Title of Invention

SEQUENTIAL BATCH REACTOR WITH BIOFILM CONFIGURATION FOR THE TREATING COMPLEX CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL EFFLUENTS

Abstract This present invention relates to the development of sequential batch reactor technology with biofilm configuration for the treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents. The main usage of the present invention is the development of new technology (sequential batch reactor) with biofilm configuration for the treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents. The technology is considered to be effective, economical and flexible to operate as compared to the traditional continuos flow treatment process. The present invention can be used for the treatment of any industrial effluents either chemical or non-chemical origin.
Full Text SEQUENTIAL BATCH REACTOR WITH BIOFILM CONFIGURATION FOR TREATING COMPLEX CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL EFFLUENTS
Field of the invention
This present invention relates to a sequential batch reactor technology with biofilm configuration for the treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents. More particularly, the present invention relates to a sequential batch reactor with biofilm configuration for the treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents which is effective, economical and flexible to operate as compared to the traditional continuos flow treatment process. The present invention can be used for the treatment of any industrial effluents either chemical or non-chemical origin. Background of the invention
Effluents generated from chemical and pharmaceutical industries are characteristically different with respect to quality and quantity. The variable nature of wastewater generated from these units can be attributed due to process variation and consumption of large quantity of organic and inorganic materials. Variability of the wastewater on both flow and composition (change of manufacturing product, transitory operation of the plant, washing, etc inhibits the treatment process and is difficult to treat using conventional biological processes (Venkata Mohan S, Sharma PN. Pharma Bio World 2002; 11(1):93-100). Effluent characteristics are variable and are highly unreliable due to its complex nature and designing of effective treatment process is a challenging task. Chemical and pharmaceutical effluents normally consists of soluble organic material, suspended solids, priority pollutants, heavy metals, cyanide, toxic organic, refractory substances, volatile matter, color, turbidity and nutrients. The challenge for the design of a wastewater treatment system is to create a process which is capable of responding to extreme variations in flow and pollutant concentration, while maintaining the effluent within the permitted limitations (Venkata Mohan S, Sharma PN. Pharma Bio World 2002; 11(1):93-100). Traditional continuous flow systems such as activated sludge process (ASP) have serious difficulties to meet the stipulated standards. Biological treatment of complex chemicals is particularly challenging owing to the inhibition and/or toxicity of these compounds when they serve as microbial substrates.
Alternative approaches like discontinuous processes (SBR technology), which prom ote the mineralization of the industrial wastewater containing toxic compounds

seems to be promising. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) technology developed on the basic scientific assumption that periodic exposure of the microorganisms to defined process conditions is effectively achieved on a fed batch system in which exposure time, frequency of exposure and amplitude of the respective concentration can be set independently of any inflow condition (Wilderer PA, Irvine RL, Goronszy MC. Sequencing batch reactor technology. Scientific and Technical Report. IWA publishing: 2001; No 10). SBR technology differs in various ways from conventional technologies used in biological treatment of wastewater. The most obvious difference is that the reactor volume varies with time, where as it remains constant in the traditional continuous flow system. From the process-engineering point of view, the SBR system is distinguished by the enforcement of controlled short-term unsteady state conditions leading in the long run to stable steady state with respect to composition and metabolic properties of the microbial population growing in the reactor by controlling the distribution and physiological state of the microorganisms. Success of SBR technology depends upon the great potential provided by the possibilities of influencing the microbial system in the SBR and also upon the fact that SBRs are comparatively easy to operate and cost efficient. SBR process is known to save more than 60% of expenses required for conventional activated sludge process in operating cost (Chang HN, Moon RK, Park BG, Lim S, Choi DW, Lee WG, Song SL, Ahn YH. Bioproc Engn, 2000;23:5 13-521). SBR with various reactor configurations in particular for nutrient removal has been studied quite extensively (Wilderer PA, Irvine RL, Goronszy MC. Sequencing batch reactor technology. Scientific and Technical Report. IWA publishing: 2001; No 10; Wei-Chi Y, Bonk RR, Lloyd, V J., Sojka, S A. Environ Prog 1986;5(1):41-50.12; Wilderer PA. Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor technology. In harnessing biotechnology for the 21st centure, (Lodisch MR and Bose A, edt.) 475-479: American Chemical Society; Rajaguru P, Kalaiselvi K, Palanivel M, Subburam V. Appl Microbiol Biotech 2000;54:268-273; Yalmaz G, Oztusk I. Water Sci Technol 2001;43(3):307-314). So far, SBR has been successfully applied for the treatment of domestic wastewater, medium and low strength land fill leachates, simulated dye wastewater and contaminated soils (Juneson C, Ward OP, Sing A. Proc Biochem 2001;37:305-313; Fu L, Wen X, Lu Q, Quain Y. Proc Biochem 2001;36:1111-1118). A thorough literature search showed that SBR technology was not investigated with complex chemical wastewater such as pharmaceutical, drugs, chemical manufacture units, etc


so far. The wastewater generated from such industries constitute various organic substances used in the process, inorganic salts, organic solvents, etc. which result in high COD, low BOD, high salt content, toxic and inhibitory substances in the wastewater which inhibit the biological process (Venkata Mohan S, Sharma PN.Pharma Bio World 2002; 11(1):93-100). Reactor design and chemical properties of the wastewater components are more relevant to the reactor performance. If the elimination of a substance is limited by the degradation capacity of the microbial community, a homogenous colonization due to the sequencing batch mode might be beneficial. Most of the microorganisms, which are capable to decompose xenobiotic compounds, have a comparatively low growth rate. Biofilm reactor allows an enrichment of these microorganisms, which result in better suitability for the elimination of poorly degraded organic substances as compared to suspended biofilm systems (Wobus A, Ulrich S, Roske I. Water Sci. Technol. 32(8), 205-212,1995). Objects of the invention
The main objective of the present invention is to provide a technology for the treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents.
Another object of the present invention is to provide and develop a sequential batch technology for the treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide a sequential batch technology for the treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents with a biofilm reactor configuration.
Further, it is another objective of this invention to provide a sequential batch technology for the treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents with a biofilm reactor configuration capable of growing mixed consortia developing on stone chips as fixed bed.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a sequential batch technology for the treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents with a biofilm reactor configuration capable of growing mixed consortia developing on stone chips as fixed bed under aerobic conditions.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide an sequential batch technology for the treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents with a biofilm reactor configuration capable of growing mixed consortia developing on stone chips as fixed bed under aerobic conditions with altering anoxic conditions.

Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a sequential batch technology for the treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents with a biofilm reactor configuration capable of growing mixed consortia developing on stone chips as fixed bed under aerobic conditions where in the process designed to operate under non-steady state conditions in a true batch mode.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide an sequential batch technology for the treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents with a biofilm reactor configuration capable of growing mixed consortia developing on stone chips as fixed bed under aerobic conditions where in the process designed to operate under non-steady state conditions in a true batch mode in which the reactor carries out the function of equalization, aeration and settling in a time sequence.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide an sequential batch technology for the treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents with a biofilm reactor configuration capable of growing mixed consortia developing on stone chips as fixed bed under aerobic conditions where in the process designed to operate under non-steady state conditions in a true batch mode in which the reactor carries out the function of equalization, aeration and settling in a time sequence with one day detention time. Summary of the invention
Accordingly, the present invention provides a sequential batch reactor for treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents, said reactor comprising a biomass containing vessel provided with a fixed bed of stone chips, and a biofilm configuration, an inlet means being provided connecting the vessel to a feed tank through a timing means, an outlet means being provided for wastewater withdrawal, connected through a peristaltic pump to the vessel and at an appropriate height in order to prevent loss of biomass from the vessel, recycling means being provided to recirculate the biomass to the reactor from the bottom thereof to the top thereof, and connected to the vessel through timing means.
In one embodiment of the invention, the vessel is provided with an air supply means connected to the vessel at the bottom thereof through a timing means.
In another embodiment of the invention, the sequential batch reactor vessel is fabricated from perplex glass material and has a total working volume of 1.7 litre

capacity, an internal diameter of 0.07 m and length of 0.22 m length with L/D ratio of ~3.
In a further embodiment of the invention, about 0.34 litre of mixed liquor is present in the reactor vessel after withdrawal phase is completed through the outlet means resulting in a total liquid volume during reactor phase of 1.34 litre.
In another embodiment of the invention, sequential batch reactor with biofilm configuration employing gravel stone chips (2x2 cm) was used as fixed bed material to support formation aerobic mixed consortia with a fixed bed to voids ratio of 0.49.
In yet another embodiment of the invention, air supply was by means of diffused aerators connected to a sparger arrangement. The sequence of various operations was done with preprogrammed timers. During the reaction phase, aqueous phase dissolved oxygen was maintained in the range of 3.0 to 4.5 mg/litre. The pH of the influent was adjusted to 7.1± 0.2 before wastewater feeding.
In still another embodiment of the invention, the complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents are of composite nature. The wastewater was a composite one from about 100 industries producing a variety of chemicals, drugs, Pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and various chemical intermediates. The complex chemical characteristics of the effluent are assessable by the presence of a low BOD/COD ratio (1.75 g/litre) and high TDS concentration (> 11 g/litre).
The present invention also relates to a method for the treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents with a sequential batch reactor comprising a biomass containing vessel provided with a fixed bed of stone chips, and a biofilm configuration, an inlet means being provided connecting the vessel to a feed tank through a timing means, an outlet means being provided for wastewater withdrawal, connected through a peristaltic pump to the vessel and at an appropriate height in order to prevent loss of biomass from the vessel, recycling means being provided to recirculate biomass to the reactor from the bottom thereof to the top thereof, and connected to the vessel through timing means, said method comprising operating the reactor in biofilm growth configuration in sequential batch mode, inoculating the vessel to develop an aerobic microbial consortia, start up of the reactor and cyclical operation thereof at different effluent loading rates, monitoring carbon removal and process parameters.

In one embodiment of the invention, the reactor is operated in biofilm growth configuration in sequential batch mode under aerobic conditions at a constant temperature of 26±2°C.
In yet another embodiment of the invention, the total cycle period of operation comprises of 24 hours (HRT) consisting of the following stages: 15 minutes of filling phase (anoxic), 23 hours of reaction (aerobic) phase with recycling, 30 minutes of settling phase (anoxic) and 15 minutes of withdrawal phase (anoxic).
In another embodiment of the invention, the sequence of feeding, aeration, recycling and withdrawal stages phases are controlled by pre-programmed timers.
In another embodiment of the invention, at beginning of each cycle, immediately after withdrawal phase of the previous sequence, a pre-defined feed volume (1 litre) is pumped into system and reactor volume is recirculated with aeration during reaction phase. At the end of the cycle, suspended biomass (VSS) settled and effluent was withdrawn from the reactor.
In still another feature of the invention, recirculation at a rate of 4 L/day was maintained throughout the investigation to achieve a homogeneous distribution of substrate as well as uniform distribution of suspended biomass along the reactor depth.
In yet another feature of the invention, the SBR reactor was operated continuously for a period of three months with varying organic loading rates (0.8 kg COD/m3/day; 1.7 kg COD/m3/day; 3.5 kg COD/m3/day). Brief description of the accompanying drawing
Figure 1 is a schematic representation of the sequential batch reactor with biofilm configuration in accordance with the invention. Detailed description of the invention
A method and system are provided for treating complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents by sequential batch reactor technology with biofilm configuration, which permits enforced control short term steady state conditions leading in the a steady state with respect to composition and metabolic properties of the microbial population growing by controlling the distribution and physiological state of the microorganisms, which comprises the reactor configuration of SBBR, inoculation of the reactor, acclimatization and startup of the reactor, thereto. The SBBR is operated with various organic loading rates. Performance of the system with

respect to carbon removal and other process parameters is provided. Characterization of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents used is given and discussed.
Referring now to figure 1, a sequential batch reactor (1) for treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents is provided. The reactor (1) comprises a biomass containing vessel (2) provided with a fixed bed of stone chips (3), and a biofilm configuration, an inlet means (4) being provided connecting the vessel (2) to a feed tank (6) through a timing means (5), an outlet means (7) being provided for wastewater withdrawal, connected through a peristaltic pump (8) to the vessel (2) and at an appropriate height in order to prevent loss of biomass from the vessel (2), recycling means (9) being provided to recirculate the biomass to the reactor vessel (2) from the bottom thereof to the top thereof, and connected to the vessel (2) through timing means (10). The vessel (2) is provided with air supply means (12) connected to the vessel (2) at bottom thereof through timing means (13).
The sequential Batch Reactor (SBR) was fabricated in the laboratory from perplex glass material having a total working volume of 1.7 litre capacity. The reactor had an internal diameter of 0.07 m and 0.22 m length with L/D ratio of ~3. The outlet of the reactor used for wastewater withdrawal was present at 0.045 m length from bottom of the reactor. This outlet arrangement prevents loss of biomass in the reactor after the settling phase is over. About 0.34 litre of mixed liquor will be present in the reactor after withdrawal phase is completed resulting in a total liquid volume during reactor phase of 1.34 litre. The reactor was fabricated with proper inlet and outlet arrangements.
In another feature of the invention, sequential batch reactor with biofilm configuration employing gravel stone chips (2x2 cm) was used as fixed bed material to support formation aerobic mixed consortia. The fixed bed voids ratio is 0.49.
In still another feature of the invention, the complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents are of composite nature. The wastewater was a composite one from about 100 industries producing a variety of chemicals, drugs, Pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and various chemical intermediates. The complex chemical characteristics of the effluent could be assessed by the presence of a low BOD/COD ratio (1.75 g/litre) and high TDS concentration (> 11 g/litre).

In yet another feature of the invention, air supply was by means of diffused aerators connected to a sparger arrangement. The sequence of various operations was done with preprogrammed timers. During the reaction phase, aqueous phase dissolved oxygen was maintained in the range of 3.0 to 4.5 mg/litre. The pH of the influent was adjusted to 7.1± 0.2 before wastewater feeding.
In another feature of the invention, reactor is operated in biofilm growth configuration in sequential batch mode under aerobic conditions at a constant temperature of 26±2°C.
In yet another feature of the invention, the total cycle period of 24 hours (HRT) consisting of 15 minutes of filling phase (anoxic), 23 hours of reaction (aerobic) phase with recycling, 30 minutes of settling phase (anoxic) and 15 minutes of withdrawal phase (anoxic) was employed throughout the sequence phase of the reactor operation. The sequence of the SBR operation was controlled by preprogrammed timers (feeding, aeration, recycling and withdrawal). At the beginning of each cycle, immediately after withdrawal (earlier sequence), a pre-defined feed volume (1 litre) was pumped into the system and the reactor volume is recirculated with aeration during the reaction phase. At the end of the cycle, suspended biomass (VSS) settled and effluent was withdrawn from the reactor.
In still another feature of the invention, recirculation at a rate of 4 L/day was maintained throughout the investigation to achieve a homogeneous distribution of substrate as well as uniform distribution of suspended biomass along the reactor depth. Recirculation also facilitates linear velocity, which restricts the existence of a concentration gradient during the reaction phase of the SBR operation. The reactor can be considered as completely mixed during the reaction phase of the sequence.
In yet another feature of the invention, the SBR reactor was operated continuously for a period of three months with varying organic loading rates (0.8 kg COD/m3/day; 1.7 kg COD/m3/day; 3.5 kg COD/m3/day).
The following examples are given by way of illustration and therefore should not be construed to limit of the scope of the present invention. Example 1
Reactor startup is one of the important aspects to be considered while starting up any biological reactor. The SBR was inoculated with biomass (aerobic) acquired from an operating laboratory scale activated sludge process (ASP) unit, which had

been operated continuously for the past 3 years for the treatment of complex chemical effluents. The mixed liquor from the aerobic chamber of the ASP unit was acquired and was fed to the SBR reactor at a ratio of 1:5 with reactor volume as inoculum.
After inoculation, the reactor was operated with a synthetic feed (glucose-Ig/litre; sodium acetate-Ig/litre; Na2HPO4-0.3 g/litre) to build up the biomass on the fixed bed upto 7 days (biofilm VSS- 3 g/L). Subsequently the reactor was fed with the designated effluent (pH-7-83; TDS-11 g/L, SS-0.9 g/L; oil and grease-14 mg/L; ammonical Nitrogen-35 mg/L; COD-6 g/L; BOD-2.4 g/L, Chlorides-5 g/L; Sulphates-1.7 g/L; Phosphates-360 mg/L; Phenol-7.8 mg/L) at an organic loading rate of 0.8 kg COD/m3/day.
After the stable performance with respect to COD removal was achieved, the reactor was shifted to higher organic loading rates. The reactor was operated with aqueous phase Dissolved oxygen (DO) maintained in the range of 3 to 4.5 mg/L and influent pH was maintained in and around 7. Example II
The performance of SBR with complex chemical effluents was assessed by monitoring carbon removal (COD) throughout the reactor operation and during the cycle period. In addition, pH, BOD, sulphates, suspended solids (SS) and Dissolved oxygen (DO) was also determined during sequence operation to assess the performance of the SBR. The analytical procedures for monitoring the above parameters were adopted from the procedure outlined in the Standard Methods (APHA, 1996). Example III
SBR is operated in sequential batch mode with a total 24 hours cycle period with an organic loading rate of 0.8 kg COD/m3/day to assess the suitability of the reactor for treating the complex chemical wastewater under study. Initially after the start up of the reactor (15 days), the reactor was operated with an organic loading rate of 0.8 kg COD/m3/day and the reactor performance was assessed by monitoring carbon removal (COD and BOD) during the sequence (cycle) operation and also throughout the reactor operation. (Removed Table 1 Performance of SBR)
As for COD, 78% removal was observed at an organic loading rate of 0.8 kg COD/m3/day. BOD removal of 91% was observed after the reactor-attained stability. It can be concluded from the reactor performance data obtained that SBR showed relatively better performance with respect to COD removal when compared to the conventional ASP system. The SBR was operated at various organic loading rates (0.8 kg COD/m3/day; 1.7 kg COD/m3/day and 3.5 kg COD/m3/day). With continued operation, the reactor showed enhanced performance with respect to COD and BOD removal and attained stable conditions within 3 days after feeding and remained more or less constant thereafter. About of 78% COD removal and of 91% BOD removal was observed during stabilized operation of the reactor. On day 21 after of startup, the reactor was fed with an organic loading rate of 1.7 Kg COD/m3/day. Immediately after increase in the organic loading rate, the reactor showed an increase in the outlet COD and BOD levels and approached COD removal and BOD removal within 15 days. On day 28 after startup, the reactor was fed at an organic loading rate of 3.5 kg/m3/day and reactor had a performance with BOD removal and COD removal. Consolidated data of SBR with biofilm configuration performance at various organic loading rates are presented in Table 1. To achieve stable performance (with respect to carbon removal), the reactor required 4 days at 0.8 kg COD/m3/day and 5 days for 1.7 kg COD/m3/day. About 7 days was required to achieve stable performance at an organic loading rate of 3.5 kg COD/m3/day. Example IV
From the results obtained, it can be concluded that SBR (with biofilm configuration) showed a relative effective performance compared to conventional ASP system with same effluent operated at same organic loading rate. The performance of SBR is superior compared to conventional ASP operated with the same complex chemical wastewater. Conventional ASP was operated at 0.8 kg

COD/m3/day continuously for a period of 6 months with 5 days detention time showed 55% of COD removal and 67% of BOD removal. In comparison, the SBR operated at 0.8 kg COD/m3/day showed a comparatively effective performance (COD removal-78%; BOD removal-91%) only with 24 hours of detention time. Conventional ASP operated with this effluent required 35 days of operation to achieve stable performance. However, in the case of SBR, 5 days was found to be sufficient to achieve stable performance. Periodic processes that induce controlled unsteady state conditions have organisms that have high substrate uptake and storage capabilities are generally more robust and can withstand shock loads compared to traditional continues process. Example V
To understand the on going biochemical process during sequence operation, the process was monitored by determining pH, ORPP and DO. The variation of pH and ORP during the sequence monitored during sequence operation. The influent pH of nearing 7 was introduced at the starting of the reaction phase. The influent aqueous phase pH gradually decreased with time and approached 8.3 at the end of the reaction phase. ORP (mV) profile visualized a mirror image to pH and with increase of sequence time the ORP approached zero (0 mV). Oxygen consumption/transfer capacity is one of the important factors that limit the capacity of suspended growth biological systems. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) is monitored to assess the ability of suspended biomass to degrade complex substrate in aerobic environments. Oxygen consumption capacity indicates the ongoing biochemical process. The oxygen consumption rate up to 4 hrs of cycle operation was 0.09 mg Oa/min and subsequently increased to 0.106 mg Oa/min and remained more or less constant thereafter up to 23.3 hrs. The oxygen consumption rate was expected to increase with substrate utilization due to higher endogenous respiration requirements.
The following conclusions were drawn from the present invention. The present invention is found to have shown effective performance compared to traditional continuous processes. The present invention showed effective performance with COD and BOD removal at one day detention time as compared to ASP system operated with 5 day detention time with same effluents at same organic loading rate. The present invention found to be effective at higher organic loading rate. Also the present invention is economical and easy to operate due to the provision of process


with combination of system having equalization, aeration, secondary settling in one reactor instead of all having separate units in conventional continuos system.
The effluents generated from chemical and pharmaceutical industries are characteristically different with respect to quality and quantity. The variable nature of wastewater generated from these units can be attributed due to the process variation and consumption of large quantity of organic and inorganic materials. The variability of the wastewater on both flow and composition (change of manufacturing product, transitory operation of the plant, washing, etc inhibits the treatment process and is difficult to treat using conventional biological processes. Traditional continuous flow systems such as activated sludge process (ASP) have serious difficulties to meet the stipulated standards. Biological treatment of complex chemicals is particularly challenging owing to the inhibition and/or toxicity of these compounds when they serve as microbial substrates. Alternative approaches like discontinuous processes (SBR technology), which can promote the mineralization of the industrial wastewater containing toxic compounds seems to be promising. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) technology developed on the basic scientific assumption that periodic exposure of the microorganisms to defined process conditions is effectively achieved on a fed batch . system in which exposure time, frequency of exposure and amplitude of the respective concentration can be set independently of any inflow condition. From the process-engineering point of view, the SBR system is distinguished by the enforcement of controlled short-term unsteady state conditions leading in the long run to stable steady state with respect to composition and metabolic properties of the microbial population growing in the reactor by controlling the distribution and physiological state of the microorganisms. Success of SBR technology depends upon the great potential provided by the possibilities of influencing the microbial system in the SBR and also upon the fact that SBRs are comparatively easy to operate and cost efficient. SBR process is known to save more than 60% of expenses required for conventional activated sludge process in operating cost. The wastewater generated from such industries constitute various organic substances used in the process, inorganic salts, organic solvents, etc. which result in high COD, low BOD, high salt content, toxic and inhibitory substances in the wastewater which inhibit the biological process. So far SBR technology was most evidently seen for domestic and low strength wastewater treatment. The objective of the present invention is to provide a sequential batch technology with biofilm configuration for the treatment of complex


chemical and pharmaceutical effluents capable of growing mixed consortia developing on stone chips as fixed bed under aerobic conditions with altering anoxic conditions under non-steady state conditions in a true batch mode in a true batch mode in which the reactor carries out the function of equalization, aeration and settling in a time sequence. The present invention provides development of efficient technology for the treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents by batch mode operation. SBR performance is superior compared to the conventional ASP operated with the same complex chemical wastewater. The invention can be efficiently used for pharmaceutical, chemical, composite chemical effluents or to any industrial effluents. The developed invention is cost effective, flexible and economical compared to conventional continuous treatment system which provides combination of system having equalization, aeration, secondary settling in one reactor instead of all having separate units in conventional continues system. The main advantage of the present invention:
1. The present invention provides development of efficient technology for the
treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents by batch mode
operation.
2. The invention can be efficiently used for pharmaceutical, chemical, or composite
chemical effluents.
3. The invention can be used for treating complex effluents (BOD/CODO.3)
4. The invention technology SBR performance is superior compared to the
conventional ASP operated with the same complex chemical wastewater.
5. The invention is cost effective and economical compared to conventional
continuous treatment system
6. The invention gave the same performance with one day detention time compared
to 5 days of detention time in case of conventional continues treatment system.
7. The invention provides process with combination of system having equalization,
aeration and secondary settling in one reactor instead of all having separate units
in conventional continues system.
8. The invention success is on the potential provided by the possibilities of
influencing the microbial system compared to traditional continuous system.
9. The invention is comparatively easy to operate









We Claim:
1. A sequential batch reactor for treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents, said reactor comprising a biomass containing vessel provided with a fixed bed of stone chips, and a biofilm configuration, an inlet means being provided connecting the vessel to a feed tank through a timing means, an outlet means being provided for wastewater withdrawal, connected through a peristaltic pump to the vessel and at an appropriate height in order to prevent loss of biomass from the vessel, recycling means being provided to recirculate the biomass to the reactor from the bottom thereof to the top thereof, and connected to the vessel through timing means.
2. A sequential batch reactor as claimed in claim 1 wherein the vessel is provided with an air supply means connected to the vessel at the bottom thereof through a timer.
3. A sequential batch reactor as claimed in claim 1 wherein the vessel is fabricated from perplex glass material and has a total working volume of 1.7 litre capacity, an internal diameter of 0.07 m and length of 0.22 m length with L/D ratio of ~3.
4. A sequential batch reactor as claimed in claim 1 wherein about 0.34 litre of mixed liquor is present in the reactor vessel after withdrawal phase is completed through the outlet means resulting in a total liquid volume during reactor phase of 1.34 litre.
5. A sequential batch reactor as claimed in claim 1 wherein the sequential batch reactor with biofilm configuration employing gravel stone chips (2x2 cm) was used as fixed bed material to support formation aerobic mixed consortia with a fixed bed to voids ratio of 0.49.
6. A sequential batch reactor as claimed in claim 1 wherein the complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents are of composite nature and are selected from the group consisting of industrial wastewater from chemical, drug, pharmaceutical, pesticide, and chemical intermediate industries.
7. A sequential batch reactor as claimed in claim 1 wherein the complex chemical characteristics of the effluent are assessed by the presence of a low BOD/COD ratio (1.75 g/litre) and high TDS concentration (> 11 g/litre).
8. A sequential batch reactor as claimed in claim 1 wherein air supply means comprises diffused aerators connected to a sparger arrangement.
9. A sequential batch reactor for treatment of complex chemical and pharmaceutical effluents substantially as herein describe with reference to examples accompanying this specification.

Documents:

3931-delnp-2004-abstract.pdf

3931-delnp-2004-Claims-(29-10-2010).pdf

3931-delnp-2004-claims.pdf

3931-delnp-2004-correspondence -others.pdf

3931-delnp-2004-Correspondence-Others-(29-10-2010).pdf

3931-delnp-2004-description (complete).pdf

3931-delnp-2004-drawings.pdf

3931-delnp-2004-Form-1-(29-10-2010).pdf

3931-delnp-2004-form-1.pdf

3931-delnp-2004-form-18.pdf

3931-delnp-2004-form-2.pdf

3931-delnp-2004-Form-3-(29-10-2010).pdf

3931-delnp-2004-form-3.pdf

3931-delnp-2004-form-5.pdf

3931-delnp-2004-Petition 137-(29-10-2010).pdf


Patent Number 244493
Indian Patent Application Number 3931/DELNP/2004
PG Journal Number 50/2010
Publication Date 10-Dec-2010
Grant Date 08-Dec-2010
Date of Filing 10-Dec-2004
Name of Patentee COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH
Applicant Address RAFI MARG, NEW DELHI-110 001, INDIA.
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 NUNNA CHANDRASEKHARA RAO INDIAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, HYDRABAD, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA.
2 KATURI KRISHNA PRASAD INDIAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, HYDRABAD, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA.
3 KONDAPURAM VIJAYA RAGHAVAN INDIAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, HYDRABAD, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA.
4 SRINIVASULU REDDY VENKATA MOHAN INDIAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, HYDRABAD, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA.
5 PONNAPALLI NAGESWARA SARMA INDIAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, HYDRABAD, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA.
PCT International Classification Number C02F 3/10 , C02F 3/12
PCT International Application Number PCT/IN2003/00118
PCT International Filing date 2003-03-31
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 PCT/IN03/00118 2003-03-31 PCT