Title of Invention


Abstract Shuttering element for constructing a hemispherical building, characterized in that the shuttering element (1, 20) has ribs (10) projecting toward the building interior (36) along the side edges (4, 5).
Full Text Shuttering Element for Constructing a Hemispherical Building and
Shuttering Method for Use during its Construction
Hemispherical buildings and dome-shaped structures, also called
mound-type or earth-mound-type houses, have a number of advantages, for
example, their high load capacity with low materials expenditure. On the
other hand, they have the disadvantage of being relatively complex and
expensive to construct. Since conventional shuttering is quite expensive in
terms of cost and time due to the hemispherical shape, earth-mound-type
houses are often constructed without shuttering. The approach is simply to
erect the steel reinforcement and cover this completely by spraying on
concrete . However, this method has many disadvantages. The steel
reinforcement must be of a design which is relatively dense and thus utilizes
considerable material so that the concrete will adhere and not pass through
the steel reinforcement. Ir iddition, the concrete surfaces generated are very
uneven - a disadvantage especially in regard to the interior since the wall
must generally be plastered before being painted so as to obtain a smooth
The patent literature contains a variety of proposed approaches for
simplifying the construction of a hemispherical building. For example, the
publications Swiss Patent 626 132, and U.S. Patent 4,155,967 make known
an inflatable membrane in the form of a balloon onto the exterior and interior
surfaces of which concrete is sprayed, and which apparently obviates the
need for separate shuttering. The disadvantage of this method, however, is
that it creates problems in regard to the construction of large dome-shaped
buildings, and that the method is also quite complex and expensive in that the
membrane must be properly sealed against the ground to enable the balloon
shape to be formed after air is blown in. Even relatively small leaks may
mean that the membrane cannot be fully inflated, or collapses during
hardening of the concrete ~ a result which at minimum requires subsequent
expensive reworking.
German Patent 32 46 364 discloses a prefabricated earth-mound-type
house in which prefabricated, parabolic or ellipsoidal steel-reinforced
concrete components are linked together on a base plate and erected. The
particular disadvantages of this are the transportation and erection costs. The
steel-reinforced concrete components must be transported from the factory to
the construction site on large trucks and erected with the aid of cranes. This
procedure increases construction costs considerably. In addition, British
Patent 2 028 395 discloses an igloo made of plastic foam material, for
example, polystyrene or polyurethane, which is reinforced with a steel mesh.
The igloo is erected from preferably eight wedge-shaped elements which are
linked together by a slot-and-key joint and then sealed with a suitable mortar.
The external face of the igloo may have a network onto which plaster is
applied. The use of the plastic material results in the described igloo being
relatively light - a feature which, however, entails a certain disadvantage in
terms of stability. In addition, the slot-and-key joint of wedge-shaped
elements is not very stable so that cracks may be created along the joints.
Both German Patent 32 46 364 and British Patent 2 028 395 describe dome-
shaped buildings constructed of prefabricated elements. In neither case,
however, do these involve shuttering that can be removed after erection of the
Shuttering, however, provides a number of advantages as compared
with prefabricated construction elements. This method retains, for example, a
certain flexibility during erection of the structure since the use of shuttering
allows a number of design variations to be implemented - this not being
possible with prefabricated elements. Additionally, more variation in the
construction of the wall is possible since, for example, with shuttering it is
possible to use concrete exclusively, or to apply an insulating layer along
with it, or to incorporate the utility lines directly in place. All of this is
possible when using shuttering without any additional load and without any
additional expense, whereas with prefabricated components industrial mass
production is desirable which makes the implementation of individual
requirements much more expensive. As outlined above, known shuttering
systems are poorly suited for construction of a hemispherical house. An
individual shuttering must be erected and then destroyed for each individual
hemispherical building.
An aluminum shuttering which is reusable is known from German
Patent 44 40 959. Here shuttering segments are cut out in the circular-radial
hemispherical form and held together by strong bolts. However, no additional
details may be gleaned from this Offenlegungsschrift [unexamined patent
Thus, there remains the problem of how to provide shuttering to
construct a hemispherical building for which the shuttering is simple, is not
complicated to erect, and is reusable. In addition, a method must be provided
to create the shuttering for the construction of a hemispherical house.
This problem is solved by a shuttering element according to Claim 1
and a method according to Claim 9. Preferred embodiments are the subjects
of the subclaims.
The shuttering element according to the invention which is provided for
constructing a hemispherical building has ribs projecting along its
circumference at least at the side edges, which ribs extend into the later
interior of the building. These projecting ribs, which may also be
discontinuous in certain regions, may be used to quickly, simply and stably
join the shuttering elements to form a complete shuttering. To achieve this, at
least two shuttering elements are brought into contact so that they are
joinable at the ribs projecting into the building interior. To this end, snap-on
fasteners are preferably provided, for example in the form of clamps or
socket pins, so as to allow rapid erection of the shuttering.
An additional feature is that the projections deviate somewhat from the
vertical in relation to the main body of the shuttering elements, for example,
by 1° to 10°. This feature allows for a better fit of the shuttering elements.
The shuttering elements according to the invention preferably have a wedge
shape, the shuttering elements being increasingly tapered, or following a
conical line, from the base to the peak of the later hemisphere. Another
feature is that the individual shuttering elements are not flat, but are instead
curved in order to achieve a more uniform dome shape, in order to be able to
integrate windows, doors and other openings in the building, shuttering
elements are provided, the shape of which may be matched from the outside
to the wedge-shaped primary shuttering elements just described. The surface
of these special shuttering elements increases toward their top sides in order
to allow for windows and doors projecting from the hemispherical building in
the manner of dormer windows.
The preferred material for the shuttering elements according to the
invention is glass-fiber-reinforced plastic which achieves a notable light-
weight quality and ease of handling. An additional feature is that the lateral
ribs are made of metal, preferably aluminum, so as to achieve sufficiently
high strength. Another feature is that not only the projecting ribs but the
entire shuttering element may be composed of aluminum. This greatly
facilitates fabrication of the shuttering elements since the ribs may be formed
from the shuttering bodies by folding or bending. Another feature is that
insulation material may be detachably applied to the shuttering element
according to the invention, for example by adhesive bonding. In this
approach, insulation material may be applied directly onto the shuttering
element before the concrete is sprayed on - with the result that thermal and/or
sound insulation for the building can be already obtained at the stage of
erecting the carcass. However, another possibility is to apply the concrete
first and the insulating layer next; it is also possible to place the concrete
between two insulating layers, or conversely, to place the insulation between
two concrete layers.
A principal advantage of the shuttering element according to the
invention is its reusability. After the concrete, either sprayed on or applied
manually, has hardened, the shuttering elements may be removed, cleaned
and reused. Due to the ribs extending into the building interior, the described
shuttering is quick and easy to erect, yet remains stable; and generally, no
tools are required to accomplish this. Generally, only a hammer, lever, and
screwdriver are all that is required. Furthermore, due to the low weight, no
type of supports are required; in principle, two workers may erect the
shuttering for a complete earth-mound-type house without great effort since
the ribs projecting toward the interior of the building used to connect the
shuttering elements are readily accessible. This is especially advantageous
since the surface formed by the concrete is also quite smooth due to the
excellent fit of the shuttering elements according to the invention - with the
result that no application of plaster is required, and the walls need only be
painted. This means that a complete work step in the production of a mound-
type house is eliminated. The elimination of this work step is extremely
advantageous since the application of plaster to curved walls requires
considerable time and labor, and is therefore very expensive. The production
costs for an earth-mound-type house or similar hemispherical building are
thus drastically reduced.
In the method according to the invention for constructing a
hemispherical building, the described shuttering elements are linked together,
preferably on a base plate. Erection of the shuttering elements is
accomplished by bringing the shuttering elements into contact with each
other and connecting them by the projecting ribs forming the contact surfaces
at their side edges, specifically by snap-on fasteners. The main shuttering
elements used are the wedge-shaped primary elements. In locations at which
door or window openings are provided, suitable special shuttering elements
in the form of donners are used.
After the shuttering work is complete, the desired materials are applied,
the first being specifically a steel reinforcement in order to enhance the
stability of the finished building. Concrete is subsequently sprayed on, this
application being possible in layers as required. Stiffening of the building
may also be achieved by employing fiber-reinforced concrete, thereby
eliminating the need for the steel reinforcement. In place of the concrete, a
curable plastic compound such as polystyrene or polyurethane may be used.
In addition, an insulation material may be applied directly to the shuttering
using, for example, adhesive strips. Concrete is then applied to the insulation
material, as just described. A steel reinforcement may be provided here as
The shuttering elements may be sprayed or smeared with form oil
before the application of concrete to facilitate subsequent release of the
hardened concrete. After the concrete or other material used has hardened,
the shuttering is removed by detaching snap-on fasteners from the inside and
removing the shuttering. The process of stripping the complete building is
also a simple and labor-saving procedure since the elements may be removed
gradually. Since no supports or braces are needed to construct the
hemispherical building, the stripping process goes very quickly.
The invention is explained and described in more detail below based on
the accompaying drawings.
Figure 1 is a top view of a shuttering element according to the
Figure 2 is a side view of the shuttering element according to the
invention as indicated by arrow II in Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a cross-section along line III in Figure 2;
Figure 4 is a cross-section through the joint of two adjacent shuttering
Figure 5 is a cross-section through another embodiment of the joint of
two adjacent shuttering elements;
Figure 6 is a side view of an embodiment of a special shuttering
Figure 7 shows an embodiment of the wall structure of an earth-mound-
type house in cross-section;
Figure 8 is a top view of the shuttering; and
Figure 9 is an overall side view of the completed hemispherical house.
Figure 1 is shuttering element 1 according to the invention. Shuttering
element 1 has a wedge shape which tapers from the bottom end 3 of
shuttering element 1 up to the front end 2. When the shuttering element 1
according to the invention is mounted, front end 2 points to the peak of the
hemisphere, while bottom end 3 rests on a base plate. In addition, shuttering
element 1 according to the invention has two side edges 4 and 5. When
multiple shuttering elements 1 are mounted, the adjacent shuttering elements
abut at their side edges 4 and 5. At least along these side edges 4 and 5, the
shuttering element 1
according to the invention has ribs 10, at least in sections, (see Figures 2
through 5) which create the joint of the individual shuttering elements 1,
thereby erecting a hemispherical house as shown in Figures 8 and 9.
In order to achieve a uniform curvature of the building, shuttering
elements 1 are preferably of a curved design, as indicated by a fold line 6.
Multiple shuttering elements 1 of this type are required to produce a
hemispherical building. For this reason, shuttering elements 1 each
correspond to an angle a of the circle of the base surface. A hemispherical
building may preferably be shuttered using twenty of the shuttering elements
1 according to the invention so that the angle a is I80. In additional to this
preferred embodiment with an angle a of I80, and thus a segment number
twenty, any other number of segments, and thus any other an angle of any
degree may be used which allows a round building to be created. The front
ends 2 here remain and form an opening or a skylight at the peak of the
hemispherical building.
The curved shape of shuttering element 1 is clearly evident in Figure 2.
Figure 2 is a side view (as indicated by arrow II) of shuttering element 1. The
top side 7 of shuttering element 1 points toward the exterior of the building,
while the bottom side 8 points to the building interior. Bottom end 3 rests on
the base plate, while front end 2 points toward the peak of the hemisphere. It
is preferable that section 9 facing the base plate is designed to be
approximately vertical to the base plate. This section 9 identified as a jamb
wall allows even the lower region of the hemispherical structure to be
effectively utilized. In Figure 2, the rib 10 is also indicated at side edge 4.
This rib projects beyond the low side 8 of shuttering element 1 and thus
points toward the later interior of the building.
Figure 3 is an enlarged cross-section along intersecting line III-III in
Figure 2. Here the projection of rib 10 at side edge 4 of shuttering element 1
is clearly evident. Rib 10 may have a plurality of bore holes or guides 11
which serve to accommodate insertion of the pin fasteners or other snap-on
Figures 4 and 5 show the joint of two shuttering elements 1 and V, one
element being of identical construction and identified with a prime to
distinguish it. Shuttering elements 1 and 1' are brought into contact so that
they contact each other along their side edges 5 and 4'. This causes ribs 10
and 10' to abut each other. Shuttering elements 1 and 1' are now connected by
a strong clamp 12 (Figure 4) or a pin connector 13 (Figure 5) or similar snap-
on fastener (for example, cotter pin). This action fixes and secures shuttering
elements 1 and 1' precisely in both position and alignment. Figure 4 shows a
formed rib 10, 10' which is formed on during fabrication of shuttering
elements 1,1', for example, during rolling or pressing of an aluminum sheet.
In contrast, Figure 5 shows a rib 10, 10' which is attached after the
primary body 14,14' of shuttering elements 1, 1' is formed. To this end, the
projecting rib 10, 10' is superimposed, for example, in the form of a metal
strip, onto the side edges of shuttering body 14, 14', and then attached there,
for example, using rivets or other fastening means 15, 15'. Figure 5
furthermore shows that ribs 10, 10' deviate from the vertical of primary body
14 of shuttering element 1 by an angle a. Angle a is specifically 1 - 100. This
slight deviation of projection 10 by the angle a is advantageous since it
allows an especially precise fit to be achieved when the individual shuttering
elements 1, 20 are joined. In this way, uniform concrete surfaces are
generated which subsequently require only painting.
Figure 6 is a side view of shuttering element 20. Shuttering element 20
is a special shuttering element and is provided to create an opening in the
hemispherical building. The shuttering element 20 shown in Figure 6
functions, for example, as the shuttering for a door. To produce a window
instead of a door, a shuttering element of similar design may be used, for
example by eliminating the section below line 21. Matching shuttering
element 1, this shuttering element 20 has a bottom end 23, a front end 22 for
the window or door area, and a lateral periphery 24 (see also Figure 9), a land
25 facing the cavity and connecting to the main shuttering (see Figure 8), and
a top side 27. Preferably, ribs 10 are formed along the circumference of
shuttering element 20, specifically along sides 23, 25 and 27 (dotted line on
drawing), as described above for shuttering element 1. A cap element 26 (see
also Figure 9) is placed onto top side 27 of shuttering element 20 and is
preferably covered with an insulation layer 30 so as to receive.concrete
poured onto it as indicated by line 32.
Figure 7 is a cross-section through the structure of the wall of a
hemispherical building. The shuttering element 1 is shown here on the inside
36 (here the left side) of the building. It consists of the actual shuttering body
14 with top side 7 and bottom side 8. Rib 10 with guides 11 is also visible.
An insulation layer 30 is attached to shuttering element 1 by adhesive bonds
This insulation layer 30 may consist of any known insulation material.
A concrete layer 32 is then applied to insulation layer 30. Anchoring means
33, 34, 35 are provided to connect concrete layer 32 to insulation layer 30,
wherein anchoring means 33, 34, 35 may also take the form of hooks or
barbs. Insulation layer 30 is thus anchored to concrete layer 32 so that
shuttering element 1 may be detached at adhesive bond 31 when the
shuttering is removed.
The method according to the invention is described with reference to
Figures 1 through 7. After setting up the base plate, wedge-shaped shuttering
elements 1 are erected side-by-side to form a hemisphere. Shuttering
elements 1 are joined with and to each other by projecting ribs 10 which run
at least along sides 4 and 5. The joint is achieved using snap-on fasteners
such as U-shaped clamps 12 which surround ribs 10, or pin connectors 13.
The special shuttering elements 20 are then mounted from the
outside at those locations where the door or window cut-outs will be provided
subsequently. After shuttering elements 1 to form the hemisphere (see top
view in Figure 8) and shuttering elements 20 for the windows are erected,
concrete or other hardening materials or insulating compounds may be
directly sprayed on, or an intermediate layer composed of an insulation
material is used. After the layers have been applied and the concrete
compound has hardened, the shuttering is removed from the building interior.
To this end, the snap-on fasteners, such as clamps 12 or pin connectors 13,
are detached by moderate hammer blows and shuttering elements 1 or 20 are
removed from the wall of the hemispherical building carcass, while the
possible insulation layer 30 remains securely anchored to the concrete layer
32. The result is a hemispherical house as in Figure 9 (side view).
We Claom:

1. Shuttering element for constructing a hemispherical building,
characterized in that the shuttering element (1, 20) has ribs (10) projecting
toward the building interior (36) along the side edges (4, 5)
2. Shuttering element according to Claim 1, characterized in that at
least two shuttering elements (1, 20) are interconnectable by snap-on
fasteners (12, 13).
3. Shuttering element according to Claim 1, characterized in that the
ribs (10) deviate from the vertical relative to the shuttering element (1),
specifically at an angle (ß) from 1 - 10°.
4. Shuttering element according to one of Claims 1 through 3,
characterized in that the shuttering element (1) has a tapered shape,
specifically a wedge shape, from the base edge (3) to the top edge (2).
5. Shuttering element according to one of Claims 1 through 4,
characterized in that the shuttering element (1) corresponds to an 18° sector
of the circle forming the ground surface of the hemispherical building.
6. Shuttering element according to one of Claims 1 through 5,
characterized in that the shuttering element (1) is composed of a material of
low density, specifically glass-fiber-reinforced plastic or aluminum.
7. Shuttering element according to Claim 6, characterized in that the
ribs (10) are composed of metal, specifically aluminum.
8. Shuttering element according to one of the foregoing claims,
characterized in that an insulation layer (30) may be attached, specifically,
adhesively bonded, to the exterior (7) of the shuttering element (1).
9. Method of shuttering for constructing a hemispherical building,
wherein multiple shuttering elements (1, 20) are linked together and
connected to form complete shuttering, concrete (32) is subsequently applied
to the exterior (7) of the shuttering elements (1, 20), and after the concrete
(32) has hardened the shuttering elements (1, 20) are removed from the
building interior (36), characterized in that the shuttering elements (1, 20) are
joined by ribs (10) using snap-on fasteners (12, 13).
10. Method according to Claim 9, characterized in that an insulation
layer (30) is applied to the exterior (7) of the shuttering elements (1,20),
specifically bonded on, before concrete (32) is applied thereto.

Shuttering element for constructing a hemispherical building,
characterized in that the shuttering element (1, 20) has ribs (10) projecting
toward the building interior (36) along the side edges (4, 5).


248-KOLNP-2003-ABSTRACT 1.1.pdf

248-KOLNP-2003-ABSTRACT 1.2.pdf


248-KOLNP-2003-AMANDED CLAIMS 1.1.pdf









248-kolnp-2003-description (complete).pdf

248-KOLNP-2003-DRAWINGS 1.1.pdf

248-KOLNP-2003-DRAWINGS 1.2.pdf




248-kolnp-2003-examination report.pdf

248-KOLNP-2003-FORM 1.pdf

248-KOLNP-2003-FORM 13.1.3.pdf

248-KOLNP-2003-FORM 13.pdf

248-KOLNP-2003-FORM 18.1.3.pdf

248-kolnp-2003-form 18.pdf

248-KOLNP-2003-FORM 2-1.1.pdf

248-KOLNP-2003-FORM 2.pdf

248-KOLNP-2003-FORM 26.1.3.pdf

248-KOLNP-2003-FORM 3-1.1.pdf

248-KOLNP-2003-FORM 3.pdf

248-KOLNP-2003-FORM 5 1.1.pdf

248-KOLNP-2003-FORM 5.1.3.pdf

248-kolnp-2003-form 5.pdf






248-KOLNP-2003-GRANTED-FORM 1.pdf

248-KOLNP-2003-GRANTED-FORM 2.pdf



248-KOLNP-2003-OTHERS 1.1.pdf

248-KOLNP-2003-OTHERS 1.2.pdf



248-KOLNP-2003-PETITION UNDER RULE 137-1.1.pdf


248-kolnp-2003-priority document.pdf



248-kolnp-2003-translated copy of priority document.pdf

Patent Number 247742
Indian Patent Application Number 248/KOLNP/2003
PG Journal Number 19/2011
Publication Date 13-May-2011
Grant Date 10-May-2011
Date of Filing 27-Feb-2003
Name of Patentee TROTTMANN RENE
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
PCT International Classification Number E04G11/04;E04B1/32
PCT International Application Number PCT/CH2001/00510
PCT International Filing date 2001-08-20
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 1742/00 2000-09-06 Switzerland