Title of Invention

"A HERBAL COMPOSITION USEFUL FOR GASTRO-INTESTINAL DISORDERS & PROCESS THEREOF"

Abstract A herbal composition useful for gastro-intestinal disorders & process thereof A herbal composition useful for gastro-intestinal disorders & process thereof comprising 5 to 10 % by wt. of extract from Mangifera indica, 5 to 10% by wt. of Cissamplelos pareira and 5 to 10% wt. of Cinnamomum sp. Buchanania lanzan 5 to 10% optionally along with other pharmacologically acceptable binders, diluents, lubricants and 66.7% w/w of sugar.
Full Text HERBAL COMPOSITION FOR GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS
TECHNICAL FIELD
The present invention relates to the development of health protective herbal antidiarroeal composition.
BACKGROUND AND PRIOR ARTS
Diarrhoea is a condition, which results from the failure of one or more functions of alimentary canal. The alimentary canal receives mixes, digests and absorbs a wide variety and unpredictable amount of food with remarkable efficiency. What is left of the mixture of the food at the end of the alimentary canal is finally excreted as a small and convenient volume of the solid waste. Failure of the one or more of the aforementioned processes results in the passage of inconveniently bulky and liquid stools at increased frequency and is termed "Diarrhoea". Diarrhoea is also defined as the passage of loose, liquids or watery stools. Diarrhoea is caused due to any of the following causes: abnormal motility, disturbances in intestinal permeability, or the presence of osmotically active, nonabsorbable substances in the human gut. Broadly classified as acute and chronic diarrhoea. The acute diarrhoea (gastroenteritis) is mainly infectious; the pathological mechanism may be toxin production (preformed toxin, anterotoxin and cytotoxin), enteroadherence, mucosal invasion (minimal, variable and severe) and systemic infection (viral hepatitis). The various other infectious agents may be classified as nonopportunistic pathogens (Shigella, Salmonella, E, histolytica, Giardia lamblia etc.), opportunistic infections (protozoa and viruses), human immunodeficiency virus (bacteria). Chronic diarrhoea may again be classified as inflammatory, osmotic, secretary, altered intestinal motility and factitious
Despite tremendous development and achievements in science and medical science,
several diseases are still challenging to human beings and efforts are on to conquer
them. Even as we step into the new century with exciting prospect of gene therapy,
herbal medicine remains one of the common forms of therapy available to world
population. With the modern antidiarrhoeal agents not giving complete cure to the
disease, there is a constant lookout for agents from the traditional system, which can
provide complete cure to the disease, rather than treating the symptoms of the disease.
CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA (Linn.) Hirsuta Family: Menispermaceae
Part used: Roots
Botanical description: Cissampelos pareira (Linn.) Hirsuta is a variable, lofty, slender, dioecious, perennial, sub erect or climbing herbs and shrubs, distributed in the tropical and subtropical world, ascending up to an altitude of 2,000 mtrs. Rootstock woody, perennial; leaves usually peltate or orbicular-reniform, ovate-sub-reniform, with a truncate-cordate base, glabrous or hairy above, 3-12 cm across; flowers greenish yellow, male in axillary, fascicled, pilose cymes or panicles, female in 6-15 cm long, pendulous racemes; drupes small, ovoid-sub-globose or obovoid, compressed, scarlet red, hirsute; seeds horse-shoe shaped. All parts of the plant are used as medicine. The dried roots form the drug, commonly known as FALSE PAREIRA BRAVA, and sometimes confused with the TRUE PAREIRA BRAVA, derived either from Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz and Pav., a native of Peru and Brazil, or C. platyphyllum Miers (Chopra et at, 1958). The drug consists of long, cylindrical, oval, or compressed pieces of the root, entire or longitudinally split, 0.1-1.20cm x 1.2-10.0cm; bark grayish brown, longitudinally wrinkled, transversely crossed by annular elevations, interior wood yellowish gray, porous with concentric rings and medullary rays; aromatic and sweetish at first, turning intensely bitter later. Approximately 1.7 tones of root are cultivated every year in India (wealth of India, Vol.3 (Revised), 1992, 591-593).
Medicinal use: Plant juice with jaggery and eggs is given internally for minor injuries. The poultice of leaves is applied to abscesses, sores, scabies, itches, pimples, boils and burns. The decoction, mixed with lemon and garlic juice and salt is given as stomachic. Being wound healer, antidote and kushthaghna, paste of leaves and root is used in fistula, purities, skin disorders and snake poison externally. Internally it is useful in anorexia, indigestion, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and dysentery. It is blood purifier and has anti-inflammatory property. It is also used in cough and dyspnoea and as it purifies breast milk it is used in various disorders of breast milk secretion. It is a potent diuretic.
Phytochemistry: The root and leaves contain several alkaloids and essential oil (0.2%). The methiodide and methchloride derivatives of hayatine (alkaloid) were reported to be potent neuromuscular blocking agents and produces varying degrees of fall in blood pressure (Patnaik et al, Ind J. Exp. Biol. 11, 1973, 89-94). The methiodide was found to be one-third as potent as tubocurarine chloride and 1.5 times
as potent as gallamine. Hayatine methocholoride has a direct inotropic effect on the isolated cardiac muscle.
Pharmacology: The roots posses astringent, mild tonic, diuretic, stomachic, antilithic,
analgesic, antipyretic and emmenagogue properties. They are frequently prescribed
for cough, dyspepsia, dropsy, urino-genital troubles such as prolapsus uteri, cystitis,
haemorrhage and menorrhagia, and calcular nephritis (Kirtikar and Basu, 1933, Vol.
3, 2146-2147). The juice is given to cattle also for curing diarrhoea. The root-paste is
eruptions on the body of babies (Bhatnagar et al, Ind. J. Med. Res. 49, 1961, 799-
807). Cissampareine, a bis-benzyl-isoquinoline alkaloid, showed a significant and
reproducible inhibitory activity against human carcinoma cells of the naso-pharynx in
cell culture. The roots show significant antibacterial activity against gram-positive
organisms than against gram-negative strains (Adesina, Fitoterapia. 53, 1982, 147-
162). An ethanolic extract (50%) of the stem and root shows CNS-depressant activity.
The plant is also mentioned for the antidiarrhoeal properties ethnobotanically (Jain,
1991), but there was no scientific validation of the plant for this activity.
MANGIFERA IND1CA Family:
Anacardiaceae Part used: Seed Kernels
Botanical description: A large number of mango types, estimated at over 1000 are grown in various parts of India, each having its own peculiar taste, flavour and consistency of pulp. The trees dies not bear abundant fruit in the humid zones of lower Bengal, Assam, Kerala, and south-east Madras, since there is no chilly winter in these regions. The mango cannot stand frost and therefore does not thrive in the hills of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and the temperate regions of Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir above 900 m. In the frost-free plains and hills of Peninsular India, the mango grows from sea level up to 1,200 m., but is commercially unsuccessful at elevations above 900m. The mango is the most popular and the choicest fruit of India and occupies a prominent place among the best fruits of the world. Few other tropical fruits have the historic reputation mango possesses and few others are so intimately connected with Indian folklore. Mangoes thrive in parts of North India where temperature is as high as 115 - 120°F. Prevail during the summer; however, high temperature accompanied by strong wind breaks, preferably shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) and other trees, are planted to the south-west of mango plantations to arrest the winds. Young and unripe
fruits are usually acidic and used in pickles, chutney, amchur and culinary preparations. Ripe fruits are preserved by canning or used in the manufacture of juice and squash, jams and jellies, preserves (murraba) and am papar. Medicinal use: The bark is used in diphtheria and rheumatism. It is believed to possess a tonic action on the mucus membrane. Dried flowers are astringent and are used for diarrhoea, chronic dysentery and bleeding disorders. The dried kernel is used as feed for cattle and poultry.
Phytochemistry: Analysis of the flesh of Indian mangoes gave the following average values: green mango - moisture, 90.0; protein, 0.7; fat, 0.1; carbohydrates, 8.8; mineral matter, 0.4; calcium, 0.01; and phoshorus, 0.02%; iron, 4.5 mg/l00g; carotene (as vitamin A), 150 i.u., riboflavin, 30 µg; and ascorbic acid, 3mg/100g; ripe mango -moisture, 86.1; protein, 0.6; fat, 0.1; carbohydrates, 11.8; fibre, 1.1; mineral matter, 0.3mg/ lOOg; carotene (as vitamin A), 4.800 i.u.; nicotinic acid, 0.3mg; riboflavin, 50 µg; and ascorbic acid 13mg/ lOOg. The sugar and acid contents vary widely with variety and stage of maturity 9Table 4). Table 5 gives pH, sugar and P-carotene conents of pulps of some vrieties of ripe mango (Hlth Bull., No. 23, 1951, 46; Cheema et al., Indian J Agric. Set., 1950, 20, 259).
The green tender fruit is rich in starch during ripening, the starch is hydrolysed into reducing sugars and a part of the latter is synthesized into sucrose. Unripe, fully developed mangoes of pickling varieties contain citric, malic, oxalic, succinic and two unidentified acids (probably di- or tri-basic acids); citric acid is the dominant constituent. As the fruit ripens, the acidity gradually decreases with a steep fall at the ripe stage. The amnio acids present in the non-protein nitrogen fraction of the mango fruit are; aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, glycine, methionine, leucines and possibly cystine and y-amino-butryic acid (Govindarajan & Sreenivasaya, Curr. Sci., 1950, 19, 234). The concentration of carotenoid pigments increases during ripening: the rate of increase of p-carotene is greater than that of others and an average-sized mango may synthesize as much as 1,200 µg of P-carotene in a day. The fruit is a rich source of potassium. Analysis of pulp ash (ash content, 0.53%) gave the following values: potassium (K2O), 47.37; calcium (CaO), 6.38; magnesium (MgO), 1.62; Phosphorus (P2O5), 6.49; sulphur (S03), 3.67; and chlorine, 3.88%, Copper (1.9 µg/g) and iodine (16 µg/kg) are present in the ripe fruit.
Pharmacology: The extracts of leaves, bark, stem and unripe fruit exhibits moderate
antibacterial activity against Mcrocroccus pyogenes var. aureus. The occurrence of
anti-fungal properties has been reported. The seed kernels have an astringent taste.
They are used as human food of certain parts of India in times of scarcity. They are
some times roasted or boiled for eating (Wealth of India, 1992).
CINNAMOMUM Sps. (F. Hamilt.) Nees and Eberm. Family:
Lauraceae
Part used: Leaves and Barks
Botanical description: The species is the source of tejpat leaves used extensively in north India as a spice. The bark of the tree, known in trade as Indian cassia bark or Indian Cassia Lignea, is collected from trees growing at the foot of Sikkim and Himalayas. The plant is a medium sized tree, 7.5m in height and 1.35m in girth, distributed in tropical and subtropical Himalayas at an altitude of 1,000 - 1800m, in Sikkim, Assam and Mizorum (Agarwal et al, Indian Perfumer. Vol. XXI, No. 1, 1977, 15-20). Leaves found cultivated in Tripura. Bark dark brown: leaves opposite or sometime alternate, elliptic to oblong- lanceolate, glabrous, 3-nerved at base, pink when young; flowers pale yellow, pubescent, in panicles; fruits black, ovoid, on the thickened peduncle and enlarge base of the perianth.
Medicinal use: The leaves are reported to be hypoglycemic, stimulant, carminative, antidote for scorpion sting and are used in colic, diarrhoea and rheumatism. They are considered hot and cardiac and are used with long pepper and honey in coughs and cold. Two teaspoonfuls of the powder given to diabetic patients four times a day for one month, accompanied by controlled diet, significantly reduces the blood sugar level and helps in release or manufacture of more insulin (Kirtikar & Basu, 2nd ed., 1987, Vol 1,499-505).
The dried leaves act as antioxidant to oils and fats. The inner bark of the shoots of the cinnamon tree is a powerful local stimulant, which acts to ease the stomach and relieve spasms; it is also a mild astringent. The leaves are bitter, sweet, aromatic, thermogenic, alexeteric, anthelmintic, diuretic, stimulant, carminative and tonic. They are used in cardiac disorders, inflammations, helminthiasis, dyspepsia, strangury, colic, hyperptyalism, ophthalmia, vitiated conditions of vata, diarrhoea, proctitis, proctalgia, hepatopathy and splenopathy (Anonymous, 1994). Essential oil of the leaves has been reported for the antifungal activity against Rhizocotnia bataticola,
Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium vexans and Alternaria helianthi (Girjune et al, Indian drugs. 16, 1978, 24-26). The plant was active against S. cerevesiae at higher doses while inactive against B. subtilis and E. coli (Minakshi et al,,7. of Spices and Aromatic Crops. 8(2), 1999, 135-144). The plant leaves oil is reported to active against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. faecalis and S. pyogenes (Current Sci, 1978, 47(13), July5, 454-455). The essential oils of the leaves were potentially active (at 1000 ppm) against the Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audounil causing ringworm diseases in animals and human being (Yadav and Dubey, Ind. J. Pharm. Sci. 6, 1994, 227-230). It has also found active for the cure of dermatomycosis in the form of the herbal formulation as active against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audounil (Yadav et al, J. Med. Aromatic Plant Sci. 1999,347-351).
Phytochemistry: The leaves yield an essential oil (0.3 - 0.6%). A sample of oil from Kumaun hills (UP) and Joginder Nagar shows the following physicochemical characteristics, respectively: sp gr30*, 0.9730 - 0.9876, 0.9349; ester val, 54.13, 45.49; ester val after acetylation, 149.82, 152.70; aldehyde content, 49.5, 38.4 and phenol content in trace, 4.7 - 5.2% (Sood et al, 1979). The nD28 = 1.4791, d28 = 0.9034 and [a] D28 = +6 (Nath et al, 1994). The chemical composition of two oils was as follows, respectively; cinnamic aldehyde, 41.2, 12.8; linalool, 15.7, 50.3; eugenol, 13.3, 1.0; eugenol acetate, 12.5,-; p-caryophyllene, 4.0,-; benzaldehyde, 4.1, 1.1; camphor, 3.2,-; cadinene, 3.1, -: and a-terpineol, 1.8, 2.9% (lijas, 1978). Among the various components identified in the essential oil of Cinnamomum sps., linalool was reported as the main constituent and constituted 60.73% of the oil (Nath et al, J. of Spices and Aromatic Crops. 3(1), 1994, 33-35). A sample of oil from Assam (yield, 2%) has, however, been found to contain as high as 80 - 85 percent eugenol. The oil from the bark contains cinnamaldehyde (70 - 85%) as a major constituent. The leaves abo contain 3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxy flavone, 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxy flavone, kaempferol-3-O- glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside, kaempferol-3,7-di-O-rhamnopyranoside and quercetin 3-O-rutinoside.
Pharmacology: Drug powder when administered with diabetes (insulin independent) has shown decrease in glucose level when kept on sugar and starch free regulated diet (1800 calories/day) for one month (Tripathi et al, J. Res. Indian. Med. Yoga H. 19,
1979, 159-160; Chandola et al, J. Res. Ayur. Siddha. 1,1980, 275-281). The
Cinnamomum sps. Blume (Chinese name: Rougui, English name: Chinese cinnamon) is recommended in stomach ache; Diarrhoea, shock; cold; clammy extremities; cough and wheezing; pain in the lower part of the body and knees; dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhoea, low blood pressure; frost-bite.
Buchanania lanzan linn Family
Anacardiaceae Part used: Bark
Botanical Description: The genus includes 20 species of tree and shrubs, 6 of which occur in India. It is distributed in tropical Asia, Australia & the Pacific Islands. The tree is found in dry deciduous forest throughout India and Burma; in northwestern India from Sutluj to Nepal ascending to 3000'. The wood is light grey to greyish brown, some times with a light yellow cast, heartwood dark brown and rather lustrous while first exposed. The bark powder is buff to brown in color. It possesses slightly pungent odour and astringent taste.
Medicinal properties: The leaves are reported for their tonic and cardiotonic properties, their powder is common medicine for the wounds. The stem exudes a pale colour gum, which is used in intercostals pains. The gum dissolve in cow's milk is used internally in rheumatic pains.
Phytoctoemistry: Triglyceride composition of Buchanania lanzan seed oil were studied by Sengupta and Roychoudhury (J Sci Food Agric. 28(5), 2001, 463-468) and the flavonoids of the leaves were studied by Arya et al (J.Ind. Chem. Soc. 65, 1988, 882-883) while myricetin 3'-rhamnoside-3-galactoside was identified by Arya et al (Phytochemistry. 31 (7), 1992, 2569-2570). The presence of triterpenoids, saponins, reducing sugars and flavonoids is also reported. The bark contains 13.4% of tannins and 9.4% of non-tannins.
Pharmacology: A pellucid gum, resembling Bassora gum, exudes from wounds on stress. Effect of water extract of the bark of Buchanania lanzan linn, on behaviour and chromatophores of a fresh water fish, Labeo rohita was studied. (Chaudhary et al, J. Environ Biol. 22(3), 2001, 229-31). Products of plant given to mothers after childbirth or to invalids were studied for immunostimulant activity using the macrophage migration index (MMI) as a parameter of macrophage activation and cell-mediated immunity and haemagglutinating antibody (HA) litres and plaque-forming cell (PFC) counts as parameters of humoral immunity (Puri et al. J. Ethnopharmacol. 71(1-2),
2000, 89-92). Hitherto, we present a novel synergistic herbal formulation, which contains plants, which
have been used traditionally for the treatment of diarrhoea. Hence a study was
undertaken to develop a synergistic combination of the traditionally used plants to
develop a novel formulation effective in the treatment of diarrhea.
OBJECT OF THE INVENTION
The main object of the present invention to provide a novel antidiarhoeal herbal
formulation. Another objective of the present invention is to that the plants used in the
invention possess high antioxidant, hepatoprotective, digestive, choleretic, nervine
relaxant and good immunoenhancing properties.
Yet another object of the present invention is to prepare herbal formulation(s) wutg a
cinvubatuib if tge okabts wgucg are ysed ub duarrgeam ubtestinal discomforts
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Accordingly, the present invention, a herbal formulation is useful in the treatment of
diarrhea. The herbal formulation comprising Cissamplelos paereia, mangifera indiaca,
Cinnamomum sps. and Buchanania lanzan which are used for high antioxidant,
hepatoprotective, digestive, choleretic, nervine relaxant and good immuno-enhancing
properties.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Accordingly, a herbal composition useful for gastro-intestinal disorders & process
thereof comprising 5 to 10 % by wt. of extract from Mangigera indica, 5 to 10% by wt. of Cissamplelos pareira and 5 to 10% wt. of Cinnamomum sp. Buchanania lanzan 5 to 10% optionally along with other pharmacologically acceptable binders, diluents, lubricants such as herein described and 66.7% w/w of sugar.
A process of preparing composition as claimed in claim 1 wherein the said process comprising :-
a. obtaining the part of medicinal plants such as herein described from a
group comprising leaves, bark, root and aerial parts;
b. drying the plant part of step (a);
c. powdering the dried plant material of step (b) to a coarse powder
d. extracting the powdered dried plant material with at a temperature in the
range of 25 to 35°C;
e. extracting the plant material with aqueous alcohol in the ratio of 1:8 to
1:15 for 4-7 days.
f. Concentrating the obtained extract at under reduced pressure at a
temperature in the range of 40-60°C, and
g. obtaining the extract by lyophilizing the concentrated extract for complete
removal of solvent.
h. mixing the extract of Mangigera indica, Cissamplelos pareira, Buchanania lanzan and Cinnamomum sp 5-15 % wt., along with other pharmacologically acceptable binders, diluents and lubricants to prepare the composition.
Yet in another embodiment of the present invention, wherein the extraction is carried out by using 40-50% aqueous ethanol.
In another embodiment of the present invention, wherein said composition is applied as oral dosage selected from a group comprising syrup, tablet, capsule and powder. Still in another embodiment of the present invention, wherein the applied dosage is 25 to 100 rng/kg in castor oil induced diarrhea, which gives a % protection of 16.92 to 76.69.
In another embodiment of the present invention, wherein the applied dosage is 25 to
100 mg/kg in on castor oil-stimulated gastrointestinal transit, which gives a %
curative ratio of 43.19 to 66.70.
In another embodiment of the present invention, wherein the applied dosage is 25 to
100 mg/kg in castor oil induced fluid accumulation, wherein the fluid accumulation is
reduced to2.14 ± 0.34 to 1.12 ± 0.10.
In another embodiment of the present invention, wherein the applied dosage is 25 to
100 mg/kg in castor oil induced fluid accumulation, wherein the concentration of
sodium is reduced to 151.6 ±9.6 to 105.4 ±06.9.
In another embodiment of the present invention, wherein the applied dosage is 25 to
100 mg/kg in castor oil induced fluid accumulation, wherein the concentration of
potassium is reduced to 6.4 ± 0.71 to 5.6 ±0.31.
Still in another embodiment of the present invention, wherein the applied dosage of
25 to 100 mg/kg in indomethacin induced acute gastric ulcers results in the protection
percentage of 27.03 to 75.38 % and significant increase in gastric wall mucus.
Yet in another embodiment of the present invention, wherein the applied dosage of 25
to 100 mg/kg in cysteamine induced duodenal ulcers shows 41.7 to 90.2 incidence
(treated) when compared to 80% incidence of ulcers in control.
In another embodiment of the present invention, wherein the composition
immediately relieves the acidity of the stomach by neutralizing the excess acid.
Still in another embodiment of the present invention the first step in the preparation of
these formulations involves a process for making, the plant material suitable for
formulating into a tablet, capsule and liquid dosage form. The specified portion of the
plant is collected and dried under shade at room temperature (25 -35°C) for 72 hours
or until the material gets dried. The material is then powdered into a fine powdered.
The dried material (IKg) is then powdered and extracted with 50 % aqueous alcohol
(3L) for 5 days. At the end of this, the solvent is decanted and filtered if necessary to
remove the plant debris. The extract is then concentrated under vacuum at less than 50
°C. Then the extract is lyophilised to obtain the extract in powder form. 15 g of starch
is mixed with water and heated to form a paste. The weighed quantities of the plant
extracts are then blended with starch paste and then lactose is added quantity
sufficient to make 100 g. The ingredients are then mixed properly with the starch
paste to form a mass. The mass is then granulated in a granulator and then the dry at
104°F and screen through 16-mesh screen. Talc is added to the dried granules and
then they are punched in the tablet-punching machine to form uniform tablets.
Extracts were added in proper ratio to prepare the Syrup. The Syrup was prepared
according to Indian Pharmacopoeia 1966.
The novelty lies in the fact that the components of the formulation when applied
individually do not show any significant efficacy against gastro-intestinal disorder.
Some of the components have never been used for the treatment of diarrhoea earlier.
However, when all the components applied together as composition, it shows
remarkable results in the management of gastro-intestinal problem. In some of the
cases the composition serves a better role than the standard synthetic drug, more
surprisingly, the composition does not have any side effect unlike the synthetic
standard drug.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF TABLES
Table 1, Effect of formulation(s) on castor oil induced diarrhea in rats.
Table 2, Effect of formulation (F5) in castor oil induced fluid accumulation in
rats.
Table 3, Effect formulation (F5) on castor oil-stimulated gastrointestinal transit in
rats.
Table 4. Effect of formulation (F5) on indomethacin induced acute gastric ulcers in
rats.
Table 5, Effect of Formulation (F5) and ranitidine on cysteamine induced
Duodenal ulcers in rats.
The invention is illustrated by the following examples wherein the following samples are given by the way of illustration of the present invention and should not be construed to limit the scope of the present invention.
EXAMPLES EXAMPLE-1
Cissampelos pareira was collected and dried in shade. The dried material (IKg) is then powdered and extracted with 50 % aqueous alcohol (3 L) for 5 days. At the end of this, the solvent is decanted and filtered if necessary to remove the plant debris. The extract is then concentrated under vacuum at less than 50 °C. Then the extract is lyophilised to obtain the extract in powder form. 15 g of starch is mixed with water
and heated to form a paste. The weighed quantities of the plant extracts are then
blended with starch paste and then lactose is added quantity sufficient to make 100 g.
The ingredients are then mixed properly with the starch paste to form a mass. The
mass is then granulated in a granulator and then the dry at 104 °F and screen through
16 mesh screen. Talc is added to the dried granules and then they are punched in the
tablet punching machine to form uniform tablets. Extracts were added in proper ratio
to prepare the Syrup. The Syrup was prepared according to Indian Pharmacopoeia
1966. The formulation Fl given below is useful for the treatment of various
gastrointestinal disorders.
FORMULATION (Fl)
Cissampelos pareira 15%
Sodium banzoate 0.5%
Simple sugar syrup Qs to make volume 100%
EXAMPLE-2
Cissampelos pareira and Mangifera indica. Were collected and dried in shade. The
dried material (1 Kg) is then powdered and extracted with 50 % aqueous alcohol (3 L)
for 5 days. At the end of this, the solvent is decanted and filtered if necessary to
remove the plant debris. The extract is then concentrated under vacuum at less than 50
°C. Then the extract is lyophilised to obtain the extract in powder form. 15 g of starch
is mixed with water and heated to form a paste. The weighed quantities of the plant
extracts are then blended with starch paste and then lactose is added quantity
sufficient to make 100 g. The ingredients are then mixed properly with the starch
paste to form a mass. The mass is then granulated in a granulator and then the dry at
104 °F and screen through 16-mesh screen. Talc is added to the dried granules and
then they are punched in the tablet-punching machine to form uniform tablets.
Extracts were added in proper ratio to prepare the Syrup. The Syrup was prepared
according to Indian Pharmacopoeia 1966. The formulation F2 is useful for the
treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders.
FORMULATION (F2)
Cissampelos pare ira 15 %
Mangifera indica. 15%
Sodium banzoate 0.5%
Simple sugar syrup/water Qs to make volume 100%
EXAMPLE-3
Cissampelos pareira, Mangifera indica and Cinnamomum sps. Were collected and
dried in shade. The dried material (IKg) is then powdered and extracted with 50 %
aqueous alcohol (3 L) for 5 days. At the end of this, the solvent is decanted and
filtered if necessary to remove the plant debris. The extract is then concentrated under
vacuum at less than 50 °C. Then the extract is lyophilised to obtain the extract in
powder form. 15 g of starch is mixed with water and heated to form a paste. The
weighed quantities of the plant extracts are then blended with starch paste and then
lactose is added quantity sufficient to make 100 g. The ingredients are then mixed
properly with the starch paste to form a mass. The mass is then granulated in a
granulator and then the dry at 104 °F and screen through 16-mesh screen. Talc is
added to the dried granules and then they are punched in the tablet-punching machine
to form uniform tablets. Extracts were added in proper ratio to prepare the Syrup. The
Syrup was prepared according to Indian Pharmacopoeia 1966. The formulation is
useful for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders.
FORMULATION (F3)
Cissampelos pareira 10%
Mangifera indica 10%
Cinnamomum sps. 10%
Sodium banzoate 0.5%
Syrup containing sugar Qs to make volume 100%
EXAMPLE-4
Buchanania lanzan linn, was collected and dried in shade. The dried material (IKg) is then powdered and extracted with 50 % aqueous alcohol (3 L) for 5 days. At the end of this, the solvent is decanted and filtered if necessary to remove the plant debris. The extract is then concentrated under vacuum at less than 50 °C. Then the extract is lyophilised to obtain the extract in powder form. 15 g of starch is mixed with water and heated to form a paste. The weighed quantities of the plant extracts are then blended with starch paste and then lactose is added quantity sufficient to make 100 g. The ingredients are then mixed properly with the starch paste to form a mass. The mass is then granulated in a granulator and then the dry at 104 °F and screen through 16-mesh screen. Talc is added to the dried granules and then they are punched in the tablet-punching machine to form uniform tablets. Extracts were added in proper ratio
to prepare the Syrup. The Syrup was prepared according to Indian Pharmacopoeia
1966. The formulation F4 is useful for the treatment of various gastrointestinal
disorders.
FORMULATION (F4)
Buchanania lanzan linn 10%
Sodium banzoate 0.5%
Syrup containing sugar Qs to make volume 100%
EXAMPLE-5
Cissampelos pareira, Mangifera indica, Cinnamomum sp. and Buchanania lanzan
linn, were collected and dried in shade. The dried material (IKg) is then powdered
and extracted with 50 % aqueous alcohol (3 L) for 5 days. At the end of this, the
solvent is decanted and filtered if necessary to remove the plant debris. The extract is
then concentrated under vacuum at less than 50°C. Then the extract is lyophilised to
obtain the extract in powder form. 15 g of starch is mixed with water and heated to
form a paste. The weighed quantities of the plant extracts are then blended with starch
paste and then lactose is added quantity sufficient to make 100 g. The ingredients are
then mixed properly with the starch paste to form a mass. The mass is then granulated
in a granulator and then the dry at 104 °F and screen through 16-mesh screen. Talc is
added to the dried granules and then they are punched in the tablet-punching machine
to form uniform tablets. Extracts were added in proper ratio to prepare the Syrup. The
Syrup was prepared according to Indian Pharmacopoeia 1966. The formulation is
useful for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders.
FORMULATION (F5)
Cissampelos pareira 10%
Mangifera indica 10%
Cinnamomum sps. 10%
Buchanania lanzan linn 10%
Sodium banzoate 0.5%
Syrup containing sugar Qs to make volume 100%
EXAMPLE-6
Evaluation of the effect on normal defecation
Groups of six mice each were placed individually in separate cages with filter papers at the bottom. Different doses of the extracts were administered orally to different groups. The non-specific antidiarrhoeal reference drug diphenoxylate HC1 (5.0 mg kg-1 , p.o.) and 1% CMC (10 mg kg-1, p.o.) were administered to two groups and later served as controls (Melo et al, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 40 (1988), 79 - 826). The total number of the faecal matter in each group was assessed every hour for the next 4h. Percent reduction in the total number of faeces in the treated groups was obtained by comparison with control animals. The formulation F5 contains Cissampelos pareria, Mangifera Mica, Cinnamomum sp. and Buchanania lanzan and the percentage reduction in causing diarrhea was reduced to 76.9% (Table 1) than that of the other combinations even than the standard allopathic drug. Table 1 reveals that F5 is highly synergistically effective.
Table 1.

(Table Removed)
*Values are presented of six rats in each group.
Note: There is no mortality / gross abnormality was observed in the animals during
the treatment of without C. pareira containing formulation
EXAMPLE-7
Castor oil-induced diarrhoea
The method of Awouters et al. (J. Pharm. Pharmacol,. 30, 1978, 41 - 45) as modified
by Nwodo and Alumanah (J. Ethnopharmacol, 31, 1991, 395 - 398) was used.
Briefly, rats fasted for 24h were randomly allocated to five groups of six animals
each. One group received 1% CMC (10 mL kg-1, p.o.), other groups received orally
the different dosage of drug extract. Another group given diphenoxylate HC1 (5.0 mg
kg-1, p.o.) as suspension. After 60 min each animal was given with 2 ml of castor oil
by orogastric cannula, and placed in a separate cage and observed for 4h defecation.
Transparent plastic dishes were placed beneath each cage and the characteristic diarrhoea! droppings were noted. The total number of the faecal matter in each group was assessed every hour for the next 4h. Percent reduction in the total number of faeces in the treated groups was obtained by comparison with control animals. The formulation F5 contains Cissampelos pareria, Mangifera indica, Cinnamomum sp. and Buchanania lanzan and the percentage reduction in causing diarrhea was reduced to 76.9% (Table 1) than that of the other combinations even than the standard allopathic drug. Table 1 reveals that F5 is highly synergistically effective.
EXAMPLE-8
Castor oil-induced fluid accumulation and Na+ and K+secretion This was determined according to the method of Robert et al. (Prostaglandins 11, 1976, 809 - 814) modified by Di Carlo et al. (Phytother. Res. 8, 1994, 42 - 45). The rats fasted for 24h but free access to water were randomized and allocated to different groups of six rats each. Group I (control) was administered 1% CMC (10 ml kg-1, P.O.), group 11 was administered castor oil only (2 ml), and other groups were administered with different dosage of various formulations, Ih prior to castor oil administration. After 30 min the rats were killed by cervical dislocation and exsanguinated; the small intestine was ligated both at pyloric sphincter and at the ileocaecal junctions. The entire small intestine was dissected out, its contents were expelled into a graduated measuring cylinder and the volume of the contents was recorded and the fluid samples were analyzed for Na+ and K+ concentrations using flame photometer (Elico® CL361, India). The results are given in Table 2 which reveals that there is significant decrease in intestinal fluid at 50 and l00mg/kg dose and the levels of Na+ and K + was 151.6±09.6 to 105.4+06.9 and 6.2 ± 0.28 to 5.6 ± 0.31. It is a highly effective formulation as Na+ and K+ ions are maintained through out in treatment. The level of K+ ion was only significant only at l0mg/kg.
Table 2.
(Table Removed)
Values are mean ± SEM for six rats. P: a EXAMPLE-9 Small intestinal transit
Animals were divided into four groups of six rats each and each animal was given orally 1 ml of charcoal meal (5% activated charcoal suspended in 1% CMC) 60 min after an oral dose of drugs or vehicle. Group I was administered with 1% CMC (10 ml kg-1) and animals in the other groups received various formulations. Another group received atropine sulfate (0.1 mg kg-1, IP) as standard drug. After 30 min animals were killed by cervical dislocation and the intestine was removed without stretching and placed lengthwise on moist filter paper. The length of the intestine (pyloric sphincter to caecum) and the distance travelled by the charcoal as a percentage of that length were evaluated for each animal, and group means were compared and expressed as percentage inhibition (Lutterodt, J. Ethnopharmacol. 25, 1989, 235 - 247). It is evident from Table 3 that the percentage reduction of F5 formulation on castor oil stimulated gastrointestinal transit is 43.19-66.70% and the distance travelled by charcoal was 27.6±3.2 to 50.9±2.6 with the dose of the formulations. Therefore the dose dependent effect of the formulation was similar to the synthetic drug atropine. But long use of atropine completely blocks the secretions it is an adverse effect.
Table3
(Table Removed)
*Values are mean ± SEM for six rats.
P: a Note: There is no mortality / gross abnormality was observed in the animals during the treatment
of C. pareira containing formulation.
EXAMPLE-10
Protection against acute gastric/duodenal ulcers
To assess the efficacy of different formulations against the indomethacin induced gastric ulcer different doses (25 - 100 mg kg-1, p.o.) of formulations were administered to groups of 10 mice for each dose, while one group of the same number of mice served as control and the results are given in Table 4. The results of Table 4 represents that there is a significant and dose dependent anti ulcer activity and percentage ratio ranges of protection from 27.03 to 75.38. The pH of the formulation F5 is neutral while the stomach pH before treatment was 2.5-4.2, while after treatment the pH was found to be towards alkaline (>7). The synthetic/allopathic drug ranitidine showed 82.20% which is almost similar to that of formulation F5 but long use block the normal secretions in the stomach. Table 5 shows the efficacy of the formulation F5 against duodenum ulcer. The efficacy is compared with the known standard synthetic drug Ranitidine for treatment of. It is evident from table 5 that the formulation F5 shows protection of 90.2% where as the same is 77% in case of standard synthetic drug as. Where as the formulation F5 contains C. pareira, M. indica, Cinamommum sp. and Buchanania lanzan.
Table 4.

(Table Removed)
Values are mean ± SEM for six rats.
P: a Table 5,

(Table Removed)
Values are mean ± SEM for ten rats.
P: a EXAMPLE-11
Estimation of free radical generation
The mucosal scrapping of the small intestine was homogenized (5%) in ice-cold 0.9% NaCl with a Potter-Elvehjem glass homogenizer for 30 seconds. The homogenate was centrifuged at 800xg for 10 min followed by centrifugation of the supernatant at 12,000xg for 15 min to get the mitochondrial fraction used for the following estimations (Das and Banerjee, Mol. Cell Biochem. 125, 1993, 115 - 125). The levels of lipid peroxidase (LPO) (Ohkawa et al, Anal. Biochem. 95, 1979, 351 - 358) along
with the activities of enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) (Kakkar et al, Indian J. Biochem. Biophys. 21, 1984, 130 - 132) and catalase (CAT) (Aebi, Catalase,
in Methods in Enzymatic Analysis, 2 Ed, (Ed.: H. U. Bergmeyer) Acadamie Press,
New York 1952, Vol. 3, pp. 673) were estimated.
EXAMPLE-12
General gross behaviour and acute toxicity studies
Different doses (25 - 2000 mg kg-1, p.o.) of formulations were administered to groups
of 10 mice for each dose, while one group of the same number of mice served as
control. The animals were observed continuously for 1h and then at half- hourly
intervals for 4h, for any gross behavior changes, including general motor activity,
writhing, convulsions, response to tail pinching, gnawing, piloerection, pupil size,
fecal output and feeding behavior and further up to 72h for any mortality. Acute LD50
(50% lethal dose) value in mice were calculated by the method of Miller and Tainter
(Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 57, 1944, 261 - 264).
References Cited
20030119916 June 26,2003 Fowler, David
6,187,313 Feb., 2001 Segelman
5,728,384 March, 1998 Tokuyama
Sairam et al. J. Ethnopharmacology. 82 pp. 1-9, 2002.
Narayanan et al. J. Ethnopharmacology. 65, 237-241, 1999.
Sairam et al. Phytomedicine, 86 (6), pp. 423-430, 2001.
Sairam et al. Indian J Exp. Biol. 39, 350-354, 2001.
Rao et al. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol, 44(4), pp. 435-441, 2000.
Rao et al. Acta Pharmaceutica Turcica, 45, 85-91, 2003.
Remington, The science and practice of pharmacy, 19th edition, Vol II. pp. 1635,
1995
Jain SK. Dictionary Of Indian Folk Medicine And Ethnobotany, Deep publications,
New Delhi, pp. 221, 1991.
Chopra RN, Nayar SL and Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants,
CSIR, New Delhi, 8, 1958.
Anonymous, Indian Medicnal Plants, Vol.2, Orient Longman Ltd. publication,
Madras. 84-86, 1994




We Claim :
1. A herbal composition useful for gastro-intestinal disorders comprising 5 to 10 % by wt. of extract from Mangifera indica, 5 to 10% by wt. of Cissamplelos pareira and 5 to 10% wt. of Cinnamormam sp. Buchanania lanzan 5 to 10% optionally along with other pharmacologically acceptable binders, diluents, lubricants such as herein described and 66.7% w/w of sugar.
2. A process for preparing the composition as claimed in claim 1 wherein the
said process comprising.-
a. obtaining the part of medicinal plants such as herein described from a
group comprising leaves, bark, root and aerial parts;
b. drying the plant part of step (a);
c. powdering the dried plant material of step (b) to a coarse powder
d. extracting the powdered dried plant material with aqueous alcohol at a
temperature in the range of 25 to 35°C;
e. extracting the plant material with aqueous alcohol in the ratio of 1:8 to
1:15 for 4-7 days.
f. concentrating the obtained extract at under reduced pressure at a
temperature in the range of 40-60°C, and
g. obtaining the extract by lyophilizing the concentrated extract for complete
removal of solvent.
h. mixing the extract of Mangifera indica, Cissamplelos pareira, Buchanania lanzan and Cinnamomum sp 5-15 % wt., along with other pharmacologically acceptable binders, diluents and lubricants to prepare the composition.
3. A process of preparation of herbal composition as claimed in claim 1, wherein the medicinal plants of step (a) are selected from a group comprising Mangifera indica, Cissampelos pareira, Buchanania lanzan and Cinnamomum sp.
4. A process of preparation of herbal composition as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step (b) the extraction is carried out by using 40-50% aqueous ethanol.
5. A process of preparation of herbal composition as claimed in claim 1, wherein the extract of Cissampelos pareira is a root.
6. A process of preparation of herbal composition as claimed in claim 1, wherein the extract of Mangifera indica is a seed kernel.
7. A process of preparation of herbal composition as claimed in claim 1. whereinthe extract of Cinnamomum sp. is leaves.
8. A process of preparation of herbal composition as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step (f) the extracts of plants are 50% aqueous alcoholic extract.
9. A process of preparation of herbal composition as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step (h) the said binders is selected from a group comprising starch, starch paste, gum acacia and carboxy methyl cellulose.
10. A process of preparation of herbal composition as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step (h) the diluents used is lactose.
11. A process of preparation of herbal composition as claimed in claim 1,
wherein in step (h) the lubricants used are from starch and lactose.
12. A herbal composition useful for gastrointestinal disorders as herein
described with reference to examples accompanying this specification.














Documents:

3501-DELNP-2004-Abstract-(09-12-2009).pdf

3501-DELNP-2004-Abstract-(28-12-2010).pdf

3501-delnp-2004-abstract.pdf

3501-DELNP-2004-Claims-(09-12-2009).pdf

3501-DELNP-2004-Claims-(17-08-2010).pdf

3501-delnp-2004-claims-(28-12-2010).pdf

3501-delnp-2004-claims.pdf

3501-DELNP-2004-Correspondence-Others-(09-12-2009).pdf

3501-DELNP-2004-Correspondence-Others-(17-08-2010).pdf

3501-DELNP-2004-Correspondence-Others-(28-12-2010).pdf

3501-delnp-2004-correspondence-others.pdf

3501-DELNP-2004-Description (Complete)-(09-12-2009).pdf

3501-DELNP-2004-Description (Complete)-(28-12-2010).pdf

3501-delnp-2004-description (complete).pdf

3501-DELNP-2004-Form-1-(09-12-2009).pdf

3501-DELNP-2004-Form-1-(28-12-2010).pdf

3501-delnp-2004-form-1.pdf

3501-delnp-2004-form-18.pdf

3501-DELNP-2004-Form-2-(09-12-2009).pdf

3501-DELNP-2004-Form-2-(28-12-2010).pdf

3501-delnp-2004-form-2.pdf

3501-DELNP-2004-Form-3-(09-12-2009).pdf

3501-delnp-2004-form-3.pdf

3501-delnp-2004-form-5.pdf

3501-DELNP-2004-Petition-137-(09-12-2009).pdf


Patent Number 245725
Indian Patent Application Number 3501/DELNP/2004
PG Journal Number 05/2011
Publication Date 04-Feb-2011
Grant Date 31-Jan-2011
Date of Filing 09-Nov-2004
Name of Patentee COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH.
Applicant Address RAFI MARG, NEW DELHI-110001 INDIA.
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 PALPU PUSHPANGADAN N.B.R.I. LUCKNOW INDIA.
2 CHANDANA VENKATESWARA RAWAT N.B.R.I. LUCKNOW INDIA.
3 AJAY KUMAR SINGH RAWAT N.B.R.I. LUCKNOW INDIA.
4 SHANTA MEHROTRA N.B.R.I. LUCKNOW INDIA.
5 SANJEEV KUMAR OJHA N.B.R.I. LUCKNOW INDIA.
6 AMRESH N.B.R.I. LUCKNOW INDIA.
PCT International Classification Number A61K 35/78
PCT International Application Number IN03/00406
PCT International Filing date 2003-12-29
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 IN03/00406 2003-12-29 PCT