops, and an intracellular carboxyl terminus, that is widely distributed throughout the body especially in smooth muscle cells of bronchi, and mediates the action of catecholamines in various tissues and organs. The P2AR is composed of 413 amino acid residues of approximately 46,500 Dalton (Da) (Drysdale et al., 2000). The p2 A R is encoded by an intronless gene on chromosome 5q31-32 (Kobilka et al., 1987). Johnson M.,(1998) have reported several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding block of the J3 2 AR gene that lead to significant genetic variability in the structure of the p 2 AR protein in the human population (GenBank Accession Numbers AF022953.1 GI:2570526; AF022954.1 GI:2570528; and AF022956.1 GI:2570532). These SNPs are located at nucleotides 46 (A or G), 79 (C or G), and 491 (C or T) of the P2 AR coding sequence, and result in variation that occurs in the ammo-terminus of the receptor at amino acids 16 (Arg or Gly) and 27 (Gin or Glu) and in the fourth transmembrane spanning domain at amino acid 164 (Thr or He), respectively. These amino acid variants have clear phenotypic differences as demonstrated by recombinant cell studies (Green et al., 1994), primary cultures of cells (CHW-1102) endogenously expressing these variants (Green et al., 1995), and transgenic mice overexpressing the Thr 164 or He 164 receptors in the heart (Turk! et al., 1996). Besides, a synonymous polymorphism of C or A at nucleotide 523 in the coding sequence has been reported to be associated with altered responsiveness to salbutamol in Japanese families (Ohe et al., 1995). In addition to the above polymorphisms in the coding block, several SNPs in the 5' promoter region have recently been identified and are located at nucleotides -1023 (A or G), -654 (G or A), -468 (C or G), -367 (T or C), -47 (C or T) and -20 (T or C) (Scott et al., 1999). Recently two more SNPs at -709(C or A) and - 406(C or T) are reported by Drysdale et al (2000). Thus, thirteen polymorphic sites have previously been identified in the region of the P2AR gene located between nucleotides 565 and 2110 of GenBank Accession No. Ml5169.1. Different groups have suggested associations between
some of the above (32AR amino acid variants and increased susceptibility to various conditions, including: high blood pressure (Glyl6 variant, Hoit et al., 2000); atopy (Glyl6 variant, Dewar et al., 1998); nocturnal asthma (Glyl6 variant, Turki et al., 1995); response to treatment for obesity (Glyl6 variant, Sakane et al., 1999); myasthenia gravis (Argl6 variant, Xu et al., 2000); childhood asthma (Gln27 variant, Dewar et al., 1997); obesity (Glu27 variant, Large et al., 1997); and mortality from congestive heart failure (Ilel64 variant, Liggett et al., 1998).
It has also been suggested that some of the 02AR gene polymorphisms discussed above may act as disease modifiers in asthma or may be the basis for the known interindividual variation in the bronchodilating response to p agonists (Drysdale et al., 2000). Indeed, Martinez et al (1997) have reported that individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the Argl6 variant are more likely to respond to albuterol than individuals homozygous for the Glyl6 variant. Interestingly, another group has reported bronchodilator desensitization in asthmatics homozygous for the Glyl6 variant following continuous therapy with the beta-agonist formoterol (Tan et al., 1997). At the same time, however other studies failed to demonstrate any correlations between adverse drug response and regular treatment with beta-agonists (Lipworth et al., 1999).
Asthma is one of the most common diseases worldwide. There are 15-20 million asthmatics in India and 6% of the children in India suffer from asthma (Chabra S. K., 1998). Asthma is a complex, multifactorial disorder, involving many genes as well as some environmental factors (Suki et al., 2003). Genetic factors have yet to be fully elucidated for the Indian population. A lot of irrational drug prescription occurs due to lack of knowledge of the individual and inter-racial variations in the drug response to most of the currently prescribed drugs for asthma leading to wrong treatment. This could prove to be fatal in certain acute cases. These situations can be avoided using prior knowledge of the individual's response to the drug prescribed based on pharmacogenomic rationale. There are also varied side effects due to irrational drug prescription like tremor, palpitation, trachycardia and tolerance to the efficacy (O'Connor et al., 1992, Dennis et al., 2000). The allelic variants of J32AR gene at nucleotide position 46 (A/G), disclosed in the present invention, have been found to be the dictator marker for the bronchodilatory response of the beta agonist drugs particularly in the Indian population. It has been observed that sometimes the patients
suffering from asthma do not respond to salbutamol, and it takes long time (days to months) to identify that a particular patient is not responding to the medication. During this time it is very difficult to provide symptomatic relief for the patient. If the physician can identify the responders or the non-responders at the beginning of the treatment, the dose titration time will be saved and the patient would get timely treatment with other alternative therapeutics. In case of an emergency, correct and timely treatment can be given to the non-responders, which may be life-saving. Drysdale et al (2000) in the US patent application no. 811286 have disclosed a method wherein three SNPs at positions -654 (G/A), 46 (A/G) and 252 (G/A) of the /32AR gene determine the response of beta agonist drugs in the Caucasian population. The method and diagnostic kit claimed by Drysdale et al (2000) is more time consuming, expensive (due to use of three sets of probes and primers and related fine biochemicals). Further their method is restricted for use to the Caucasian population. Hence a need exists to develop an inexpensive, rapid and specific diagnostic method and kit for screening the Indian population for drug response to beta agonists as there are 15-20 million asthmatics in India and 6% of the children in India suffer from asthma. The SNP disclosed in the invention has been found to be associated with the biologic and therapeutic phenotype and has a strong predictive power as an indicator of drug response of individual patient.
Asthma is a complex disease with a phenotype that has been clinically difficult to define. Inhaled beta-adrenergic agonists are the most commonly used medications for treatment of asthma. Polymorphisms of the (32AR can affect regulation of the receptor. The novelty of the present invention is in providing strong association of one single nucleotide polymorphism as pharmacogenetic locus determining the drug response towards beta agonists in Indian asthmatics. The novelty of the present invention is in providing a method for prediction of bronchodilatory response by detecting allelic variants of J32AR gene at position 46 (A/G). This single nucleotide polymorphism has been found to be solely associated with the drug response in the Indian asthmatics. Moreover, this SNP has been found to be a dictator marker for the drug response in the Indian population. Drysdale et al., found three SNPs together contributing the drug response in the Caucasian population whereas in Indian population these three SNPs are found to be unlinked and therefore we observed that
taking these three SNPs together in Indian population is less significant than one SNP
(A-»G).
The invention also provides specific novel probes and primers and diagnostic kit for screening the Indian population for responders to the p2 agonist.
The invention further provides a cheaper and faster method for predicting drug response of the Indian asthmatics to p2 agonist. This polymorphism in p2AR gene has great commercial value both as a cheaper diagnostic reagent and for developing new treatments for this disease.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION
Main object of the invention is to provide a method for detecting and predicting
bronchodilatory response to a P2 agonist.
Another object of the present invention provides a method of detecting and predicting
specific allelic variants or single nucleotide polymorphisms of /32AR gene.
Yet another object of the present invention relates to the method of preparing
pharmacogenetic markers for detecting and predicting bronchodilatory response to P2
agonist.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a diagnostic kit for detecting and
predicting bronchodilatory response to a P2 agonist asthmatics.
Still another object of the present invention provides novel phramcogenetic markers
for detecting and predicting bronchodilatory response to P2 agonist
Another object is to provide a faster and specific method for screening asthmatics for
responders and non-responders to P2 agonist.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide the genotype of the pharmacogenetic
locus in /32 A R gene for predicting the drug response.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide novel and specific probes and
primers for detecting nonsynonymous allelic variants (A/G) of fQAR gene at
nucleotide position 46 in the coding region, useful for screening the Indian asthmatic
population for the drug response.
Yet another object of the invention is to study association of polymorphisms in (32AR
gene with asthma.
BRIEF DESCRIPTIONS OF THE ACCOMPNAYING DRAWINGS/FIGURES
Figure la: Schematic representation of all the SNPs including nonsynonymous
polymorphism in ß2AR gene. Figure lb Primers used for PCR amplification of the region covering the full
P2AR gene. Figure1c Localization of SNPs and the identification of linkage disequilibrium of
the regions of the ß2AR gene in the Indian Population. Figure 1d Showing distribution of A/G polymorphism (genotype) at 46 nucleotide
position. Figure 2a Hydridization with allele specific primer having SEQ ID No.6 to show
presence of A Figure 2b Hydridization with allele specific primer having SEQ ID No.7 to show
presence of A Figure 2c Hydridization with allele specific primer having SEQ ID No.8 to show
presence of G Figure 2d Hydridization with allele specific primer having SEQ ID No.9 to show
presence of G
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention discloses genotypes and haplotypes for ten polymorphic sites in the beta subtype 2, adrenergic receptor gene ß32AR gene) in Indian population. Present invention relates to a method for predicting bronchodilatory response to a beta agonist (ß agonist). The invention is of advantage to the Indian asthmatics in particular. This invention provides a method for detection of an allelic variant (genotype) in ß2AR gene, which has been envisaged to be responsible for the key target for the p2-agonist used for bronchodilation. The invention is useful for developing a diagnostic kit for predicting individual drug response. Several missense polymorphisms within the coding block of the ß2AR gene on chromosome 5q31 have been identified in the human population. The present invention also discloses the specific primers and probes for detecting the specific allelic variant in ß2AR gene responsible for drug response.
Accordingly, the present invention provides novel pharmacogenetic markers for detecting and predicting bronchodilatory response to a beta-agonist, wherein the said markers consisting of:
(a) oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos.2 and 3;
(b) oligonucleotide primers having SEQ iD Nos. 4 and 5;
(c) oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos. 6,7,8 and 9.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The P2AR is the key target for the P 2 agonist used for bronchodilation in asthma. Direct sequencing of coding region (only one exon) of this gene in the responder and non-responder patient samples led to the discovery of nonsynonymous polymorphism associated with the drug response. In the individuals the codon AGA, which codes for amino acid arginine has changed to GGA, which codes for glycine. The nonsynonymous polymorphism if present in the homozygous state in the responder/non-responder individuals, could lead to the altered bronchodilation. Since nonsynonymous polymorphism in exonic region of the (32AR gene is associated with bronchodilation in asthma, this led to the discovery of nonsynonymous polymorphism in asthmatics associated with altered responsiveness. This polymorphism is found to predict altered invivo responsiveness. Further genotyping of several asthmatics (responders and non-responders) showed a significant association with altered response to P2 agonist. These results constitute the first demonstration of association of a single nucleotide polymorphism solely responsible for the altered responsiveness to P2 agonist.
The invention also provides oligonucleotide sequences (as listed in SEQ ID NO: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) suitable for the detection of polymorphism in (32 A R gene associated with the drug response.
A diagnostic kit predicting an individual's response to a beta agonist comprising one set of specific primers or probes along with the required buffers and accessories suitable for identification of polymorphism in J32AR gene to establish an individual's response towards P2 agonist is included in the invention.
Accordingly, the main embodiment of the present invention relates to a method for predicting and detecting bronchodilatory response to a p2 agonist in a subject suffering from asthma, said method comprising the steps of:
(a) administering the subject with pharmacologically active dose of known and
fast acting P2 agonist through appropriate route,
(b) identifying and categorizing phenotypically good responders and poor
responders suffering from asthma to the p2 agonist,
(c) isolating genomic DNA from the blood samples of the responders, non-
responders suffering from asthma and normal individuals,
(d) designing and synthesizing oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos.2
and 3 capable of amplifying the coding region of J32AR gene or locus associated with asthma,
(e) amplifying the genomic DNA of the phenotypically categorized responders
and non-responders asthmatic patients using SEQ ID Nos. 2 and 3,
(f) sequencing the amplified PCR product obtained in step (e) and identifying
the nonsynonymoues polymorphism or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the sequenced PCR product obtained from step (e) computationally by comparing with the known sequence of J32AR gene or locus to detect the specific (32AR allelic variants,
(g) designing oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos. 4 and 5 till the
penultimate position of the nonsynonymous polymorphism or single nucleotide
polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in step (f) and screening the responder and non-
responder asthmatic individuals for polymorphism at position 46 (which is same
as the base position of 857 as per the SEQ ID NO. 1 disclosed in the present
invention) to detect the specific SNPs of J32AR locus or gene, said process
comprising of following PCR conditions:
(i) denaturing the isolated DNA at temperature of 96°C for
10 seconds, (ii) annealing the denatured DNA of step (i) at a
temperature of 55°C for 5 seconds, and (iii) undertaking the extension of annealed DNA of step (ii)
at a temperature of 60°C for 30 seconds,
(h) validating the normal control individuals and asthmatics patients (comprising of responders and non-responders) obtained in step (g) for presence of SNPs or specific f!2AR allelic variants using allele specific oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos. 6,7,8 and 9, wherein the said oligonucleotides primers specifically hybridize to a target SNPs or specific /BAR allelic variants wherein the target SNPs or specific f&AR allelic variants have substitution of nucleotide A to G (A -> G) at the position 46 (which is same as the base position of 857 as per the SEQ ID NO. 1 disclosed in the present invention) of /32AR gene or locus in the asthmatic patients, and
(i) establishing the oligonucleotides primers having SEQ ID Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
and 9 from steps (d), (g) and (h) as pharmacogenetic markers for detecting and predicting bronchodilatory response to p-agonist.
One more embodiment of the present invention relates to a method of detecting and predicting specific allelic variants or Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of fi2AR gene in a subject suffering from asthma, said method comprising the steps of:
a. administering the subject with pharmacologically active dose of known
but fast acting (32 agonist through appropriate route,
b. identifying and categorizing phenotypically good responders and poor
responders suffering from asthma to the (32 agonist,
c. isolating genomic DNA from the blood samples of the responders, non-
responders suffering from asthma and normal individuals,
d. designing and synthesizing oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos.2
and 3 capable of amplifying the coding region of J32AR gene associated
with asthma,
e. amplifying the genomic DNA of the phenotypically categorized
responders and non-responders asthmatic patients using SEQ ID Nos. 2
and 3,
f. sequencing the amplified PCR product obtained in step (e) and identifying
the nonsynonymoues polymorphism or SNPs from the sequenced PCR
product obtained from step (e) computationally by comparing with the
known sequence of {BAR gene or locus to detect the specific J32AR allelic
variants,
g. designing oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos. 4 and 5 till the
penultimate position of the nonsynonymous polymorphic allelic variants
or the SNPs identified in step (f) and screening the (32AR gene or locus for
responder and non-responder asthmatic individuals for polymorphism at
position 46 (which is same as the base position of 857 as per the SEQ ID
NO. 1 disclosed in the present invention) to detect the specific SNPs or
allelic variants, said process comprising of following PCR conditions:
(i) denaturing the isolated DNA at temperature of 96°C for 10 seconds,
(ii) annealing the denatured DNA of step (i) at a
temperature of 55°C for 5 seconds, and (iii) undertaking the extension of annealed DNA of step
at a temperature of 60°C for 30 seconds, and
h. validating the normal control individuals and asthmatics patients (comprising of responders and non-responders) obtained in step (g) for presence of SNP's or specific allelic f$2AR or locus variants using allele specific oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos. 6,7,8 and 9, wherein the target SNPs or specific /32AR allelic variants have substitution of nucleotide A to G (A—>G) at positions 46 (which is same as the base position of 857 as per the SEQ ID NO. 1 disclosed in the present invention) ofj32AR gene or locus in the asthmatic patients.
Yet another embodiment of the present invention relates to a method for preparing pharmacogenetic markers for detecting and predicting bronchodilatory response to P-agonist in a subject suffering from asthma, said method comprising the steps of:
(a) administering the subject with pharmacologically active dose of known
and fast acting (32 agonist through appropriate route,
(b) identifying and categorizing phenotypically good responders and poor
responders to the P2 agonist,
(c) isolating genomic DNA from the blood samples of the responders,
non-responders suffering from asthma and normal individuals,

(d) designing and synthesizing oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID No.2
and SEQ ID No.3 capable of amplifying the coding region of fQAR gene
associated with asthma,
(e) amplifying the genomic DNA of the phenotypically categorized
responders and non-responders asthmatic patients using SEQ ID Nos. 2
and 3,
(f) sequencing the amplified PCR product obtained in step (e) and identifying
the nonsynonymoues polymorphism or SNPs of the sequenced PCR
product obtained from step (e) computationally by comparing with the
known sequence of fQAR gene or locus to detect the specific J32AR allelic
variants associates with asthma,
(g) designing oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos. 4 and 5 till the penultimate position of the nonsynonymous polymorphic or SNPs identified in step (f) and screening the responder and non-responder asthmatic individuals for polymorphism at position 46 (which is same as the base position of 857 as per the SEQ ID NO. 1 disclosed in the present invention) to detect the specific SNPs of p2AR gene or locus, said process comprising of following PCR conditions:
(i) denaturing the isolated DNA at temperature of 96°C
for 10 seconds, (ii) annealing the denatured DNA of step (i) at a
temperature of 55°C for 5 seconds, and (iii) undertaking the extension of annealed DNA of step
at a temperature of 60°C for 30 seconds, and
(h) validating the normal control individuals and asthmatics patients (comprising of responders and non-responders) obtained in step (g) for presence of SNP's or specific allelic /32AR or locus variants using allele specific oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos. 6,7,8 and 9, wherein the target SNPs or specific (BAR allelic variants have substitution of nucleotide A to G (A-»G) at positions 46 (which is same as the base position of 857 as per the SEQ ID NO. 1 disclosed in the present invention) of J32AR gene or locus in the asthmatic patients and functions as the pharamcogenetic marker.
Another embodiment of the present invention relates to novel pharmacogenetic markers for detecting and predicting bronchodilatory response to (3-agonist in a subject suffering from asthma, said markers consisting of:
a. oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID No.2 and SEQ ID No.3.
b. oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos. 4 and 5.
c. oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos. 6,7,8 and 9.
One more embodiment of the present invention relates to a diagnostic kit for predicting and detecting bronchodilating response of asthmatic patients to a p2 agonist said kit comprising of:

a. a first set of oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos. 2 and 3 for
amplification of the marker region of the f$2AR gene,
b. a second set of primers having SEQ ID Nos. 4 and 5 for genotyping the
nonsynonymous polymorphism or single nucleotide polymorphism (AGA
to GGA) said process comprising of following PCR conditions:
(i) denaturing the isolated DNA at temperature of 96°C
for 10 seconds, (ii) annealing the primers of SEQ ID No. 4 and 5 to the
denatured DNA of step (i) at a temperature of 55°C for
5 seconds, and (iii) undertaking the extension of annealed DNA of step
at a temperature of 60°C for 30 seconds, and
c. a third set of primers having SEQ ID Nos. 6, 7, 8 and 9 for validating
the normal control individuals and asthmatics patients (comprising of responders and non-responders) for presence of SNP's or specific allelic f!2AR or locus variants using allele, wherein the target SNPs or specific (32AR allelic variants have substitution of nucleotide A to G (A-»G) at positions 46 (which is same as the base position of 857 as per the SEQ ID NO. 1 disclosed in the present invention) of J32AR gene or locus in the asthmatic patients and functions as the pharamcogenetic marker
Another embodiment of the present invention relates to the subject wherein the subject is a human.
Yet another embodiment of the present invention relates to the p2-agonist wherein the p2-agonist is salbutamol.
Still another embodiment of the present invention relates to the pharmacologically active dose of P2 agonist, salbutamol, wherein the pharmacologically active dose of P2 agonist, salbutamol, is in the range of about 100 to 250 |j.g.
One more embodiment of the present invention relates to the pharmacologically active dose of P2 agonist, salbutamol, wherein the pharmacologically active dose of P2 agonist, salbutamol, is about 200 (o.g.
Another embodiment of the present invention relates to the delivery of p2 agonist, salbutamol, wherein the active dose of P2 agonist, salbutamol, is delivered through inhaler.
Still another embodiment of the present invention relates to the oligonucleotide primers wherein the oligonucleotide primers suitable for amplifying coding region of P2AR are selected from group consisting of:
(i)(SEQUENCE REMOVED)(SEQ ID No.2 Forward Primer)
(ii) (SEQUENCE REMOVED)(SEQ ID NO: 3 Reverse
Primer)
One more embodiment of the present invention relates to the oligonucleotide primers wherein the oligonucleotide primers suitable for amplifying detected nonsynonymous polymorphims or SNPs are selected from group consisting of:
a. 5' GCC TTC TTG CTG GCA CCC AAT 3' (SEQ ID NO: 4)
Forward Primer
b. 5'CGTGGTCCGGCGCATGGCTTC 3' (SEQ ID NO : 5 )
Reverse Primer
Yet another embodiment of the present invention relates to the number of PCR cycles wherein the number of PCR is carried out are 37.
Another embodiment of the present invention relates to oligonucleotide primers wherein oligonucleotide primers are suitable for validating the SNPs or the allelic variants of /B2AR gene or locus are selected from group consisting of:
(i) 5'GCACCCAATAGAAGCCATG 3'(SEQ ID NO: 6) Forward Primer (ii) 5'CATGGCTTCTATTGGGTG C 3'(SEQ ID NO: 7) Reverse Primer (i) 5'GCACCCAATGGAAGCCATG 3'(SEQ ID NO: 8) Forward Primer (ii) 5'CATGGCTTCCATTGGGTG C 3'(SEQ ID NO: 9) Reverse Primer
Still another embodiment of the present invention relates to the length of the synthetic oligonucleotide primers wherein the length of the synthetic oligonucleotides primers and probes are in the range of 5 to 100 bases.
One more embodiment of the present invention relates to the length of the synthetic oligonucleotide primers and probes wherein the length of oligonucleotide primers and probes are in the range of 8 to 24 bases.
Yet another embodiment of the present invention relates to the genotype wherein genotype GG is associated with good responder and genotype AA is associated with poor responders to salbutamol.
Another embodiment of the present invention is useful for development of therapeutics suitable for non -responder asthmatics for inducing bronchodilation.
Still another embodiment of the present invention relates to the developed method wherein the developed method provides markers, primers and probes for predicting and detecting single allelic variant for β2AR gene or locus in humans. Yet another embodiment of the present invention relates to the phramacogenetic markers wherein the phramcogenetic markers are associated with single specific allele variant or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of /32AR gene or locus.
One more embodiment of the present invention relates to nonsynonymous polymorphism or SNPs wherein the identified nonsynonymous polymorphism or SNPs or the specific single (32AR allelic variant function as a pharmacogenetic markers.
Another embodiment of the present invention relates to the markers wherein markers/oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos 2 and 3 are capable of amplifying the coding region of J32AR gene.
Still another embodiment of the present invention relates to the markers wherein markers/oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos 4 and 5 are capable of screening and identifying responders and non responder asthmatic individuals for polymorphism at position 46 (which is same as the base position of 857 as per the SEQ ID NO. 1 disclosed in the present invention) to detect specific SNPs ofj32AR gene.
One more embodiment of the present invention relates to the markers wherein markers/oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos 6,7,8 and 9 are capable of validating the normal control individuals and asthmatics patients (comprising of responders and non-responders) for presence of SNP's or specific allelic 02AR or locus variants.
Another embodiment of the present invention relates to a kit wherein said kit is useful for identifying therapeutics suitable for non -responder asthmatics for inducing bronchodilation.
Yet another embodiment of the present invention relates to a kit wherein the kit method provides markers, primers and probes for predicting and detecting single allelic variant for /32AR locus in humans.
Still another embodiment of the present invention relates to a kit wherein the identified nonsynonymous polymorphism or SNPs or the specific single (32AR allelic variant function as a pharmacogenetic markers for f32AR locus.
Another embodiment of the present invention relates to a kit wherein the kit is single specific /32AR allelic variants or the SNPs or the nonsynonymous polymorphisms function as pharmacogenetic markers towards 02 agonist.
One more embodiment of the present invention relates to a kit which further comprises instructions for using the oligonucleotides and assigning the response type based on AA or GG genotypes of f&AR gene variants.
The following examples are given by way of illustration of the present invention and should not be construed to limit the scope of the present invention.
EXAMPLES
EXAMPLE 1
Population study: Measurement of airway reactivity by inhaled p2 agonist
As a first step to the present invention, applicants carried out the study by administering the patients with short-acting beta agonist e.g. salbutamol, which showing the various degree of responses, for making more descriptive study we classified the patients on the basis of their responses to salbutamol as Good responders and Poor responders. Salbutamol can be taken either orally or more commonly using an inhaler device. The inhaler ensures that very small amounts of medication are delivered directly into the lungs. The diagnosis of Asthma was made on the basis of positive history of signs and symptoms consistent with the disease and by the presence of reversible airway obstruction. All patients underwent routine laboratory diagnostics tests and pulmonary function test (PFT) to exclude other possible chest diseases. In the spirometry test, a minimum of three acceptable maneuvers were performed and the "best-test" curve was chosen ("Best-test" curve is defined as the test that meets the acceptability criteria laid down by American Thoracic Society and gives the largest sum of FVC and FEV1). The patients who showed signs of obstruction in the airways, were given 200micrograms of salbutamol (beta 2 adrenergic agonist) and the test was repeated after 20 minutes. This was done to assess the degree of reversibility of obstruction of the airways. The same procedure was repeated 2-3 times at intervals of more than two weeks, and the best value of %age change in FEV1 was chosen to classify the asthmatics as good, poor or non-responder to salbutamol.
EXAMPLE 2
II. Identification of polymorphisms in f&AR gene:
The inventors have identified ten polymorphic sites in the Indian population in a contiguous region of the 5' upstream and coding sequence of the J32AR gene in Indian population (Table2). This finding is different from the findings of Drysdale et al (2000) wherein thirteen polymorphic sites have been reported.
Seven haplotype pairs shown in Table 3 were estimated from the unphased genotypes using extension of Clark's algorithm (Clark, 1990), in which haplotypes are assigned directly from individuals who are homozygous at all sites or heterozygous at no more than one of the variable sites.
EXAMPLE 3
III. Single polymorphism of the Invention as a dictator of drug response:
The applicants carried out the PCR amplification of exonic region of the human (32 A R gene using oligonucleotide primers. These primers were designed in accordance with the human /32 A R gene sequence submitted by DOE Joint Genome Institute and Stanford Human Genome Center (06-Oct-1999) (GenBank accession number-AC011354). The sequencing of the purified PCR product revealed homozygous nonsynonymous polymorphism in exonic region of the human J32AR gene associated with bronchodilation.
The present invention provides a sequence for the allelic variants of human J32AR gene comprising nonsynonymous polymorphism in exonic region of the human p2AR gene sequence in the database (GenBank Accession No.- AC011354) associated with drug response.
Table 1

(Table Removed)
The sites of changes are in accordance with the PCR Product Sequence obtained using primers (SEQ ID 2 and 3) flanking exonic region of the human β2AR gene (GenBank accession number- AGO 11354).
The substitution A -> G changes amino acid arginine to glycine which consequently leads to the nucleotide sequence of the allelic variant of exonic region of the human P2AR gene. PCR Product Sequence containing the nonsynonymous polymorphism is obtained using primers SEQ ID 2 and 3 flanking nonsynonymous polymorphism in exonic region of the human (32AR gene of SEQ ID 1.
The polymorphic site is at nucleotide position 857 in the above sequence (A*) corresponds to nucleotide position 46 from the database (GenBank Accession No.-AC011354). The primers are used to detect polymorphism at position 857 according to the PCR product obtained using primers (SEQ ID 2 and 3) flanking exonic region of the human [32AR gene (Table 1).
EXAMPLE 4
IV. Association Analysis with the Drug Response:
The inventors herein have discovered that a patient's bronchodilating response to salbutamol in Indian population may be predicted with high confidence by genotyping only one polymorphic site in the p2AR gene at nucleotide position 46. Further genotyping of several asthmatics (responders and non-responders) showed a significant association with altered response to P agonist. These results constitute the first demonstration of association of a single polymorphism responsible for the altered responsiveness to P agonist. Homozygous Argl6 and homozygous Glyl6 showed association with poor and good response in Indian population (FigureId). Furthermore, the very small number of homozygous Argl6 asthmatics who had a positive bronchodilator response and Glyl6 asthmatics who had a negative bronchodilator response, the potential confoundment of race, and the use of mild pediatric asthmatics, makes the others (Martinez et al., 1997) study incomparable to the inventor's study described herein which utilized the Indian asthmatics in particular, a greater number of asthmatics and adult Indian subjects having a range of asthma severity. The applicants could not find any SNP in /32AR gene associated with asthma in Indian population.
EXAMPLE 5
V) Diagnostic Kits:
The invention further provides a diagnostic kit for predicting an individual's response to a beta agonist comprising: PCR amplification primers of SEQ ID 2 and 3, Snapshot primer of SEQ ID No. 4 or 5,
At least one allele-specific oligonucleotide selected from oligonucleotides of SEQ ID Nos. 6, 7, 8, and 9. Appropriate buffers for PCR or hybridization reactions.
The allele-specific oligonucleotides may alternatively be provided as immobilized to a substrate, which can be used to detect polymorphism in /32AR gene. Optional additional components of the kit include, for example, restriction enzymes, polymerase, the substrate nucleoside triphosphates, means used to label (for example,
an avidin enzyme conjugate and enzyme substrate and chromogen if the label is biotin).
EXAMPLE 6
Measurement of airway reactivity by inhaled (32 agonist
The diagnosis of Asthma was made on the basis of positive history of signs and symptoms consistent with the disease and by the presence of reversible airway obstruction. All patients underwent routine laboratory diagnostics tests and pulmonary function test (PFT) to exclude other possible chest diseases. In the spirometry test, a minimum of three acceptable maneuvers were performed and the "best-test" curve was chosen ("Best-test" curve is defined as the test that meets the acceptability criteria laid down by American Thoracic Society and gives the largest sum of FVC and FEV1). The patient who showed signs of obstruction in the airways were given 200micrograms of salbutamol (p 2 agonist) and the test was repeated after 20 minutes. This was done to assess the degree of reversibility of obstruction of the airways. The same procedure was repeated 2-3 times at intervals of more than two weeks, and the best value of %age change in FEV1 was chosen to classify the asthmatics as good, poor or non-responder to salbutamol.
EXAMPLE 7
Identification of polymorphisms in (32AR gene:
The inventors identified ten polymorphic sites in a contiguous region of the 5' upstream and coding sequence of the p2AR gene in Indian population (Table2). It illustrates examination of the ten polymorphic sites from 1581 base pairs upstream of the ATG start site to about 750 base pairs downstream of the ATG start site. Thirteen polymorphic sites found in humans by Drysdale et al (2000) is different from our finding of only ten polymorphic sites in Indian population. Seven haplotype pairs shown in Table 3 were estimated from the unphased genotypes using extension of Clark's algorithm (Clark, 1990), in which haplotypes are assigned directly from individuals who are homozygous at all sites or heterozygous at no more than one of the variable sites.
Overlapping parts of the /32AR gene were amplified from genomic DNA from the asthma patients and normal Indian individuals using the following PCR primers, with the indicated positions corresponding to GeneBank Accession No. AC011354.
Parti
Positions of the primers are based on the first nucleotide of the start codon being +1.
Forward Primer: nt -1472 to -1448
Reverse Primer: complement of nt -530 to -548
942 nt product (-1472 to - 530)
Part 2
Forward Primer (SEQ ID 2): nt -811 to -787
Reverse Primer (SEQ ID 3): complement of nt +143 to +122
954 nt product (-811 to +143)
Part3
Forward Primer (5): nt +126 to +148
Reverse Primer (6): complement of nt +721 to +699
595 nt product (+721 to +126)
Table 2: Polymorphisms identified in the 02AR gene in Indian population
(Table Removed)
Table 3 Seven haplotype pairs shown here in the table were estimated from the unphased genotypes using extension of Clark's algorithm (Clark, 1990), in which haplotypes are assigned directly from individuals who are homozygous at all sites or heterozygous at no more than one of the variable sites.
(Table Removed)
EXAMPLE 8
Identification of nonsynonymous polymorphism in (32AR gene: This example describes the identification of nonsynonymous polymorphism in exonic region of J32AR gene by PCR and sequencing, using certain oligonucleotide primers according to the invention.
Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood using salt-precipitation method (Miller et al., 1988). The concentration of the DNA was determined by measuring the absorbance of the sample, at a wavelength of 260 nm. The DNA from asthmatics was then amplified by polymerase chain reaction by using the oligonucleotide primer 2 and 3 (SEQ ID 2 and 3). Each 50ul PCR reaction contained 200 ng DNA, 20 pmol each of oligonucleotide primer 2 and 3 (SEQ ID 2 and 3), 1.8 units Taq Polymerase (Bangalore Genei), and 200 mM deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) in a 1 Ox PCR buffer (containing 100 mM Tris (pH 9.0), 500 mM KC1, and 0.1% Gelatin). The samples were denatured at 94°C for 5 min followed by 37 cycles of denaturation 94°C, 45sec), annealing (56°C, Imin), extension (72°C, 1.2 min) and a final extension of 10 min at 72°C in a Perkin Elmer Gene Amp PCR System 9600. This reaction produced a DNA fragment of 954 bp. PCR products were purified by Poly Ethylene Glycol/Sodium acetate solution (containing PEG 8000, 1M Magnesium chloride and 3M anhydrous Sodium acetate, pH-4.8) and both the strands of the PCR product were directly sequenced using dye terminator chemistry on an ABI Prism 3100 automated DNA sequencer. The PCR product was shown to be identical to the exon of the (BAR gene sequence in the database (Accession Number-AL022326). Sequences were aligned with the corresponding wild-type sequences using the Factura and Sequence Navigator software programs
EXAMPLE 9
Screening polymorphism in the population:
This example describes a primer extension reaction used to screen single nucleotide variants. The DNA samples from several asthmatics (responders/non-responders) and several normal subjects were amplified by PCR and the PCR products were purified as described in example 2. The primer extension reaction was performed on the purified PCR products using oligonucleotide primer and SNaPshot ddNTP primer extension kit (PE Biosystems). The snapshot technique is extensively used in the molecular studies and is useful in exact base identity determination of a polymorphic locus. Although, the basic methodology followed for all snapshot protocols is same in all studies. But the each snapshot protocol is unique in itself. This is because each protocol is locus specific. Therefore, a specific working protocol has to be developed and invented for identification of specific locus. In other words the reaction and PCR conditions developed using the snapshot technique in the present study is different from any other snapshot technique used for any other disease locus. This means that the novel specific protocol of snapshot technique as given in the present invention has been established for this very specific locus i.e for (32AR locus. This protocol will only work if only these specific designed and developed primers having SEQ ID No. 4 and SEQ ID No.5 are used. The oligonucleotide primer was designed till the penultimate position of mutation and the primer is extended by one ddNTP, which is in accordance with the variant allele present. The reaction was performed for 30 cycles of denaturation (96°C, 10 sec), annealing (55°C, 5 sec) and extension (60°C, 30 sec) in a Perkin Elmer GeneAmp PCR System 9600 using primers having SEQ ID No. 4 and SEQ ID No.5. The primer extension products were treated with calf intestine alkaline phosphatase (New England Biolabs) for removing unincorporated dideoxynucleotides. The products were run on an ABI Prism 3100 automated DNA sequencer. Depending on the colour of the fluoroscently labeled dideoxynucleotide incorporated, the wild type and polymorphic alleles of the βAR gene were detected.
EXAMPLE 10
Nucleotide sequence of allelic variants of β2 A R gene:
The nucleotide sequence of the allelic variant of β2AR gene derived using the method
as described in example 2-
(SEQID1)
(Sequence Removed)

EXAMPLE 11
The association of non-synonymous polymorphism with drug response
The non-synonymous SNP or polymorphism are defined as "when the altered code doesn't correspond to the same amino acid as the wild type sequence i.e these are substitutions in coding region that result in a different amino acid".
The inventors herein have discovered that a patient's bronchodilating response to salbutamol in Indian population may be predicted with high confidence by genotyping only one polymorphic site in the β2AR gene at nucleotide position 46. Further genotyping of several asthmatics (responders and non-responders) showed a significant association with altered response to 02 agonist. These results constitute the first demonstration of association of a single polymorphism solely responsible for the altered responsiveness to β2 agonist. Homozygous Argl6 and homozygous Glyl6 showed association with poor and good response in Indian population (FigureId). Furthermore, the very small number of homozygous Argl6 asthmatics who had a positive bronchodilator response and Glyl6 asthmatics who had a negative bronchodilator response, the potential confoundment of race, and the use of mild pediatric asthmatics, makes the others (Martinez et al., 1997) study incomparable to the inventor's study described herein which utilized the Indian asthmatics in particular, a greater number of asthmatics and adult Indian subjects having a range of asthma severity. The applicants could not find any SNP in /32AR gene associated with asthma in Indian population.
A patient having AA genotype is expected to be a poor responder with probability 0.76 and one with GO genotype is expected to be a good responder with probability 0.72.
The responder status to salbutamol treatment and genotype at β2AR gene of a asthmatic patient are strongly associated in the Indian population (x2=11.28, df=2, p=0.004).
EXAMPLE 12
For validatation of polymorphism at nucleotide position 46, a sequence specific oligonucleotide (SSO) hybridation experiments were set up. The experiments were based on the amplification of the region of interest by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by blotting of the PCR products on to a nylon membrane and
subsequent hybridization with the radiolabelled primers of SEQ ID No.6,7,8 and 9. The DNA from asthmatics was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using the oligonucleotide primer 2 and 3 (SEQ ID 2 and 3). Each 50^1 PCR reactions contained 200 ng DNA, 20 pmol each of oligonucleotide primer 2 and 3 (SEQ ID No. 2 and 3), 1.8 units Taq Polymerase (Bangalore Genei), and 200 mM deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) in a 1 Ox PCR buffer (containing 100 mM Tris (pH 9.0), 500 mM KC1, and 0.1% Gelatin).
1 microlitre each of the PCR products generated as above were electrophoresed on a 1% agarose gel and transferred onto the nylon membrane and hybridized in 6X SSPE ( NaCl 0.9M; NaH2PO4 70mM; EDTA 6mM), 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), 5X Denhardt's , and 100µg/ml salmon sperm DNA with the oligonucleotide primers specific for nucleotide position 46 (the radiolabelled primers of SEQ ID No.
6, 7, 8 and 9). Hybridization were carried out under stringent conditions at the melting
temperature of each oligonucleotide which was determined as per standard protocol.
The filters were washed twice at room temperature in 2X SSPE, 0.1% SDS for 10
min, once 2°C above the melting temperature in 6X SSPE, 1% SDS for 10 min and
then exposed to autoradiography. The exposed radiographs were analysed for the
hybridized spots resulting from hybridization of the PCR products of the sequence
containing the SNP at position 46 with the radiolabelled allele specific primers of
SEQ ID no.6, 7, 8 and 9. The results of the allele specific primers of SEQ ID No. 6,
7, 8 and 9 are shown in Fig 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d respectively.
In figure 2a and 2b, out of the two lanes, one lane in each figure, showed a hybridized spot with the allele specific primer of SEQ ID No. 6 and 7, confirming presence of the allele A where as in fig 2c and fig 2d, the hybridized spots with allele specific primers of SEQ ID No. 8 and 9 confirmed the presence of the allele G at the 46 nucleotide position.
SEQUENCE LISTING
GENERAL INFO
APPLICANT: COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH
TITLE OF INVENTION: A method of detecting and predicting bronchodilatory
response to a beta agonist drug.
NO. OF SEQUENCES: 9
CORRESPONDENCE ADDRESS:
INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 1
1. SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS
(A) LENGTH: 1156bp
(B) TYPE: DNA

2. ORGANISM: Artificial sequence
3. IMMEDIATE SOURCE: Synthetic
4. NAME/KEY: Synthetic Oligonucleotide
5. SEQUENCE ID #1
(Sequence Removed)
INFORMATION FOR SEO ID NO: 2
1. SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS
(A) LENGTH: 24bp
(B) TYPE: DNA

2. ORGANISM: Artificial sequence
3. IMMEDIATE SOURCE: Synthetic
4. NAME/KEY: Synthetic Oligonucleotide
5. SEQUENCE ID #2
5' TCT GGG TGC TTC TGT GTT TGT TTC 3'
INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 3
1. SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS
(A)LENGTH:21bp
(B) TYPE: DNA
2. ORGANISM: Artificial sequence
3. IMMEDIATE SOURCE: Synthetic
4. NAME/KEY: Synthetic Oligonucleotide
5. SEQUENCE ID #3
5' ACG ATG GCC AGG ACG ATG AGA 3'
INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 4 1. SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS (A) LENGTH: 21bp
(B) TYPE: DNA
2. ORGANISM: Artificial sequence
3. IMMEDIATE SOURCE: Synthetic
4. NAME/KEY: Synthetic Oligonucleotide
5. SEQUENCE ID #4
5' GCC TTC TTG CTG GCA CCC AAT 3'
INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 5
1. SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS
LENGTH: 21bp
TYPE: DNA
2. ORGANISM: Artificial sequence
3. IMMEDIATE SOURCE: Synthetic
4. NAME/KEY: Synthetic Oligonucleotide
5. SEQUENCE ID #5
5' CGT GOT CCG GCG CAT GGC TTC 3'
INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 6
1. SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS
LENGTH: 19bp
TYPE: DNA
2. ORGANISM: Artificial sequence
3. IMMEDIATE SOURCE: Synthetic
4. NAME/KEY: Synthetic Oligonucleotide
SEQUENCE ID # 6
5' GCA CCC AAT AGA AGC CAT G 3'
INFORMATION FOR SEO ID NO: 7
1. SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS
LENGTH: 19 bp
TYPE: DNA
2. ORGANISM: Artificial sequence
3. IMMEDIATE SOURCE: Synthetic
4. NAME/KEY: Synthetic Oligonucleotide
5. SEQUENCE ID #7
5' CAT GGC TTC TAT TGG GTG C 3'
INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 8
1. SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS
LENGTH: 19bp
TYPE: DNA
2. ORGANISM: Artificial sequence
3. IMMEDIATE SOURCE: Synthetic
4. NAME/KEY: Synthetic Oligonucleotide
5. SEQUENCE ID #8
5' GCA CCC AAT GGA AGC CAT G 3'
INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 9
1. SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS
LENGTH: 19bp
TYPE: DNA
2. ORGANISM: Artificial sequence
3. IMMEDIATE SOURCE: Synthetic
4. NAME/KEY: Synthetic Oligonucleotide
5. SEQUENCE ID #9
5' CAT GGC TTC CAT TGG GTG C 3'
REFERENCES:
1. Bjermer, L., Diamant, Z. (2002). The use of leukotriene receptor antagonists
(LTRAs) as complementary therapy in asthma. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis.
57(l):76-83.
2. Chabra S. K. (1998). Epidemiology of childhood asthma. Ind. J. of Chest
Disease & Allied Sci. 40: 179-93.
3. Clark, A. G., Mol Bio Evol 7, 111-122, 1990.
4. Cockcroft, D.W. and Swystun, V. A.(1996). Functional antagonism: tolerance
produced by inhaled beta 2 agonist. Thorax 51, 1051-1056.
5. Dennis S.M., Sharp S.J., Vickers M.R., et al. (2000). Regular inhaled
salbutamol and asthma control: the TRUST randomized trial. Therapy
Working Group of the National Asthma Task Force and the MRC General
Practice Research Framework. Lancet 355:1675-9
6. Dewar, Wheatley, Venn, Morrison, Britton & Hall (1998). Beta2-adrenoceptor
polymorphisms are in linkage disequilibrium, but are not associated with
asthma in an adult population. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 28 (4):442 -
448.
7. Dewar, J.C., Wilkinson, J., Wheatley, A., N. Thomas, S. (1997) .The
glutamine 27 beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism is associated with elevated
IgE levels in asthmatic families. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.
100 (2): 261-265.
8. Drysdale, Connie M., Judson, Richard S., Liggett, Stephen B., Nandabalan,
K., Stack, Catherine B., Stephens, J. Claiborne (2002). Association of beta2-
adrenergic receptor haplotypes with drug response.
9. Eh, W., Walters, J., Gibson, Mdp (2003). Inhaled long acting beta agonists for
stable chronic asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.; 4:CD001385.
10. Green, S. A. (1994). Amino-Terminal Polymorphisms of the Human B2-
Adrenergic Receptor Impart Distinct Agonist-Promoted Regulatory Properties.
Biochemistry,Vol. 33, P. 9414 - 9419.
11. Green, S. A., Turki, J., Bejarano, P., Hall, I. P., and Liggett, S. B. (1995).
Influence of beta 2-adrenergic receptor genotypes on signal transduction in
human airway smooth muscle cells. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 13: 25-33.
12. Hoit, B. D., Suresh, D. P., Craft, L., Walsh, R.A., Liggett S. B. (2000). Beta2-
adrenergic receptor polymorphisms at amino acid 16 differentially influence
agonist-stimulated blood pressure and peripheral blood flow in normal individuals. Am Heart J. 139(3):537-42.
13. Jeffrey, M. Drazen, Edwin K. Silverman and Tak H. Lee (2000).
Heterogeneity of therapeutic responses in asthma. British Medical Bulletin
56:1054-1070.
14. Johnson, M. (1998) The beta-adrenoceptor. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 158(5
Pt3):S146.
15. Kobilka, B. K., Dixon, R. A., Frielle, H. G., Dohlman, M. A., Bolanowski, I.
and Sigal I. S. (1987). cDNA for the human beta2-adrenergic receptor: a
protein with multiple spanning domains and encoded by a gene whose
chromosomal location is shared with that of a receptor for platelet growth
factor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 84:46-50.
16. Large,V., Hellstrom, L., Reynisdottir, S., Lonnqvist, F., Eriksson, P., Lannfelt,
L and Arner, P (1997). Human Beta-2 Adrenoceptor Gene Polymorphisms
Are Highly Frequent in Obesity and Associate with Altered Adipocyte Beta-2
Adrenoceptor Function. J. Clin. Invest. 100:3005-3013.
17. Liggett, S. B., Wagoner, LE., Craft, L. L., Hornung, R.W., Hoit, B. D.,
Mclntosh, T. C. and Walsh, R. A (1998). The Ilel64 2-Adrenergic Receptor
Polymorphism Adversely Affects the Outcome of Congestive Heart Failure. J.
Clin. Invest. 102:1534-1539.
Lipworth, B. J., Hall, I. P., Aziz, I., Tan, K. S. and Wheatley, A. (1999).
Beta2- Adrenoceptor polymorphism and bronchoprotective sensitivity with
regular short- and long-acting beta2-agonist therapy. Clinical Science 96: 253-
259.
18. Martin, R. J. (2003).Considering therapeutic options in the real world. J
Allergy Clin Immunol. 112(5 Suppl): SI 12-115.
19. Martinez, F. D., Graves, P. E., Baldini, M., Solomon, S. and Erickson,
R.(1997). Association between Genetic Polymorphisms of the beta2-
Adrenoceptor and Response to Albuterol in Children with and without a
History of Wheezing. J. Clin. Invest. 100:3184-3188.
20. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (1997) Expert Panel
Report II, Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma, National
Institutes of Health Publication 9724051, Bethesda, MD.

21. Ohe, M., Munakata, M., Hizawa, N., Itoh, A., Doi, I., Yamaguchi, E., Homma,
Y and Kawakami, Y (1995). Beta 2 adrenergic receptor gene restriction
fragment length polymorphism and bronchial asthma. Thorax 50: 353 - 359.
22. O'Connor B.J., Aikman S.L., and Barnes PJ.(1992). Tolerance to the
nonbronchodilator effects of inhaled beta 2-agonists in asthma. N Engl J Med
327:1204-8
23. Reihsaus, E., Innis, M., Maclntyre, N and Liggett, S. B. (1993)
Mutations in the gene encoding for the beta 2-adrenergic receptor in normal
and asthmatic subjects. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 8(3):334-339.
24. Scott M. G. H., Swan C., Wheatley A. P., and Hall I. P. (1999). Identification
of novel polymorphisms within the promoter region of the human 62
adrenergic receptor gene. Br J Pharmacol 126: 841-844.
25. Suki B., Frey (2003). Temporal dynamics of recurrent airway symptoms and
cellular random walk. U. J Appl Physiol. 95(5):2122-21227.
26. Settipane, R. A. (2003). Defining the effects of an inhaled corticosteroid and
long-acting beta-agonist on therapeutic targets. Allergy Asthma Proc. Mar-
Apr;24(2):85-89.
27. 28.Sakane, N., Yoshida, T., Umekawa, T., Kogure, A., Kondo, M.(1999).
62-adrenoceptor gene polymorphism and obesity. Lancet 353 (9168): 1976.
28. Turki, J., John N. Lorenz, Stuart A. Green, Elizabeth T. Donnelly,Marie
Jacinto, and Stephen B. Liggett.(1996). Myocardial signaling defects and
impaired cardiac function of a human beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism
expressed in transgenic mice. PNAS 93: 10483-10488.
29. Turki J, Pak J, Green SA, Martin RJ, Liggett SB (1995). Genetic
polymorphisms of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor in nocturnal and
nonnocturnal asthma. Evidence that Glyl6 correlates with the nocturnal
phenotype. J Clin Invest. 95(4):1635-1641.
30. Tan, S., Hall, I. P., Dewar, J., Dow, E., Lipworth, B. (1997). Association
between B2-adrenoceptor polymorphism and susceptibility to bronchodilator
desensitisation in moderately severe stable asthmatics. Lancet 350 (9083):
995.
31. Xu, B. Y., Huang, D., Pirskanen, R & Lefvert, A.K. (2000). Beta2- adrenergic
receptor gene polymorphisms in myasthenia gravis (MG). Clinical &
Experimental Immunology 119 (1) Page 156.















We claim:
1. Novel pharmacogenetic markers for detecting and predicting bronchodilatory response
to a beta-agonist, wherein the said markers consisting of:
(a) oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos.2 and 3;
(b) oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos. 4 and 5;
(c) oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos. 6,7,8 and 9.
2. Markers as claimed in claim 1, wherein oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos 2
and 3 detect the coding region of beta2AR gene.
3. Markers as claimed in claim 1, wherein oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos 4
and 5 detect responders and non responder asthmatic individuals for polymorphism at
position 46 to detect specific SNPs of beta2AR gene.
4. Markers as claimed in claim 1, wherein oligonucleotide primers having SEQ ID Nos
6, 7, 8 and 9 detect the normal control individuals and asthmatics patients for presence
of SNP's or specific allelic beta2AR or locus variants.
5. Markers as claimed in claim 1, wherein the length of the markers is in the range of 8 to
24 bases.
6. Markers as claimed in claim 1, wherein the said markers detect SNPs having genotype
GG associated with good responder and genotype AA associated with poor responders
to salbutamol.
7. Novel pharmacogenetic markers for detecting and predicting bronchodilatory response to beta-agonist substantially as herein described with reference to the foregoing examples.

Documents:

3929-delnp-2004-abstract.pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Claims (03-05-2011).pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Claims-(03-05-2011).pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Claims-(18-11-2011).pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Claims-(20-08-2010).pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Claims-(29-09-2010).pdf

3929-delnp-2004-claims.pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Correspondence Others-(03-05-2011).pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Correspondence Others-(18-11-2011).pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Correspondence-others (03-05-2011).pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Correspondence-Others-(07-08-2009).pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Correspondence-Others-(20-08-2010).pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Correspondence-Others-(29-09-2010).pdf

3929-delnp-2004-correspondence-others.pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Description (Complete) (03-05-2011).pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Description (Complete)-(03-05-2011).pdf

3929-delnp-2004-description (complete).pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Drawings-(20-08-2010).pdf

3929-delnp-2004-drawings.pdf

3929-delnp-2004-form-1.pdf

3929-delnp-2004-form-18.pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Form-2-(20-08-2010).pdf

3929-delnp-2004-form-2.pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Form-3-(07-08-2009).pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Form-3-(20-08-2010).pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Form-3-(29-09-2010).pdf

3929-delnp-2004-form-3.pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Form-5-(20-08-2010).pdf

3929-delnp-2004-form-5.pdf

3929-DELNP-2004-Petition 137-(20-08-2010).pdf


Patent Number 248009
Indian Patent Application Number 3929/DELNP/2004
PG Journal Number 23/2011
Publication Date 10-Jun-2011
Grant Date 09-Jun-2011
Date of Filing 10-Dec-2004
Name of Patentee COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH
Applicant Address RAFI MARG, NEW DELHI-110 001, INDIA.
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 BALRAM GHOSH INSTITUTE OF GENOMICS AND INTEGRATIVE BIOLOGY, MALL ROAD, DELHI- 110007.
2 CHANDRIKA BHIMA RAO INSTITUTE OF GENOMICS AND INTEGRATIVE BIOLOGY, MALL ROAD, DELHI- 110007,
3 SAMIR KUMAR BRAHMACHARI INSTITUTE OF GENOMICS AND INTEGRATIVE BIOLOGY, MALL ROAD, DELHI- 110007,
4 RANDEEP GULERIA ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, ANSARI NAGAR, NEW DELHI-110029
5 CHINMOYEE DAS ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, ANSARI NAGAR, NEW DELHI-110029
6 RITUSHREE KUKRETI NICHOLAS PIRAMAL INDIA LTD., 100 CENTRE POINT, DR. AMEBEDKAR ROAD, PAREL, MUMBAI-4002 012
7 PALLAV BHATNAGAR NICHOLAS PIRAMAL INDIA LTD., 100 CENTRE POINT, DR. AMEBEDKAR ROAD, PAREL, MUMBAI-4002 012
PCT International Classification Number C12Q 1/68
PCT International Application Number PCT/IB04/01286
PCT International Filing date 2004-04-29
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 NA