|Title of Invention||
METHOD AND DEVICE FOR ENCRYPTION/DECRYPTION OF DATA ON MASS STORAGE DEVICE
|Abstract||The present invention provides a method and device performing encryption/ decryption of data on a mass storage media. The device comprises a plurality of electronic encryption/decryption circuitry sections (41a, 41n) providing a plurality of encryption/decryption algorithms with a receivable connected memory space for storing/retrieving the associated encryption/decryption keys, a comparator circuitry (40) partitioned in a plurality of sections comprising in each section two write- able/readable memory locations (100, 101) loadable with respectively said lower physical address and said upper physical address bounding one of said plurality of segments, two electronic comparator units (102, 103) and a logic gate AND (104) interconnected such that a content loaded into said memory location (100) is compared with an associated physical address (105) from the datastream in said comparator unit (102).|
|Full Text||Method and device for encryption/decryption of data on mass storage device
Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a method and a device for secure encryption
(enciphering), scrambling, decryption (deciphering) and de-scrambling of data, and
more specifically, to a method and a device for secure encryption and decryption of data
when writing to or reading from a mass storage device, such as a disk unit, tape unit or
other electronic/mechanic/optical mass storage media (called mass storage), connected
to a computer or other electronic equipment such as digital camera, digital sound/video
recorders (called computer systems), by a mass storage bus.
Background of the Invention
Computer systems store programs and data in mass storage devices. Unauthorized
access to such stored data is a known and increasing threat. The usual method for
protecting such stored information is by demanding a username and a password from a
user of the computer system thereby avoiding unauthorized access to the data.
Few are aware of that an unauthorized person may gain access to any portion of
information stored on a mass storage device without the standard user identification
method; an unauthorized person can remove the storage device from the computer (on
some systems with external mass storage units, this is extremely easy), insert the storage
device into another computer system and read/use the information stored on the mass
storage unit and even modify data if wanted (fraud). Theft of mass storage data is a
substantial increasing threat.
It is known to secure information by encryption before it is stored on a mass storage
media. Encrypted files or data segments must be decrypted before they can be used.
When data is written back to the storage unit, the data must be re-encrypted. This
process involves extra procedure handling for the user, and is often the reason why such
precautions are rarely effective in use.
Most computer operating systems are also constructed to use work files (swap files,
temporary files) of information currently processed. Sensitive data can remain available
in the work files. Even if the user thinks that the job is done, and data are written
encrypted and safe to a disk, a person skilled in the art will be able to extract data and
documents from the work files.
Even when these working copies are deleted, they are still recoverable, since deletion
normally will only mark an area on the mass storage media as free for use and not
erasing the data. To be sure that data is erased, the media has to be written over and over
again with random data to be sure that no information is available on the deleted part of
the mass storage media. This procedure is storage media sensitive. The example above
is typical for a magnetic type of media, and will be different for an
electronic/mechanic/optical media; you cannot write too many times back to a flash
media, since the writing will shorten the media life time dramatically.
These procedures involve a large amount of computer processing and use of specifically
Using software encryption programs will expose the allocated encryption keys when
they are processed. Unauthorized persons, virus programs, spy programs etc., may use
these exposed keys to decrypt stored data.
To avoid some of the mentioned shortcomings above of securing mass storage data, it is
known that it is possible to encrypt all stored data on a mass storage device and decrypt
all data read from such a mass storage device.
One advantage of this scheme is mat all data on a mass storage device is always
encrypted. This is achieved by providing a dedicated program to be executed handling
the data stream to and from the mass storage device.
The aforementioned program however, cannot be stored encrypted because the
computer system must be able to read and start executing the program in order to be
able to decrypt information stored on a mass storage device. If all information stored in
the mass storage device is to be encrypted, the program must be stored in a second
storage device without encrypting the data stored thereon. Another obvious drawback in
such a system is the demand for computer resources by the encryption/decryption
process, leaving a lot less processor resources for the user of the computer system, and
the encryption keys will still be exposed when they are used.
US patent number 5,513,262 (van Rumpt et. Al.), discloses an electronic device for
enciphering and deciphering data sent to and from a mass storage device in a computer
system by inserting the electronic device in the bus connecting the computer system and
the mass storage device.
The connecting bus passes command codes, for example for a hard disk drive controller.
The commands will be recognized by the electronic device and it will let pass the
commands unchanged, while data is enciphered/deciphered on the fly when they passes
the bus to and from the mass storage device through the electronic device.
Enciphering/deciphering are achieved by applying encryption/decryption algorithms
(DES) and an encryption/decryption key on the data stream passing through the
electronic device. The disclosure does however, not teach how to get the key into the
enciphering/deciphering device in a safe manner.
One possible solution is a key hard coded into the unit, but a replaceable key is more
attractive, if for example a used key accidentally is disclosed. The manufacture of the
encryption/decryption device must also keep track of all used codes, if for example a
used electronic device collapses, it must be replaced to gain access to the stored data.
Therefore there must exist an index linking hard coded keys to specific devices, which
in itself represents a security risk.
Replacing the key would imply transferring the key from a computer system to the
electronic device over the interconnecting bus between the computer and the mass
storage device, which means involving the central processor unit in the computer
system. Malicious software, planted in the computer system, such as a virus, worm or
Trojan code, may hijack the key when transferred and the encryption may be
UK patent application number GB 2,264,374 (Nolan) discloses another device to be
inserted between a host computer and a mass storage device. Data flows between
several data buffers, which may be acceptable for a low speed tape recording system,
but the structure of the device cannot serve a modern high-speed hard disk drive.
Moreover, the encryption/decryption depends on the data block organisation in the
storage, which make the encryption/decryption device computer system dependent.
However, the patent discloses a separate terminal where an operator can enter
encryption/decryption keys directly to the encryption/decryption device without
involving the central processing unit in the computer system. Even when using a
separate channel supplying keys from a separate key storage media, like a smart card,
the data stream may be compromised and/or manipulated.
One major drawback in the prior art is that all methods known so far utilise one
algorithm and one key for the whole content on the storage media. Equal data sets will
be encrypted with the same pattern that can be used to crack the key and the encryption
method used. A simple example illustrating this scenario would be that the English
word "is" would be encrypted to for example "ce". By recognising that "is" is a very
frequent phrase in an English text, and that this two-letter combination quite often is the
second phrase in a sentence, this observation and pattern may help to crack the code that
Summary of the Invention
The present invention, as claimed in the attached patent claims and the present examples
of embodiments of the invention, provides an improved method and device for enabling
storage and retrieval of encrypted/decrypted data to/from a mass storage media in a
computer system or similar system environment.
The present invention is providing a method and a device that can encrypt and decrypt
data located in addressable areas on a mass storage media with one of a plurality of
encryption/decryption algorithms and keys, where the selection of the current algorithm
and key used on the current data item within the addressable area, is based on the
physical addresses of lower and upper address limits that spans said addressable area on
the mass storage media.
The arrangement of a device according to an embodiment of the present invention can
be used to encrypt/decrypt e-mails or other types of electronic messages on the fly. The
key and the associated encryption algorithm can be a system that provides a public key
and a private key. In this manner persons communicating with e-mails can establish a
secure channel for messages with their own private keys and by exchanging information
on which public key and algorithm the message has been encrypted with.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, a method and device is provided
that allows different operating systems to be totally independent and isolated, even
when stored on the same mass storage media, and loaded into a computer system only
when a correct key is inserted in a device according to the present invention for that
operating environment. In one embodiment of the invention, a user/administrator of a
computer system will have his own key stored encrypted on a key carrier that transfers
the key to the encryption/decryption device on a secure channel. This arrangement
allows the user/administrator access to own data files and permitted operating
environment. When such a key is removed from the device, the possible action
performed, according to a preferred embodiment of the invention, can be one of the
following: shutting down the computer, just stopping executing programs in the
computer, stopping executing programs after a predefined time period or just leaving
the computer running until the computer system is rebooted. At this point, the key
would be required when the booting starts again. The method and device according to
this particular embodiment of the invention provides a substantial improvement of data
security in a computer server system over prior art.
An aspect of the present invention is to provide a secure and tamper free method and
device for providing a key to an encryption/decryption algorithm running in an
embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 1 depicts a schematic view of an example of an embodiment of the present
Fig. 2 depicts a schematic view of a secure channel transferring an
encryption/decryption key from a smart card, or other type of carrier of the key, to a
device according to the present invention
Fig. 3 depicts a schematic layout and interconnections of functional units in an
electronic device according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is an illustration of an encryption process according to an example of an
embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is an illustration of an encryption process according to an example of an
embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 6 is an illustration of a preferred embodiment of an encryption process according to
the present invention.
Fig. 7 depicts a schematic view of the comparator system according to the embodiment
of the invention depicted in fig. 3.
Fig. 8 depicts a system, according to the present invention, where the master boot record
of a disk system is interchangeable.
Disclosure of the Invention
A mass storage device is connected to a computer system by a mass storage bus (such
as cable, copper or fibre etc.) that provides the transfer of data, control codes and status
codes between the mass storage device and the computer system.
There are several types of such bus systems and protocols used for this purpose.
Examples are SCSI, IDE, AT, ATA, USB, FireWire, FiberChannel and others. These
bus types are well known for a person skilled in the art.
The present invention can use one or more of these bus protocols.
An electronic device 13, according to an embodiment of the invention, is shown in fig.
1. A mass storage device is communicating with a computer through the device 13 that
provides a first end 12 communicating with the computer 10 via the bus segment 11,
and a second end 14 communicating with a mass storage bus device 16 via the bus
segment 15. The bus segment 15 is typically using a standard mass storage bus protocol
as known to a person skilled in the art. The bus segment 11 can use the same protocol as
the segment 15, but can be different, for example a serial bus while the segment 15 is a
parallel bus. The device 13 will anyhow receive data or transmit data to and from the
both ends linking the computer system 10 with the mass storage device 16. Data sent
from the computer system 10 via segment 11 is encrypted on the fly in the device 13,
while data sent from the mass storage device 16 via the segment 15 to the computer
system 10 is decrypted on the fly in the same device 13. hi an embodiment of the
present invention, where the segment 11 and the segment 15 utilises different bus
protocols, the device 13 also serves as a translator between the two protocols while, on
the same time, providing encryption/decryption of user data on the fly.
According to the present invention, the device 13 can be arranged in different ways. For
example, the function units as depicted in fig. 3 can be arranged as an integral part of
a hard disk controller. In this case the bus segment 11 is typically a mass storage bus.
The bus 15 will typically be an internal bus definition connecting directly to the hard
disk driver system.
In yet another example of embodiment of the present invention, the device 13 will be a
circuitjiesigned to be part of a motherboard of the computer system. Typically, the bus
segment 11 will be implemented according to an internal bus definition of the
motherboard, or will be tailored to communicate with a programmable input/output
device on the motherboard, for example a Direct Memory Access channel. The bus
segment 15 will be a mass storage bus.
Data transferred between the computer system and the mass storage device can be
divided in two categories: Command/Control codes and user data. Command/Control
codes are all information regarding command/control of the mass storage device,
including status codes, formatting codes and codes that specifies data organisation of
the mass storage media, which operation to perform, which location to use on the media
Command/Control codes are read via the first end 12 of the device 13 from the bus 11,
and then written by the device 13 to the second side 14 onto the bus 15 without
encryption or decryption (there can, however, be performed an alteration in some
cases). The mass storage device controller will act on these Commands/Controls
according the manufacture specifications of the mass storage device. This arrangement
of selectively identifying Commands/Codes or data, are used to send extended
Control/Codes that acts on the device 13 to select encryption keys, algorithms and other
operational functions and features inside the device 13.
The scheme on how to recognize such Command/Control codes is usually specified in
the mass storage bus protocol.
In some mass storage bus protocols, however, it will not be possible to extend the
Command/Control codes to achieve actions in the device 13. In another example of an
embodiment of the present invention, it is possible to "borrow" some blocks of data on
an unused area on the mass storage media, typically an area outside the storage device
limit (hidden area). The device 13 can use such an area as a communication window to
the computer, and it can be used in the same manner, as known to a person skilled in the
art, as when the Command/Control codes where extended. The computer system and the
device 13 can read and write messages (commands, instructions, data etc.) to each other
through this window.
Referring now to fig. 3, user data are the data to be stored on the mass storage media.
Encryption and decryption is performed by sending user data as input to well
documented encryption algorithms such as DES, AES etc. The encryption/decryption
device 13, according to the present invention, has an internal crypto bus 32 that
connects different hardware sections 41a, 41b, 41n in the device 13 running specific
algorithms each attached to the user data input flow, flowing to and from the first end
12 and the second end 14 via internal buses inside the device 13 and under supervision
of the device controlling part 30. For a person skilled in the art, it is readily understood
that 41a, 41b, 41n may implement any one of a known algorithm, for example in a hard
wired processor arrangement for each algorithm, for maximum speed considerations,
but also specially developed solutions for specific demands such as military use,
satellite communication links etc. (for example scrambling algorithms) can be
In yet another embodiment of the invention, the algorithms can be executed in a micro
controller arrangement, where the action of selecting a specific algorithm, is by loading
different program counter content in the micro controller. Each of said program counter
contents corresponds to the start address of each algorithm stored in a common program
memory. The program memory can be a fixed non-volatile memory or a random access
memory initialised at power up time from the computer system 10 for example. Such
transfers can also be encrypted and/or be subject to rigid authentication procedures as
known to a person skilled in the art.
Large mass storage devices need to organise data to be manageable by a computer
system and provide a functional file system for a user or an application program. The
basic formatting is a block/sector division of a media. Generally it is necessary to have
addressable areas with sub addressable units within the area on a mass storage media to
constitute functional mass storage solutions such as file systems. An addressable area on
a mass storage media is usually a consecutive physically addressable area of the media,
limited by a lower and upper address defining the span of the addressable area. Mass
storage systems are usually arranged in a hierarchy of logic layers defining different
types of for example storage areas and systems. An example is the RAID disk system
definitions. An address to such an area is usually referred to as a logic address. In the
present invention will all references be to the lowest level of address - the physical
address on the media. The embodiments of the present invention can be used with all
kinds of logical storage layers and systems on top of the physical media.
According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, such addressable areas
(blocks/sectors) can be individually encrypted with its own encryption key and /or
algorithm. The block 40 in the device 13 receives the address of an area such as a
block/sector number and selects one of the algorithms to be run in the sections 41a,
41b,.., 41n on basis of a comparison of this number with the address (sub address within
the area) associated with a data item to be stored or read from the mass storage device
16. Fig. 7 illustrates the comparator block 40. The start address and end address of a
block of data (the limits of an addressable area on the media) is stored in the comparator
40 as "Start Block" and "Stop Block", respectively. When the address of a user data-
item (sub address within the area) is received, the user data item address is compared
with the aforementioned "Start Block" and "Stop Block" addresses. If the user data item
address is greater than or equal to the "Start Block" address and the user data item
address is less or equal to the "Stop Block, a Boolean operation AND in the comparator
40 detects this condition, and sends out a "is mine" signal to one of the algorithm
sections 41a, 41b, ...,41n that this particular "is mine" signal is connected to enabling
the algorithm when true. Otherwise, the signal is false, inhibiting running the
In an embodiment of the invention, will all the hard wired processor algorithm sections
41a, 41b.....41n contain a memory area with the same number of memory cells as
there are algorithm sections. The linking of an "is mine" signal to a specific algorithm
section will then be accomplished by entering logic 1 in the cell with an address equal
to the number of the algorithm section, otherwise zero. By combining each "is mine"
signal from each comparator with all the cells with corresponding address as the number
of the "is mine" signal, will the selection of an algorithm be interchangeable
In an embodiment of the algorithm sections by a micro controller, can associating
correct content of the program counter with the associated "is mine" signal do the
selection and interchangeable programming.
The comparison arrangement is repeated n times in the comparator block 40, one for
each of the n sections running an algorithm.
Figure 4 illustrates an example of encryption of data elements (blocks/sectors or
addressable areas) where data are different, but the same key is used.
Figure 5 illustrates the same encryption scheme as in fig. 4, but in this example two of
the data elements are the same and the same key is used. The encrypted data elements
will therefore be the same constituting a pattern that may be a security risk.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the block/sector number
information in a Command/Control code, or information about an addressable area
given in a command for that particular addressable area, is used to select a key, together
with an optionally generated number unique for this block/sector/addressable area (a
combination of block/sector/addressable area number and a random generated table,
where the combination can be constituted as a concatenation if the key is symbols for
example, addition or subtraction etc. if the key is a number etc.). This scheme is
illustrated in fig. 6.
The optionally generated number is used to prevent that two identical blocks (or
sequences of data) of data will be encrypted identical, as shown in fig. 5. The random
numbers are generated and stored in a table inside the device 13 addressed by the
block/sector/addressable area number. In an embodiment of the present invention, there
can be a plurality of tables that are addressed in two steps, first by the selection signal
"is mine" generated in the comparator 40 and in the second step the block/sector/
addressable area number. This arrangement provides the same random number for the
same block/sector/addressable area number thereby ensuring correct
encryption/decryption of the same data elements, while at the same time providing
completely random patterns in the encrypted flow of data, even if the same data
elements appears and keys are used, as illustrated in fig. 6. The content of the table can
be generated internally in the device 13 in a micro controller 51.
Referring now to fig. 3, to write a data block (sequence of data) to a disk, the computer
has to tell the disk controller where to write the data via a block/sector number. The
encryption/decryption device will receive the command with the
block/sector/addressable area number via the part 12 of the device 13. The protocol
interpreting part 30 of the device 13 will recognize this as a command and feed it
through its interior data path to the part 14 of the device 13. The protocol part 30 will
also store this information and feed it to the comparators 40 inside the device 13 as
described above ("Start Block" and "Stop Block" addresses, address of an user data
When the computer sends the write command, the protocol part 30 will send the write
command to the part 14, and set the protocol part 30 ready to do data transfers. Then,
the computer starts sending data. The protocol part 30 will collect data from the part 12
via the bus 11, sizing them into 32 bits (which is the size of the internal crypto bus 32,
but not limited to this size), and passing the data to the crypto bus 32. The comparator
40 enables the correct algorithm section and associated key and lets the data, on the
crypto bus 32, go through the correct algorithm section 41a, 41b,..., and 41n.
When data is read from the mass storage device 16, the computer sends a read
command, and the protocol part 30 will arrange the data flow such that the data is read
form the mass storage device to the computer via the correct decryption function inside
the device 13 in a similar manner as described above.
When the read/write data traffic starts, the comparator section 40, which contains the set
of comparators describing addressable areas on the mass storage media that are
encrypted with different algorithms ("Start Block" and "Stop Block" addresses), will
send the output signal "is mine" that corresponds to the current sector thereby selecting
correct algorithm section 41a, 41b,..., 41n and associated key.
The encryption/decryption algorithms, 41a, 41b,.., or 41n, will start collecting data
arranging them to the bit size the algorithm use. When the correct number of bits is
collected, data will be sent through the current algorithm section 41a, 41b,.., 41n
selected by the comparator 40. After encryption/decryption, data will be split into the
crypto bus bit size and sent from the output of the current algorithm 41a, 41b,.., 41n
back to the crypto bus 32 down to the protocol part 30, that split the data to the bit size
of the bus 15 or 11, and sending the data to either the computer 10 (decryption) or to the
mass storage device 16 (encryption). The encryption sections 41a, 41b,..., 41n also gets
information from the comparator when a new data block starts, to be able to use CBC or
other encoding functions to extend security.
The protocol part 30 issues also all the necessary "hand shake" signals being part of the
bus segments 11 and 15.
The method and device according to the present invention is not limited as described to
a certain encryption/decryption algorithm. The sections 41a, 41b, ..., 41n can all
implement any type of algorithm or scrambling of data. In a preferred embodiment of
the present invention, each section 41a, 41b, ..., 41n will have storage "slots" for an
associated key with that particular algorithm.
In a best mode embodiment of the invention, a device as depicted in fig. 1 and fig. 2 is
implemented where the keys are interchangeably and replaceable arranged in each
section 41a, 41b„ 41n in memory allocations, selected by the comparator system
depicted in fig. 7 when the signal "is mine" selects a section 41a, 41b, ..., 41n running
the current algorithm selected by the comparator 40.
Initialising the encryption/decryption system according to the preferred embodiment of
the invention includes providing a start block address, a stop block address, a key and
an indicator of which algorithm section 41a, 41b, ..., 4In to use for the different
blocks/sector or addressable portion of a storage media Fig. 2 depicts a system with a
smart card reader 61a for reading a smart card 63a (key carrier) containing the start
block address, stop block address, key and algorithm indicator. Other means for
providing this information to the device 13, such as an infrared communication link or
radio link 62b etc., can be used according to the invention.
When the device 13 is started, the internal micro controller 51 will collect keys from the
key carrier 63a. The micro controller will send keys to the correct encryption section via
a security section 42. The security section will prevent keys to be destroyed if the micro
controller 51 should start running malfunctioning code. The micro controller will also
load the comparator values.
The internal ram 31 (random access memory) is arranged the same way as an
addressable portion of a mass storage device. That is, all the common features of the
device 13 in accordance with the present invention can be applied on the content of the
To use this functionality, extended codes as described above, can be utilised to transfer
a block of data to and from the ram 31 either to/from the computer system 10 via the
bus segment 11 or to/from the mass storage device 16 via the bus segment 15. Another
method of accessing the ram 31, is to use it as a memory location outside the disk
boundary, and thereby accessing the memory as if it was part of the disk system,
although hidden. These actions are controlled by the protocol part 30.
One action the ram 31 can do is to send an interrupt to the internal micro controller 51,
when for instance the ram 31 is full. The micro controller 51 can then read data from the
ram 31 and do processing on the data. The micro controller can also write to the ram 31.
The computer system 10 can also read data from the ram 31. By building an easy
communication protocol, the computer can communicate with the micro controller 51.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, such a protocol is implemented, and
also a protocol where the micro controller 51 can relay this information to the key
carrier 63, 65. In this manner, we have a communication channel both to the micro
controller and to the key carrier 63, 65 via the computer system 10, and directly
internally inside the device 13. These communication cannels are used to load keys to
the key carrier 63, 65 as well as loading keys to the algorithm sections 41a, 41b,..., 41n.
Whichever implementation, the ram 31 can be utilised in several useful applications, hi
one embodiment of the present invention, the ram is used to load e-mails or other types
of electronic data such as files, network traffic etc. to the ram 31, encrypt the content of
the ram in one selected section 41a, 41b,..., 41n, and then read the encrypted data back
to the computer system 10 where further actions on the data will be executed. If the
length of the data exceeds the size of the ram 31, the communication protocol will split
the data and then loop the different sections of the data through the process as described
above until the end of the data.
When an encrypted e-mail or other types of data has to be decrypted for instance, the
user of the computer system 10 has to load the e-mail or data to the ram 31. Then the
device 13 runs the proper algorithm and the decrypted e-mail is transferred back to the
computer system 10. Keys for this operation can be public/private key systems
providing a secure system where the keys never are exposed when they are transferred
encrypted, according to the invention, to the device 13 as described in the present
One important aspect of the present invention, is to provide a secure handling of
encryption keys. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, a key is first transferred to
the micro controller from the computer system 10. Then the device 13 can perform a
selected encryption of the key, and then the micro controller 51 can transfer and load the
encrypted key to the key carrier 63, 65, for example a smart card. In this simple manner
the method and device according to the present invention provide a secure channel and
transfer of encrypted encryption keys used in the system.
One important aspect of the present invention is to use keys encrypted on key carriers
such as smart cards. The key carrier technology permits to "hide" data content inside the
carrier. This feature heightens the security of a key. An even more important aspect of
key carrier technology is that it is possible to let the key carrier in itself generate a
random encryption key for a session. In this manner the whole key process will proceed
without intervention of any human actions thereby increasing the security of the keys
The key carrier 63, 65, carrying the keys, are directly connected via the communication
channel 60 to the device 13. The key device interface 61 can be a dedicated smart card
reader for example. For other types of key carriers, it can be an IR transceiver, radio
transceiver, or other similar device.
The keys are stored in external devices 65 or 63. There are also methods for storing key
data internal in the device 13, in non-volatile memory 52, 53 where the user has to use
authentication procedures to enable these keys (this is a procedure mat can be done
together with other security products).
The present invention protects the loading of external keys by encrypting data to/from
the key carrier 63, 65. According to the present invention, after detection of a key
carrier 63, 65, the device 13 will send a public key to the key carrier 63, 65. The key
carrier 63, 65 will then encrypt, with the public key, a session key to the device 13, then
the device 13 and the key carrier 63, 65 can start to communicate. An alternative way is
to use a key exchange scheme (for example Diffie-Hellman key exchange) to define
session keys. The session key will encrypt all data on the communication channel 60.
The invention will send check messages to the key carrier 63, 65 to ensure that the key
carrier 63, 65 and key device interface 61 is still on-line. This check messages will be
sent at random time intervals with enough data to be sure that the key device interface
61 and key carrier 63, 65, and the device 13 can authenticate each other. If the key
carrier 63, 65 detects irregularities, it will be shut down. If the device 13 detects
irregularities, it will be shut down. One exception to this scheme is that the keys can
have a lifetime parameter. This parameter tells the device 13 how long time period the
keys shall "live" in the device 13 after a key is removed. If the key is removed,
according to the present invention, the device 13 will not shut down the key before the
lifetime has reached the predefined time period. All other detectable "tampering" with
the key or the key device interface 61, will cause the device 13 to shut down all keys.
Shut down, means, that keys are detectably removed from the device 13, and the device
13 will no longer gain access to the protected area defined by the key.
Referring now to fig. 8 the present invention can also execute a data intercept function;
it means it can tag a sector/block, and store the content internally in the ram 31, then the
content can be modified or changed, and then sent to the host computer system 10. With
this function we can alter partition tables on a disk system, change partition tables to
match a key set; e.g. different key set can boot the system with different operating
systems. One key unit can start operating system 1, another key unit can start operating
system 2, where operating system 1 and 2 are isolated from each other on the hard disk
This is a useful function in home office computers, and other computers where more
than one user needs exclusive access and protection of data.
As shown in fig. 8 a hard disk device 16 can be split in several independent isolated
areas of storage. A MBR ( Master Boot Record) contains the necessary information a
computer system first is loading when a system is booted. The content of the MBR tells
the computer system where and how to load the operating system from the hard disk
drive. The MBR for different operating systems on the same hard disk drive can be
stored together with an encryption key in for example a smart card, in accordance with
an embodiment of the invention. As described above, the MBR on the smart card can be
loaded to the ram 31, be decrypted and then be used as the MBR of the hard disk drive
16 connected to the device 13.
The present invention provides also a 2-step boot method of a computer system. First,
send a program code segment (stored in the device 13 in the non volatile memory 52, or
in a key carrier, such as a smart card) to the host computer system 10 that gives the
user/administrator a method for authentication. Secondly, after the authentication has
been successful, download the master boot sector from the hard disk drive to the
The present invention increases the security of a mass storage device by providing a
method and device for encryption/decryption of data stored on addressable portions of a
mass storage media with different algorithms and encryption/decryption keys.
One aspect of the present invention is to provide one key and one algorithm for a
particular addressable portion of the storage media.
Yet another aspect of the present invention is to provide an increased security when
encrypting a such addressable portion of a storage media with that particular key and
algorithm by providing a random number together with the key for randomisation of the
patterns constituted on the media after encryption, even if successive data records are
alike and encrypted with the same key and algorithm. The random numbers are stored in
a table permitting recovery of a particular random number used when decrypting the
data encrypted with this random number selected by the information about the
block/sector number or address of the addressable part of the media.
The present invention provides also a system for securing the downloading of a
particular operating system and operating environment from a hard disk drive to a
computer system which also enables complete physical and logical isolation between
data files for the different operating systems and users of the computer system. The
present invention provides an encryption/decryption method and device that prevents
access to data on a server hard disk, when for instance the disk system on the server is
stolen or removed and transferred to another computer system.
One other aspect of the present invention is to provide an encrypted communication
channel for transferring keys between carriers of keys and a device according to the
WE CLAIM :
1. Method for encryption (enciphering, scrambling)/decryption (deciphering,
descrambling) of data items transferred to or from a mass storage media,
where the mass storage media comprises physically addressable areas,
characterised in that the method comprises the steps of:
providing a plurality of encryption/decryption algorithms with associated
selecting one and use said one of said plurality of encryption/decryption
algorithms with said associated key on a data item to be transferred to or from
an address on the mass storage media, where the selection of said algorithm
and said associated key is based on at least two physical addresses defining
an upper and lower address limit of a span of addressable area enclosing said
address of said data item on said media;
2. Method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the step of selecting the
encryption/decryption algorithm with associated key, comprises the step of
combining said key with a randomly generated number, by concatenation,
subtraction or addition or combination of these operations or any other
arithmetic or logic operation on the two items constituting said random number
and said key.
3. Method as claimed in claim 1 and 2, wherein said address of said table
is an index constituted by at least a part of said address of said data item.
4. Method as claimed in claim 1,2 and 3, wherein said random generated
numbers are stored in tables where the address of said tables is based on two
physical addresses within said selected span of addressable area on said
5. Method as claimed in claim 3 and 4, wherein at least parts of the content
of said table storing said randomly generated numbers is statically or
dynamically replaceable stored in said table.
6. Method as claimed in claim 1, wherein said step of selecting said
algorithm and said associated key comprises the steps of:
providing a collection of spans of addressable areas by listing said lower
and upper address limits in pairs;
providing a linking such that one entry in said collection of addressable
spans of areas is linked to only one of said algorithms not excluding the
possibility that one of said algorithms can be linked to a plurality of spans of
addressable areas in the sense that one algorithm can be used in more than
one span of addressable area of said mass storage media;
using the address of a data item comparing it with all said upper and
lower address limits in said collection, thereby detectably finding the pair of
lower and upper address limits that encloses said address of said data item;
issuing a signal or message containing information about said enclosure
of said data item address thereby identifying the correct one of said encryption/
decryption algorithms by using said linking of algorithms and span of
7. Method as claimed in any claim 1 to 6, wherein said linking of an upper
and lower address pair with an encryption/decryption algorithm and associated
key either is a predefined static linking or a dynamically linking.
8. Method as claimed in claim 1, wherein said keys associated with said
algorithms are transferred from a carrier of a key to said algorithms over a
secure encrypted communication channel by storing said key in a storage
element readably connected to said algorithm.
9. Method as claimed in claim 8, wherein the transfer of said keys is done
by a secure exchange scheme (Diffie-Hellman key exchange scheme) or with a
public private key scheme.
10. Method as claimed in claim 8, wherein said transfer of said keys is done
with an authentication process.
11. Method as claimed in claim 8, wherein said key carrier is a device
comprising processing element(s) and a non-volatile memory.
12. Method as claimed in claim 8, wherein said secure communication
channel is constituted between a key device interface, receivable connected to
said carrier of a key, and an encryption/decryption algorithm.
13. Method as claimed in claim 12, wherein said constituted secure channel
is an optical and/or a fibre communication channel.
14. Method as claimed in claim 12, wherein said constituted secure channel
is a wireless radio communication channel.
15. Method as claimed in claim 12, wherein said constituted secure channel
is a wire based communication channel
16. Method as claimed in claim 11, wherein said key carrier generates an
encryption/decryption key in said embedded processor.
17. Method as claimed in any claim 1 to 16, involving the steps of:
providing a master boot record of a hard disk system encrypted with one
of said plurality of encryption/decryption algorithms with associated key on a
reading the content of said smart card thereby enabling a decryption of
said master boot record in the identifiable decryption algorithm with associated
transferring the decrypted content of the master boot record to a
computer system connected to a hard disk drive system thereby enabling
booting of a computer operating system and/or a certain part of a file system
and/or a system/user environment and/or other type of partition and/or
information stored encrypted on said hard disk drive system to said computer
18. Method as claimed in claim 17, wherein said key carrier comprises one
of a plurality of master boot records and encryption/decryption keys.
19. Device (13) for encryption (enciphering, scrambling)/decryption
(deciphering, de-scrambling) of data items transferred to or from a mass
storage media, where the mass storage media comprises physically
addressable areas, characterised in that the device comprises:
a plurality of electronic encryption/decryption circuitry sections (41a, 41b,
..., 41 n) with a receivable connected memory space for associated
a comparator circuitry (40) partitioned in a plurality of sections
comprising in each section two write-able/readable memory locations (100,
101), two electronic comparator units (102, 103) and a logic gate AND (104)
interconnected such that said memory location (100) is compared with the
content of an address item (105) in said comparator unit (102) to determine if
said address item (105) is greater or equal to said memory location (100), and
at the same time comparing said address item (105) with the content of said
memory location (101) in said comparator unit (103) to determine if said
address item (105) is less or equal to the content of said memory location
(101), whereby the output of said gate (104) generates an enabling signal, in
each said partition of said comparator (40), each said enabling signal is
connected to one of said plurality of electronic encryption/decryption circuitry
sections (41a, 41b, ..., 41 n).
20. Device as claimed in claim 19, wherein there is provided a writeable/
readable table in the device (13) of random generated numbers, whereby said
associated key with said one of selected algorithm, by said enabling signal, is
combined with said random number by a logical or arithmetic operation.
21. Device as claimed in claim 20, wherein the content of said table is
predefined and arranged in a plurality of devices (13).
22. Device as claimed in claim 19, wherein said keys associated with said
algorithms are transferred from a carrier (63, 65) of a key to said algorithms
sections (41a, 41b, ..., 41 n) over a secure encrypted communication channel
(60) to micro controller (51) in said device (13).
23. Device as claimed in claim 22, wherein the transfer of said keys is done
with a Diffie-Hellman key exchange scheme or with a public private key
24. Device as claimed in claim 22, wherein said transfer of said keys is done
with an authentication process.
25. Device as claimed in claim 22, wherein said key carrier (63, 65) is a
device comprising processing element(s) and a non-volatile memory.
26. Device as claimed in claim 22, wherein said secure communication
channel (60) is established between said key carrier (63, 65) receivable
connected to a key device interface (61), and an encryption/decryption section
(41a, 41b.....41 n) via said micro controller (51) and an electronic security unit
27. Device as claimed in claim 26, wherein said key device interface (61) is
a smart card reader.
28. Device as claimed in claim 22, wherein said secure channel (60) is an
optical and/or fibre communication channel.
29. Device as claimed in claim 22, wherein said secure channel (60) is a
wireless radio communication channel.
30. Device as claimed in claim 22, wherein said secure channel (60) is a
wire based communication channel.
31. Device as claimed in claim 19, wherein input and output from said
plurality of electronic encryption/decryption circuitry sections (41a, 41b, ..., 41 n)
is done over a crypto bus (32).
32. Device as claimed in any claim 18 to 30, wherein an internal ram (31) is
connected to said crypto bus (32) via a circuit controller (30).
33. Device as claimed in any claim 19 to 33, wherein an input/output bus
(11) and/or an input/output bus (15) in the device (13) can be one of following
choice, but not limited to: SCSI, IDE, AT, ATA, USB, FireWire, FiberChannel.
34. Device according any claim 19 to 33, wherein said input/output bus (11)
and input/output bus (15) can be different in which case said device controller
(30) execute a protocol translation between said two input/output/ buses (11,
35. Device as claimed in any claim 19 to 34, wherein:
a master boot record of a hard disk system encrypted with one of said
plurality of encryption/decryption algorithms in said electronic encryption/
decryption sections (41a, 41b, ..., 41 n) with associated key is stored on a key
carrier (63, 65);
said micro controller (51) reads and transfer said master boot record for
storing in said ram (31);
a connected computer system (10) can then be booted according to the
content of said ram 31 via the device controller (30) and said interconnecting
36. Device as claimed in any of claims 19 to 35, wherein any e-mail or any
type of electronic data as for example networking traffic can be transferred from
said computer system (10) via said bus (11) and device controller (30) to said
ram (31), and be encrypted/decrypted over said crypto bus (32), and then be
read back to said computer system (10) for further actions.
The present invention provides a method and device performing encryption/
decryption of data on a mass storage media. The device comprises a plurality of
electronic encryption/decryption circuitry sections (41a, 41n) providing a plurality of
encryption/decryption algorithms with a receivable connected memory space for
storing/retrieving the associated encryption/decryption keys, a comparator circuitry
(40) partitioned in a plurality of sections comprising in each section two write-
able/readable memory locations (100, 101) loadable with respectively said lower
physical address and said upper physical address bounding one of said plurality of
segments, two electronic comparator units (102, 103) and a logic gate AND (104)
interconnected such that a content loaded into said memory location (100) is
compared with an associated physical address (105) from the datastream in said
comparator unit (102).
363-kolnp-2004-reply to examination report.1.1.pdf
363-kolnp-2004-reply to examination report.pdf
|Indian Patent Application Number||363/KOLNP/2004|
|PG Journal Number||36/2010|
|Date of Filing||18-Mar-2004|
|Name of Patentee||HIGH DENSITY DEVICES AS|
|Applicant Address||BALLASTGATA 9, N-4515 MANDAL|
|PCT International Classification Number||G06F 1/00|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/NO2002/00342|
|PCT International Filing date||2002-09-25|