|Title of Invention||
"METHOD AND APPARATUS USING MICROWAVE ENERGY"
|Abstract||The inventive method and apparatus generates energy from organic matter using microwaves. Organic matter derived from food or once-living things is dried and further heated to obtain a source of renewable energy. Enclosed in a glass chamber (2) it is exposed to microwaves. Apparatus comprises a microwave oven (1), a heat exchanger (3) and energy extraction system (5), wherein microwave creates an ionized hot air atmosphere of high energy Plasma. This process for hot plasma generates heat, pressure and electromotive energy, which are converted to a useful form of energy, by a heat exchanger; an internal-combustion engine or a Magneto-Hydrodynamic system. The process incorporates a method for plasma confinement and energy extraction. Feedback control (7) makes the process self-sustaining with net gain in the output energy. Efficiency of the process measures the nutritional value of food item used.|
|Full Text||FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a process and/or apparatus for converting and/or generating energy from any organic material into a more usable form of energy by means of microwaves. In one form, the invention teaches a method for converting an organic material such as organic waste or a food item into heat energy, plasma energy, high-pressure energy, electric energy or other useful forms of energy.
More particularly, the present invention relates to a process that uses microwave energy to generate a higher level of energy from organic material. The process provides a method to generate net output energy. Organic material is pre-processed and exposed to microwaves to generate very high temperature plasma Energy from plasma is extracted for useful applications. Thus an organic waste for example, may become a source of renewable energy preferably in the form of plasma to generate heat, plasma energy, electricity, high-pressure and perform various types of work.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION:
Energy of any type like heat, high-pressure, electricity etc. is essential for sustaining life and for industrial development. At present, the most common source of energy is either fossil fuel or hydropower. The sources of fossil fuel are limited and are non-renewable. Fossil fuels are not available everywhere. Hydropower is not available everywhere and dependent on weather conditions. Natural energy resources like wind energy, solar, geo-thermal etc. have been bernessed to some extent, but they can not be stored. Importantly, we do not have control of the sources of these natural energy resources and there are Limitations with the current technology to convert energy from natural resources into a useful efficient form of energy.
Before the use of fossil fuels such as petroleum and gas, the most common source of energy was animal power. However, it is neither efficient nor convenient to convert this animal or muscle energy into other forms of energy. Simply put, animal or muscle energy is basically obtained from food sources. A food item is generally an organic material, which grows with the help of water, air and solar energy. Presently, there is no convenient or efficient technology available to convert a food item into another directly useful form of energy.
Thus, there is a long felt need to devise a method for converting and/or generating a useful form or forms of energy from organic material, and most preferably from waste or non-useful organic material, such as waste food items, or inedible or at least the non-eaten parts thereof
Food items arc generally heated or cooked before consumption There are different ways to heat food: microwave is one of them. Today, microwaves are used in such varied things as broadcasting, surveallance, cell phones, airport scanners and, of course, the domestic microwave oven Microwaves are used to cook food in microwave oven by the fact that, although the microwaves are reflected by metals, they are absorbed by foods and penetrate instantly into a food.
As discussed above, microwave energy is used for heating food items Further, It is known that many materials absorb microwave energy Fundamentally, the temperature of an item increases with the absorption The rate of absorption is a function of the type of material, some materials completely reflect the microwave energy i.e they do not absorb any microwave energy. The microwave energy is mostly used for heating or communication purposes A technology to generate or obtain more energy utilizing the microwave energy is not available.
In just about every industrial application, waste heal is constantly generated and released into tie ambient environment. The amount of this waste energy is huge. The exhaust waste heat is considered as relatively low in temperature and it is difficult to recover this heat for any practical purpose Significantly, there is no technology available to use this heal for' any
A significant portion of food is thrown as waste, this waste is an organic waste In marry countries this waste is eaten up by animals, that basically converts into animal energy or amimal muscle power. Thus, organic waste has a potential for conversion into energy It is possible to convert this waste into useful energy Moreover, an organic material is grown on plants and is always available on a periodic cycle It can be a source of renewable energy, because organic food material is renewable The existing technology for conversion into energy is a slow process, which takes long time to convert organic material into useful energy.
Thus, it appears that the prior art processes are deficient in that they mostly use nonrenewable fuel They do not provide a suitable means of using the organic material or waste beat from industrial activities to generate more energy.
The exhaust emissions from known petro-chemical combustion processes contain a myriad of different type of harmful gases
OBJECT OF THE INVENTIOIN
it is an object of the present invention to provide a method and/or apparatus for converting, generating and/or extracting a usable form of energy from organic materials and food items by means of microwaves The process utilizes source of waste heat, conventional heating and microwaves to convert food, waste from food and other organic materials into high energy plasma, whereby at least a portion of mass of the organic material is converted into usable energy, with net gain in the output energy
The invented apparatus illustrates a method to confine and harness the plasma generation, which extracts energy from the process and converts it into a directly useful form It is a further object of the invention to provide a method and/or apparatus to measure and quantify the energy value of an organic material or materials, by means of microwaves
DISCLOSURE OF DIE INVENTION
Accordingly, in its broadest aspect, the present invention provides a process to obtain a new source of renewable fuel and energy. The invention provides an energy conversion system, which is capable of converting an organic item into a useful form of energy. The exhaust of this energy conversion system is comparatively less harmful.
The mass of the residue left after the conversion process is less than 20% by weight of the original mass of the organic material
In another aspect, the present invention provides for a process for converting and confining an organic material into high temperature plasma utilizing microwave energy as a source of input energy. It provides a new process to generate plasma for many other applications
In yet a further aspect of the invention there is provided a method and apparatus for converting organic material into a fuel wherein the fuel, once prepared into in an appropriate form is exposed to microwaves and transformed into usable energy form.
Preferably, the fuel is exposed to microwaves under a switching or valve control such that the temperature and pressure generated is able to be maintained within desired parameters
Preferably, the preparative steps are monitored to ensure that the conversion of energy from me organic material is maintained at a temperature and pressure in a sustainable and/or continuous manner
Another aspect of the invention provides for a method for converting organic material into a usable form of energy by means of microwaves the method comprising the following steps:
(a) Drying an organic material by using heat from sources of waste heat or hot air from
conventional oven, which removes at least 80% of the moisture content whereby the
dried organic material is converted into an energy storage form,
(b) submitting the energy storage form to sufficient and controlled heat from conventional oven or from sources of waste heat, which further alter its chemical composition to convert it into a new kind of fuel, and
(c) exposing this fuel to microwaves to convert the energy contained within the fuel into a usable form of energy selected from thermal, electrical, a high pressure, plasma, ionised air or gas and a fusion energy,
(d) Whereby, net energy released is more than the input microwave energy and it is extracted by suitable means for further conversion.
The above method provides a very energy efficient process, wherein microwave is not used for drying or removing the moisture content
Preferably, the energy storage form is organic material, which is carbonised.
Preferably, the microwave operates at a frequency of 500MHz to 5000MHz and at a power of between 500W to 100 kW. Depending on the power of microwaves and type of material, the plasma is generated within 2 to 400 seconds
Preferably, the organic material directly absorbs microwave energy, it is organic waste or fresh organic matter
Preferably, the organic waste is selected from chicken, pork or other meat scraps.
Preferably, the organic waste is selected from waste vegetables, peeled skin of fruits, chunks of fruits, manure or compost In particular, skins of apple, potato or banana.
Preferably, the fuel prepared at step (b) is exposed to microwaves at step (c) in the following
(i) the prepared fuel is transferred to a Pyrex-glass chamber or a heat exchanger,
(ii) the glass chamber or heat exchanger is either transferred to, or preferably housed within a
microwave cavity or microwave oven,
(iii) the microwave cavity or microwave oven is actuated whereby the prepared fuel is
transformed into a flame or plasma of a temperature above 100°C
iv) Plasma or ionised air at high temperature and pressure contains high-energy particles and it is monitored within safe-limits Energy or heat is extracted to obtain net energy gain and is converted for useful purposes.
Preferably, the prepared fuel is transformed into a blue flame or plasma of a temperature above 400°C.
Preferably, the energy generated at step (c) is adapted for use m an internal combustion engine equipped with microwave igniters
.Preferably. the energy generated at step (c) is adapted to be used in heating or cooling system.
Preferably, the energy generated at step (c) is adapted to be used to generate a high temperature plasma of above 100°C
Preferably, a plasma initiator such as copper wire, iron, tungsten, metal or non-metal initiator may or may not be used to initiate the process of plasma generation. The energy efficiency and response time of the process is a function of the presence or absence of the plasma initiator Depending on the type of organic material used, the process is successful even in the absence of plasma initiator
Preferably, the energy generated at step (c) is adapted to be used to produce plasma, the plasma being available for use in a Magneto Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) process.
Preferably, the.glass chamber or heat exchanger is optionally fed by a gas or air stream.
Preferably, the MHD process is adapted to generate electric power from plasma and the resultant ionised air atmosphere either using a permanent magnet or electromagnet or by inducing an electric current, within a conductive coil such as copper The MHD method is adapted to extract energy of plasma to obtain net gain in the output energy
A still further aspect of the invention provides for a method for determining (he energy value of a food item, wherein the organic material is a food material and wherein after said material is prepared via steps (a) and (b) and exposed to microwaves at step (c), said material is transformed into a plasma, the properties of plasma generated being a measure of the energy value of the organic item.
Preferably, the plasma properties used for determining the energy value of the food material are selected from (i) the colour of the plasma, generated and (ii) the volume of the plasma generated and (iii) the air pressure generated, (iv) temperature of the plasma and (v) the efficiency of plasma generation.
An additional aspect of the invention provides for the situation wherein plasma generated at step (c) is confined within the glass chamber or heat exchanger used at step (b) and is available to be harnessed or extracted for further use.
Preferably, the invention is adapted to be used in an internal combustion engine, to power a heating or cooling system, or to be further convened into thermal, electrical or high pressure energy, or returned to a central electrical system such as a national grid
In a still further aspect of the invention there is provided an apparatus useful in a method according to any one of the preceding claims, The apparatus comprising"
(a) a microwave cavity or microwave oven
(b) housed within the microwave cavity or microwave oven is a glass chamber, or a heat exchanger,
(c) optionally an inlet for providing a gas or air stream, preferably heated, to the glass chamber or heat exchanger,
(d) a means for harnessing or extracting the thermal, electrical, high pressure, plasma, ionised gas or air, or fusion energy generated within the cavity, and
(e) an outlet for exbaust. gases
Preferably, the means for harnessing plasma or ionised gas or air, generated at. step (c) of the method comprises a coil of any conductive material such that when in contact with the ionised particles of plasma an electric current is induced or generated. This current induction creates a reactive force to confine the plasma, which helps to harness its energy.
Preferably, the gas stream is air or oxygen, or ?. combustible oxygen mix
Preferably, the apparatus is adapted for fitment and use in an internal combustion engine
Preferably, the present invention provides an energy conversion system, while adapting to an industrial facility, the energy conversion system is capable of storing energy from industrial exhaust waste heat, and supply the stored energy in a usable form at the time of need
It is yet another aspect of the present invention to adapt an internal combustion engine of a vehicle or otherwise, in which an organic item is used as a fuel Preferably, a source of microwave energy ignites an organic fuel to generate a high-pressure air explosion, wherein the high pressure air explosion provides the mechanical power output for an internal combustion engine of a vehicle or any machine
It is an additional aspect of the invention to provide process to adapt an ionized air generation .system, wherein the thus adapted ionized air generation system is used in a Magneto-Hydro Dynamic system to generate electric power from plasma and ionized air. This ionization process provides an efficient conversion of food item into energy, with minimum emissions of polluting products. The subsequent ionization of air due to microwaves minimizes the polluting emissions and it is possible to further reduce these emissions by the use of magnetic resonators.
Still another aspect of the present invention is to provide a process, wherein a magnetic field is used across a chamber of ionized air to generate electric power. An ionized air or gas is generated due to the exposure of processed organic item to the microwave energy
It is yet another aspect of me present invention to provide a process to heat and melt plastic for injection molding by converting an organic item into heat energy utilizing microwave energy for the conversion.
The present invention provides a process to utilize the waste heat from any other processes. The waste heat from other processes is used to pre-process an organic item to remove moisture and pre-heat it to a desired form or consistency.
It is an additional aspect of the invention to provide a process to adapt an energy conversion system, which feeds back a fraction of energy output to microwave oven or microwave energy generating device. Thus, an energy conversion system which is a self sustaming continuous process, wherein an organic item is continuously fed" as fuel for conversion to a more usable energy.
The invention provides a process to adapt a portable engine based on microwave system, to convert a new kind of fuel into energy The fuel is very safe to carry around, because ft does not catch fixe with normal sparks, electrical shorts, cigarettes, or normal ignition. Whereas, a conventional" petroleum product / me) is a hazardous chemical and it is prone to catch fixe by sparks etc.
Plasma may be defined as the fourth state of matter, wherein mailer is found in an energised, excited and7or m a form of gaseous mixture of positive ions and electrons
Efficiency of plasma generation is measured by the amount of microwave energy required to convert a given amount of an organic materia] into energised plasma.
Organic Material as applicable to this invention relates to any organic material other than purely hydrocarbons and includes organic matter, which is essentially derived from living, biological or waste organic matter. These organic materials directly absorb microwaves and are mostly complex compounds of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen The invented process is not suitable for pure hydrocarbons, which are compounds of carbon and hydrogen only. The process does not require indirect microwave absorbing elements. Moreover, the invented process utilizes edible or biological organic compounds, which are derived from plants and food items.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING
Embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the following figures:
Fig,. 1 is a schematic diagram of pre-heating a food item to remove its moisture content and carbonize the item in the presence of air.
Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram to expose the pre-processed item into a microwave energy chamber The food item converts into plasma, heat energy that is useful for heating or conversion into another forms of energy by self-sustaining process
Fig 3 is a schematic diagram to show the use of MHD and magnets for direct conversion of plasma of ionized particles into electrical energy
MODES FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION -
The present invention provides for an energy generating and/or conversion system, wherein an organic item or an. organic waste, preferably a vegetable, fruit, meat scrap, manure or compost is heated by a conventional beat source or from an exhaust waste heat source, to convert food item into a new kind of fuel This new fuel can be converted to provide higher level of output energy than the level of input microwave energy
The energy conversion system converts an organic material into a new kind of foul The energy generated from this fuel is many times greater than the input energy The process provides a new source of renewable energy;, the organic material is obtained from the normal fruits and vegetables The material is renewable, because it's organic source is renewable and opttimally may be cropped year after year, season after season. An organic food item or waste from a food item is subjected to this innovative; process to covert it into energy providing fuel The organic material converts into energy only if exposed to microwave energy. The organic material is heated to remove a majority of its moisture contect, preferably, 80% or more. After drying, the organic material is further heated very carefully at a controlled temperature to carbonize the material to a form that is both immediately usable or may be stored, if necessary for years
After being so prepared the fuel is ready" for the next stage of the process
The carbonized, material is now transferred TO a glass chamber designed as a heat exchanger or an interne! combustion device or other appropriate device to generate electricity The glass chamber is placed under the source of microwave energy, wherein the carbonized material starts absorbing the microwave energy. Under the microwave energy, the material gets ionized and converts into plasma atmosphere, often with a blue and bright flame of very high temperature This ionized atmosphere with blue flame contains heat energy, high-pressure energy, electro-motive energy or other kind of energy to produce work for other applications The ionized particles exert force and pressure en walls of the glass chamber. Importantly, this high-energy plasma is confined within the glass chamber and captured for immediate or later use The carbonized food item is ionized under the microwave energy, which generates an ionized atmosphere similar to Plasma When this ionized atmosphere is placed under a magnetic field of two magnets, it will produce electricity, following the principle of Magnetc-Hydro-Dynarjaics (MHD). Thus, the process may be used to generate iowized gas/ air for a MHD system to produce electricity like an electric generator Amount of energy output depends on number of factors like developed air pressure, type of organic item, microwave energy level etc. The net output energy level is more than the input energy. With an automatic mechanical system, this process becomes a self-energy sufficient and sustaining operation. An electro-mechanical system introduces the pre-carbonized and converted food item into a device, placed inside a microwave cavity. This electro-mcchanical system also controls the waste exhaust, control of microwave operation and net transfer of output energy to produce work.
The process is also a new process to generate high temperature plasma. The use of plasma initiator such as copper wire, tungsten, meal or non-metal compound moderates the efficiency and duration of the process It is not necessary to use a plasma initiator. If required, it may be used to modify the performance parameters of the process
The invention also relates to a method to determine the nutrition value of an organic material. While studying the invented process, it was discovered that amount of microwave absorption depends on the properties and composition of various organic items, in particular food items. A food item generally considered to be nutriaous absorbs higher amount of microwave energy Consequently, a waste from a nutritious food item produces energy more efficiently
Thus a nutritious food generates more energy within a given item; this energy output then measures the nutrition value of the food item Experimental results have shown mat waste from food items. like banana generates more energy in a given time, as compared to other items.
Apparatus - Industrial Applicability:
The foregoing apparatus are illustrative only and, where specific integers are mentioned which have been known equivalents, such equivalents are deemed to be incorporated herein as if individually set forth
The process involves a preparative step wherein a fresh or waste food item is pre-heated to convert it into a more usable fuel This step is termed as "Energization" of the food, and is illustrated in Fig 1. Preferably, the energization process heats the food item at a relatively low heating temperature, which evaporates the moisture content completely In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a energisation process as shown in Fig. 1, comprising the steps of:
(a) An organic, organic waste or food from is placed in an oven 2 in the presence
of fresh air 3 and heated via a heater 1 at temperature of about 80 deg C to 130
"deg C, or from source of waste heat 5. This heat evaporates arid exhausts 4 the majority and preferably substantially, all of the moisture content of said organic, organic waste or food item Heat input 5 from any source of waste heat increases overall energy efficiency;
(b) Further heating this dried item to carbonize under controlled temperature by heater 1, without generating fumes and without burning the item..
(c) the organic, organic waste or food item is now converted into an energy storage form. The fermentation process of the item is now stopped and even a prolonged period storage of this storage form will not alter its properties;
(d)" Thereafter, the storage form is submitted to sufficient heat to alter its chemical composition, by increasing the temperature of heater 1 for a short duration of few minutes,
(c) The item is now converted into a new kind of fuel suitable for conversion into energy using microwaves
Throughout the. specification the terms organic, organic waste and food item are understood to be substantially interchangeable and for the purposes of the remaining embodiments, descriptions and examples reference to food item will encompass all of the above variations.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the energisation process converts a food item into a new type of fuel, which can be preserved or stored indefinitely It is preferred that the item is not burnt or converted into ash in the above process
Preferably a food item is waste skin or peel of a fruit or vegetable
Preferably, the exhaust waste heat is heat derived from an industrial activity, a vehicle, machine or from a cooking or drying process The hot air from exhaust waste beat circulated on a food item will remove its moisture and, depending upon the temperature of waste exhaust heat, the food item can be processed at a very low cost.
The important fact is that exhaust waste heat is stored in ihe food item to be released at any desired later date at the time of exposure to microwave energy
The next step according to the present invention is to expose the prepared fuel to microwave energy
Preferably, the microwave energy is of any frequency from 500 MHz to 5000 MHz. The power of microwave energy can be a pulsed or continuous power, ranging from 100 watts to 100 KWatts The input energy is used to generate higher level of output energy, i e the input microwave energy converts the fuel to a higher level of output energy. As shown in Fig, 2, the process comprises the following steps
(a) The converted and prepared fuel from process of Fig. 1 is transferred to a Pyrcx-glass or high temperature ceramic chamber 2, winch has a suitable safety pressure release and exhaust valve 10. To moderate the process, the plasma initiator is placed along-with the fuel;
(b) This chamber is in thermal contact with a non-metallic heat exchanger 3 The combination is placed in a microwave cavity or a microwave oven 1;
(c) Microwave energy is switched On and within 2 to 400 seconds, this fuel
converts into a blue flame or hot plasma of temperature higher than 100°C.
The time taken is a function of the type, amount of item and microwave level.
The heat exchanger 3 could be an internal combustion engine or MHD system, to extract and covert the energy into another useful form
(d) Preferably a process to feed an air stream to a glass chamber or a heat
exchanger by means of an air blower The heated air stream of very high
temperature with exhaust product is delivered for heating applications and for
any other suitable energy conversion and distribution system 5;
(c) Microwave energy is applied under switching control 9 to maintain the temperature and pressure within safe limits of the complete process;
(f) Process is monitored to control the energy extraction, control 9 the microwave energy, while maintaining the pressure and temperature to sustain the process.
(g) For continuous and self-sustaining process, the prepared fuel is fed from hopper 11 via valve 12 and spent solid residue is discarded through valve 4 Preferably the process is under complete control by switching and pulsed operation of microwave energy Microwave is switched off during the exhaust and fuel injection cycle
(h) The heat or electrical energy received at 5 converts into a useful form for delivery to energy utility system 6 such as an electrical national grid or industrial processes
(i) A fraction of the energy output at 5 is converted into electrical energy, which in turn drives the source 8 for microwave energy The feedback system 7 delivers fraction of output energy through an auxiliary power source 8 for microwave energy As shown in fig. 2, an initial source of energy 8 is required to start the microwave source and initiate the process Input food item is converted into energy, a fraction of which is fed back for microwave source A continuous supply of food item i e. fuel makes the process self-sustaining and continuous The microwave source can be a pulsed or a continuous source
0) The control 9, auxiliary power source 8 such as an automobile battery and feedback system 7 makes the apparatus a self-starting and self-sustaining system. With lighter parte ft becomes a portable energy generating system with the advantage of a non-inflammable solid fucl
The energy conversion system of the present invention can be adapted for an internal combustion engine equipped with microwave igniters. In this embodiment of the present invention, the glass chamber and microwave cavity is about the same size. The prepared fuel is converted into plasma and generates high air pressure The high air pressure is used to drive a piston of an internal combustion engine and provide the power stroke for driving a mechanical system of a vehicle or any machine The prepared fuel along with air is introduced into an internal combustion engine at stoichiometric ratios suitable for efficient energy conversion.
The exhaust gases resulting from such ra internal combustion engtine as described above will be less harmful when compared to the gases derived as waste from a petro-chemical internal combustion engine
A skilled: reader will instantly realize-that energy generated: from this- process is a- function of air pressure inside the chamber The high compression ratio of the engine cycle increases the air pressure When the compression cycle reaches its top end; it maximizes the air pressure Release of micro wave energy at-this stage wil result in a relatively more-powerful downward-stroke when compared with a conventional engine. A stoichiometric amount of fuel and air will ensure minimum fumes and maximum energy output
The present invention in one of its most preferred forms is adapted to convert a food item into a useful form of energy and preferably, uses the waste from raw fruits or vegetables, such as skins and cores. The method envisages using food items when in season and ideally will not require the need to cut down trees. Thus the conversion process provides for a new and renewable source of energy. The process parajneiers can be controlled for efficient energy conversion with minimum amount of exhaust gases and waste products
Further, it was found that various organic items absorb microwave energy differently. In any event, it was discovered that a certain class of food items produces a glow of plasma when exposed to microwave energy. The food items produce the plasma glow only after
undergoing a particular drying process On exposure to microwave energy, the item is consumed and converts into the plasma glow A very small amount of ash is left as residue.
Experiments: Ani apparatus around microwave oven of 1200 watts was designed for experiments. Dried and processed piece of fruits and peels measuring 10 mm x 40 mm was placed separately under a glass beaker and exposed to microwave. Within 8 to 27 seconds they were converted into plasma with excessive vibration and heating of the beaker. In one of the experiment, glass container broke into pieces. Experiments needed extreme care.
In yet another experiment, a fruit peel was placed inside a sealed plastic container The heal of plasma melted the container and it was deformed with blown holes
The observation revealed that time taken to generate plasma was less if the fruit is considered to be nutritious There was a co-relation between the time taken to generate plasma and nutrition or calorific value of the fruit or fruit-peel used for the experiment
This conversion process generates heat energy of very high temperature The pressure of the
surrounding air increases with the increase in temperature. If the pressure is not released, it further increases the temperature of glass chamber resulting in an avalanche effect, which may lead to an explosion. Thus, the process is very useful to generate energy of high temperature and pressure.
In this embodiment of the present invention, the process of plasma and energy generation is kept under complete control. With the contio! of input microwave energy and a suitable pressure release system, the process remains under complete control Regulating the air pressure, with a pressure regulating system controls the rise in temperature of the process. Tne rate of flow of water or air or any medium within the heat exchanger further controls the temperature and pressure. Managing the various parameters within the desired limits will control the process of conversion of food item into energy
Preferably, this process for plasma and heat generation can be utilized for number of different applications.
The increase in temperature of glass chamber is useful to melt plastic and melt ofheT objects with lower melting point than that of glass chamber Tt is possible to adapt the process to melt plastic for injection molding machines
As a further embodiment of the present invention and as illustrated in Fig 3, the method and apparatus can be adapted to directly generate electrical energy 5 through a MHD system built around this process of plasma generation. It is a known fact that plasma exhibits the electrical properties of transition of charged particles such as electric current. The process is a means for generating ionized air atmosphere of plasma that is useful in Magneto Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) process. The MHD system comprises of a Pyrex-glass duct 1 to circulate the plasma 2 with velocity U in the direction as shown Duct 1 in placed within the magnetic field B of North 3 and South 4 pole of one or more permanent-magnets or electro-magnets Electrical field E with voltage polarity 5 is developed across the pair of metal electrodes 7 placed on the duct L The direction of each vector 6 is as shown- Once applied, to the magnetic field, it is possible to use the process of present invention putatively for further development of MFfD based systems for the generation of electricai energy
The process of plasma generation is further applied for the plasma confinement The plasma generated from the above mentioned process tends to vibrate or oscillate or moves randomly in all the directions A further embodiment of the process is to confine the plasma for its efficient use To confine the plasma within a limited direction, the process uses a coil of copper or any conducting material that may oi may not be placed in a magnetic field The glass chamber with food item may be placed in the vicinity of the coil, it is possible to place the glass chamber within the coil or the con be placed within the glass chamber As per the Faraday lav/ of induction, the vibration and rotation of ionised particles of plasma induces electric current in the coil. This induction of current inside the coil generates a reactive magnetic field that applies an equal and opposite force on plasma particles This method of plasma confinement controls the random movement of ionised particles and enables the harnessing of energy inherent in such plasma. It is possible to use this method of plasma confinement to confine the random motion of ionised particles for all other known methods of plasma generation.
Throughout the description and claims of this specification the word "comprise" and variations of that word, such as "comprises" and 'comprising", are not intended to exclude other additives, components, integers or steps. While the prcf erred embodiment of the invention has been illustrated and described, it will be appreciated that various changes can be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
1. A method for converting, organic material into a usable form of energy by means of
microwaves, the method comprising the following steps:
(a) drying the organic material by hot-air from conventional-oven or from an exhaust waste heat sources. It removes at least 80% of the moisture content whereby the dried organic material is converted into an energy storage form,
(b) submitting the energy storage form to sufficient heat from conventional oven or from sources of waste to further alter its chemical composition into a fuel, and
(c) exposing the fuel to microwaves to convert the energy contained within the fuel into a usable form of energy selected from thermal, electrical, high pressure, a plasma, ionized air or gas and a fusion energy,
(d) whereby energy released is more than the input microwave energy and released plasma energy is extracted by suitable means of heat exchanger, MHD, internal combustion engine or plasma energy extraction system for further conversion to a useful form.
2. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the energy storage form is carbonized which can be stored for many days without any fermentation or natural deterioration.
3. The method as claimed in claim 1 or claim 2, wherein the microwave operates at a frequency of 500MHz to 5000MHZ and at a power of between 100W to 100kW.
4. The method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, wherein the organic material is organic waste or fresh organic matter.
5. The method as claimed in claim 4, wherein the organic waste is selected from waste vegetables, fruits , manure, compost and meat scraps.
6. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the fuel prepared at step (b) is exposed to microwaves at step (c) in the following manner.
(i) the prepared fuel is transferred to a glass chamber or a heat exchanger,
(ii) the glass chamber or heat exchanger is either transferred to, or preferably housed within a microwave cavity or microwave oven,
(iii) the microwave cavity or microwave oven is actuated whereby the prepared fuel is transformed into a flame or plasma of a temperature above 100° C.
7. The method as claimed in claim 6, wherein the prepared fuel is transformed into a blue flame or plasma of a temperature above 400° C.
8. A method as claimed in claim 6, wherein the plasma is generated in the presence or absence of the plasma initiator, which comprises of a metal or non-metal or a compound of metal or non-metal.
9. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the energy generated at step (c) is adapted for use in an internal combustion engine equipped with microwave igniters.
10. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the energy generated at step (c) is adapted to be used in a heating system or a cooling system.
11. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein a fraction of the output energy
generated at step (c) is adapted to be fed-back for generating microwave, the continuous supply of fuel makes the process self-sustaining and /or continuous, whereby organic material in the form of fuel converts into energy.
12. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the energy generated at step (c)
is adapted to be used to produce an plasma or an ionized gas or air atmosphere, the plasma or ionized gas or air atmosphere being available for use in a Magneto Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) process.
13. The method as claimed in claim 6, wherein a gas or heat exchanger feeds the glass chamber or heat exchanger.
14. The method of any of claims 6-13, wherein the fuel is exposed to microwaves under a switching or valve control such that the temperature and pressure generated is maintained within desired parameters.
15. The method as claimed in any one of claims 6-14, wherein the steps are monitored to ensure that the conversion of energy from the organic material is maintained at a temperature and pressure in a sustainable and/or continuous manner.
16. The method as claimed in claim 12, wherein the MHD process is adapted to generate
electric power from plasma or the resultant ionized gas or air atmosphere either by using a permanent magnet or electromagnet or by inducing an electric current within a conductive coil such as copper.
17. A method as claimed in any one of claims 1-16, for use in a method of determining the energy value of an organic material, wherein the organic material has been prepared via steps (a) and (b) and exposed to microwaves at step (c), and wherein said material is transformed into a plasma, the properties of plasma generated and amount of energy released being a measure of the calorific value of the organic material.
18. A method as claimed in claim 17, wherein the plasma properties used for determining the energy value of the organic material are selected from (i) the colour of the plasma generated, (ii) the volume of the plasma generated, (iii) the air pressure generated, (iv) the temperature of the plasma generated and (v) the efficiency of the plasma generation.
19. A method as claimed in claim 6, wherein plasma generated at step (iii) is confined with in the glass chamber or heat exchanger used at step (ii) and is available to be harnessed or extracted for further use.
20. A method as claimed in claim 19, wherein the further use is for an internal combustion engine, to drive a heating or cooling system, or to be further converted into thermal, electrical or high-pressure energy.
21. An apparatus useful in a method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims comprising:
(a) a microwave cavity or microwave oven,
(b) housed within the microwave cavity or microwave oven is a glass chamber, or a heat exchanger,
(c) optionally an inlet for providing a gas or air stream, preferably heated, to the glass chamber or heat exchanger,
(d) means for harnessing or extracting the thermal, electrical, high pressure, plasma,
ionised gas or air, or fusion energy generated within the cavity, and
(e) means for feed-Oback a fraction of the out-put energy to generate microwave which makes the process self-sustaining on continuous basis and
(d) means for conversion of the extracted energy into a usable form of energy with an outlet for exhaust gases and depleted residue.
22. An apparatus as claimed in claim 21, wherein the means for harnessing the plasma or ionized gas or air, generated at step (c) of the method of claim 1, comprises a coil of a conductive material such that when in contact with the plasma, the plasma is energised and rotates or vibrates thereby inducing an electric current inside the environment of the coil and wherein the current induction in the coil applies a reactive force thus confining the plasma and enabling the plasma to be harnessed.
23. An apparatus as claimed in claim 21 or 22 adapted for the confinement of plasma generated by a method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims.
24. An apparatus as claimed in claim 21, wherein the gas stream is air or oxygen, or a combustible oxygen mix.
25. An apparatus as claimed in claim 21, adapted for fitment and use in an internal combustion engine, heating system and/or electrical generation system.
26. A method for converting organic material into a usable form of energy by means of microwaves as claimed in claim 1, substantially as hereinbefore described and exemplified with or without reference to the accompanying representations.
|Indian Patent Application Number||1798/DELNP/2005|
|PG Journal Number||22/2011|
|Date of Filing||02-May-2005|
|Name of Patentee||GUPTA, RAJEEV, PRASAD|
|Applicant Address||11-16A, COLSON STREET, AVALON, LOWER HUTT, 6009, WELLINGTON, NEW ZEALAND|
|PCT International Classification Number||B01J 19/12|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/NZ2003/000276|
|PCT International Filing date||2003-12-16|