Title of Invention

A PROCESS FOR THE GASIFICATION OF BIOMASS

Abstract The present invention relates to the gasification of biomass comprising energising a rice husk gasifier, adding a biomass fuel through the inlet of the gasifier chamber, introducing air or a mixture of steam and air through a second inlet of the gasifier chamber and collecting the producer gas, characterised in that said biomass comprising paddy grains and husk.
Full Text FIELD OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to a process for the gasification of biomass.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
In India, varieties of paddies are observed. These are Rata a, Masuri, IR36,
Sarna, Banspati, Dudkalma, Boro, etc.. Some of them are harvested in rainy
season and some of them are harvested at the end of winter and beginning of
spring. In normal case, percentage of immature/unfertile/dead paddy grains,
locally known as Agra, Chitta, are of the order of 2-3% of the total amount
of paddy. If the climatic condition becomes worse and when the paddy
plants are effected with pests, then the percentage of Agra/Chita/Patan
increases If the paddy plants flower during draught, then the flowers do not
get enough water to mature properly. Draught during the month of
August/September increases the percentage of immature/unfertile/dead
paddy grains (Agra/Chita/Patan).
The above items (Agra/Chita/Patan) look like paddy grains but are very light
and float in water. These are separated out from the paddy grain by blowing
air or manual sheaving. At present, this item has no commercial value.
Further, it is known to use rice-husk gasification for the production of
producer gas. However, the calorific value of the gas produced is not as
desired.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION
It is therefore an object of this invention to propose a process for the
gasification of biomass comprising immature/unfertile/dead paddy grains
alongwith rice husk which produces improved quality producer gas which
can be used as a dual fuel.
It is a further object of this invention to propose a process for the
gasification of biomass comprising immature/unfertile/dead paddy grains
alongwith rice husk which leads to gas with increased calorific value.
Yet another object of this invention is to propose a process for the
gasification of biomass comprising immature/unfertile/dead paddy grains
alongwith rice husk to render the process cost-effective and more efficient.
These and other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent
from the ensuing description.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Thus according to this invention is provided a process for the gasification of
bio-mass comprising energising a rice husk gasifier, adding a biomass fuel
through the inlet of the gasifier chamber, introducing air or a mixture of
steam and air through a second inlet of the gasifier chamber and collecting
the producer gas, characterised in that said biomass comprises paddy grains
and husk.
The gas is produced under several chemical processes. These are drying,
pyrolysis, oxidation and reduction. The oxidation takes place around 700-
2000°C. Heterogeneous reactions take place between oxygen of the air and
solid carbonized fuel to produce carbon monoxide by the following chemical
reactions.
OXIDATION
Carbon C + Oxygen (O2) = Carbon dioxide (CO2) + Heat
In atypical case, nearly 10-11 kgs of carbon is completely combusted with
20 m 3 of oxygen supplied by air blast, produce steam.
Hydrogen (H2) + ½ Oxygen (O2) = Water (H2O) + Heat
REDUCTION
In reducing zone, a number of high temperature chemical reactions took
place. These are
Carbon di-Oxide (CO2) = 2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) - Heat
Carbon C + Water (H2O) = Carbon Monoxide (CO) + Hydrogen (H2) - Heat
Carbon di-Oxide (CO2) + Hydrogen (H2) = Carbon Monoxide (CO) + Water
(H2O)+Heat
And also
Carbon C + 2 Hydrogen (H2) = Methane (CH4) + Heat
It is believed that unfertile/immature/dead paddy grains contain higher
carbon and lower silica component than the rice husk available from
matured paddy grains. As the latter item contains high silicate component
during the combustion process, there is a tendency to form clinkering and
emit high tar and particulates alongwith the gas.
The gasifier is a reactor to initiate therm o chemical reactions of the bio-mass
to generate producer gas. The bio-mass is introduced into the system and
allowed to go into the reactor bed to generate producer gas which is a
mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, tar and
particulates.
Any common gasifier known in the art may be used for the purpose, ie. an
up-draught rice husk gasifier or the down-draught rice husk gasifier. The
bio-mass fuel is added from the top of the gasifier in the case of an up-
draught gasifier. Air or a combination of aft- and steam is introduced at the bottom
of the gasifier chamber. The producer gas come out near the neck of the gasifier.
!n the down-draught rice huek gasifier system, the bio-mass is added from the
top of the gasifier. Air or Steam/Air are introduced in the lower part of the gasifier
and the producer gas comes out from the bottom.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the up-draught and down-draught
gasifier are energized wtth its own operating procedure and allowed to remain for
30-40 mins in operating condition. immature/unfertile/dead paddy grains
(Agra/Chita/Patan) alongwith husk is added. Gradually, the proportion of the
immature/unfertile/dead paddy grains is increased keeping the operation on
going.
The above process will produce good qualfty of producer gas and with dual fuel
engine operation, it replaces more diesels than the gas produced using only rice
husk. However, the gas produced in the btoreactor also contains tar and
particulates. Tar and particulates are very harmful for diesel engines. Thus, in
reality, the gas needs to be free from these tar and particulates. At the first stage
of cleaning, the as generated gas passes through a water washer to dean the tar
and particulates. During washing, the suspended particulates, tar and CO2 are
dissolved in water. As a result, the washed tarry water is acidic in nature and it
affects the system. After a series of processes like drying, filtering and others, the
gas is fed into the dual fuel cNesel generator set to produce electricity. In the
present invention in rice husk alongwKh immature/unfertile/dead paddy grains
(Agra/Chita/Patan) can also be produced into the gasifier reactor for obtaining
food quality of gas. Addition of immature/unfertile/dead paddy grains not only
increases the gas quality but also generates some alkaline particulates which
help to neutralise the acidity of the tarry water. Thus, the use of immature paddy
grains has dual role in gasification process.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE ACCOMPANYING DRAWINGS
This invention wi now bo explained in greater detail with the help of the
accompanying drawings where
Fig. 1 depicts an up-draft rice husk gasifler system.
The bio-mass fuel is added from the top of the gasifler. Air or Steam/Air in
introduced at the bottom of the gasification chamber. The producer gas comes
out near the neck of the gasifler.
Fig 2. shows a down-draft rich husk gasifler system.
The bio-mass fuel is added from the top of the gasifler. Air or Steam/Air are
introduced in the lower part of the gasifler and the producer gas comes out from
the bottom.
Fig 3 shows the normalised diesei replacement with time.
Fig. 3a shows the normalised variation of diesei replacement only wtth husk.
Fig. 3b shows the normalised variation of diesei replacement with husk and
immature/unfertilized/dead paddy grains (Agra/ Chita/ Patan.
This shows the superior performance of the process.
I: CLAIM:
1. A process for the gasification of bio-mass comprising energising a rice
husk gasifier, adding a biomass fuel through the inlet of the gasifier
chamber, introducing air or a mixture of steam and air through a second
inlet of the gasifier chamber and collecting the producer gas,
characterised in that said biomass comprises paddy grains and husk.
2. The process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the rice husk gasifier is
selected from an up-draught and a down-draught gasifier.
3. The process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the gasifier is energised with
its own operating procedure.
4. The process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the gasifier is maintained at
30-40 m ins. in its energised condition before adding the biomass.
5. The process as claimed in claim 1 wherein said paddy grains are
immature, unfertile or dead paddy grains.
6. The process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the proportion of paddy grains
and husk is from 10:90 to 50:50.
7. The process as claimed in claim 1 wherein said producer gas contains
carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen.
8. The process for the gasification of bio-mass substantially as herein
described and illustrated.


The present invention relates to the gasification of biomass comprising energising a
rice husk gasifier, adding a biomass fuel through the inlet of the gasifier chamber,
introducing air or a mixture of steam and air through a second inlet of the gasifier
chamber and collecting the producer gas, characterised in that said biomass
comprising paddy grains and husk.

Documents:

583-cal-2001-abstract.pdf

583-cal-2001-claims.pdf

583-cal-2001-correspondence 1.1.pdf

583-cal-2001-correspondence.pdf

583-cal-2001-description (complete).pdf

583-cal-2001-description (provisional).pdf

583-cal-2001-drawings.pdf

583-cal-2001-examination report 1.1.pdf

583-cal-2001-examination report.pdf

583-cal-2001-form 1.pdf

583-cal-2001-form 18.1.pdf

583-cal-2001-form 18.pdf

583-cal-2001-form 2.pdf

583-cal-2001-form 26.1.pdf

583-cal-2001-form 26.pdf

583-cal-2001-form 3.1.pdf

583-cal-2001-form 3.pdf

583-cal-2001-form 5.1.pdf

583-cal-2001-form 5.pdf

583-cal-2001-granted-abstract.pdf

583-cal-2001-granted-claims.pdf

583-cal-2001-granted-description (complete).pdf

583-cal-2001-granted-drawings.pdf

583-cal-2001-granted-form 1.pdf

583-cal-2001-granted-form 2.pdf

583-cal-2001-granted-specification.pdf

583-cal-2001-reply to examination report.pdf

583-cal-2001-specification.pdf


Patent Number 242622
Indian Patent Application Number 583/CAL/2001
PG Journal Number 36/2010
Publication Date 03-Sep-2010
Grant Date 02-Sep-2010
Date of Filing 11-Oct-2001
Name of Patentee GHOSH BISWAJIT, PROF.
Applicant Address ENERGY SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF ENERGY STUDIES, JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY, KOLKATA
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 GHOSH BISWAJIT, PROF. ENERGY SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF ENERGY STUDIES, JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY, KOLKATA
PCT International Classification Number C10B 53/00
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 NA