|Title of Invention||
PROCESS FOR PURIFICATION OF 4-CHLORO-4-HYDROXY BENZOPHENONE AND ITS POLYMERISATION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF POLY ETHER KETONE (PEK)
|Abstract||4-Chloro-4'-hydroxybenzophenone - preferably prepared by reaction of 4-chlorobenzoyl chloride and phenol using AlClз catalyst in orthodichlorobenzene solvent - is purified by distillation under vacuum, more conveniently in combination with a solvent such as diphenyl sulfone, to give a high purity monomer which can be polymerized, using, e.g.,K2C0з at 330°C, to yield poly(ether ketone) - PEK - with excellent properties.|
|Full Text||FORM 2
The Patent Act 1970,
(39 of 1970)
The Patent rule 2003
(See Section 10 and Rule 13)
1. TITLE OF THE INVENTION
" Improved processes for the production of poly (ether ketone)- PEK - and its monomer "
(a) NAME : GHARDA CHEMICALS LIMITED
(b) NATIONALITY : INDIAN
(c) ADDRESS: B-27/29, MIDC PHASE-1, DOMBIVLI, DIST. THANE, PIN 421 203, INDIA
3. PREAMBLE OF THE DESCRIPTION
The following specification particularly describes the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed.
Improved processes for the production of poly (ether ketone)- PEK - and its monomer
Poly (Ether Ketone) - PEK - introduced by ICI Pic is a high performance polymer with a melting point (Tm) of 370°C and glass transition temperature (Tg) of 165°C. The polymer has good mechanical properties, high thermal properties, very good chemical resistance and oxidation stability. It finds application in aerospace, industrial and automotive applications due to its stability at elevated temperatures and in corrosive chemical environments. Though the low Tg results in a decrease in modulus at elevated temperatures, the superior thermal properties make it more acceptable in the high end applications.
In spite of its superior properties, commercial use of the polymer has so far been limited due to limited availability and high price. May be the need for higher processing temperatures was also one of the reasons for the limited use. Furthermore, the introduction of poly(ether ether ketone)- PEEK - by a more economically feasible route made inroads into applications where PEK was used. However, the need for an economic route for PEK remained a necessity and it is this objective and motivation, which have driven our research towards it.
Though several routes have been published in the literature on the synthesis of PEK, our research has shown that these are not economically feasible manufacturing processes for producing polymer meeting stringent quality requirements.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION :
The present invention relates to a process firstly for producing high purity monomer 4-chloro-4'-hydroxy benzophenone (CHBP) by distillation under vacuum and then for the polymerization of the same to form PEK. Purification by
vacuum distillation offers the high purity required for the monomer. The purification process is more conveniently done by co-distilling with a solvent such as diphenylsulfone. Preferably the polymerization of the distillate is carried out in a mixture containing the same solvent.
PUBLISHED LITERATURE ON PEK :
There are numerous papers and patents published on processes for PEK, based
on both the nucleophilic and electrophilic routes. Some of the pertinent prior art is
covered in the following publications, which pertain to the route starting from
i) EP 0344688A2 describing an improved method of making the
phenolate of CHBP ii) US Patent 4711945 describing polymerization in presence of copper
salt as catalyst, iii) Polymer 1981, Vol. 22, page 1096, describes preparation of PEK by reaction of 4,4'-difluoro diphenyl ketone and potassium salt of 4,4'-dihydroxy diphenyl ketone in DPS02 solvent at 335°C. The same paper describes polymerization using single monomer, potassium salt of 4-fluoro-4'-hydroxy diphenyl ketone leading to branching.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION :
Poly(ether ketone) - PEK - having the following repeating structure
can be prepared by various methods described well in the literature. The prominent method described in the literature is by self condensation of the monomer 4-hydroxy-4'-fluoro or chlorobenzophenone. The fluoro derivative is
more facile to react giving the polymer but has the disadvantage of higher cost and branching occurring during polymerization, resulting in inferior toughness property of the polymer. The chloro derivative is devoid of these problems.
The present inventors have concentrated on the use of 4-chloro-4'-hydroxy benzophenone as the monomer for polymerization to give PEK due to its ease of preparation and lower cost of production. However, our finding is that it is difficult to purify the monomer to the required purity level. Utilising repeated crystallizations after using adsorbants like silica and charcoal, monomer suitable for polymerization was obtained. However, the polymer prepared from such monomer lacked the properties required for withstanding severe thermal conditions. Our investigations in detail led us to believe that this is also a reason for the non-availability of the polymer at an economically affordable price.
Our research on this led to the finding that a good way to purify the monomer is by distillation under vacuum, which is hitherto unreported. 4-Chloro-4'-hydroxy benzophenone, during its manufacture retains high molecular weight impurities, aluminium salts, etc, which are difficult to be removed by normal purification methods. The physical properties of some relevant compounds are provided in Table1. Thermal instability, high melting point and boiling point pose problems in the distillation of CHBP. However, using a short contact distillation technique and special scrape surface condensers, we succeeded in the distillation process. The narrow difference of boiling point and melting point made this method of distillation a highly skilled engineering operation. Compared with the monomer formed via the crystallization route, the distilled product gave superior performance in the polymerization step and better polymer properties.
2. TABLE 1
Compound B.P. °C Pressure mm Hg M.P. °C Thermal stability DSC method
4-Chloro-4'- 213 1 182 Begins to
hydroxybenzophenone 223 2 decompose at
Diphenylsulfone (DPS02) 195 2.5 129 Stable up to
205 4.5 378X (B.P.)
Mixture of CHBP + 192-205°C 2.5 115-120 -
DPS02 (1 : 2.6)
In order to overcome the difficulties in distillation, attempts were made to co-distill CHBP with other close boiling compounds. Reduced pressure distillation was tried and found effective for compatible solvents which lower the boiling point of CHBP and which are thermally stable at the lowered boiling point. The distillation should be carried out preferably at reduced pressure of less than 5mmHg, more preferably 3 to 1mm Hg, for practical convenience about 2.5mm Hg. Due to diphenyl sulfone being used as a possible solvent for the polymerization step, this was tried as the compound for co-distillation with CHBP and it was surprisingly found that DPS02 is an abundantly suitable compound also for co-distillation.
Moreover, diphenyl sulfone is thermally very stable and is a very suitable solvent for the monomer for the polymerization step.
The compound chosen for co-distillation should be one having a boiling point close to that of 4-chloro-4'-hydroxy benzophenone and a lower melting point, and also should be thermally stable. Compounds other than DPS02 which can be used are diphenylene sulfone, benzophenone, dichloro benzophenone, etc. However, these others were not found to be as good as diphenyl sulfone for the co-distilling step.
The MP of the mixture of 1:2.6 parts of CHBP: DPS02, which is the optimum composition used for polymerization, dropped to 115°C. This solved the engineering problems associated with the high melting point during distillation of CHBP alone. Our experiments gave results which showed that the mixture of CHBP + DPS02 distilled at a lower temperature than the individual compounds and that the distillation proceeded smoothly. This was attributed possibly to an azeotrope formation between CHBP and DPS02. The generally preferred range for CHBP: co-distilling solvent is 1:2 to 1:5.
The polymerization is preferably carried out by forming the alkali metal salt of CHBP and conducting the polymerization in DPS02 solvent at 330°C. Whilst the alkali metal could be sodium (Na) or potassium (K), the preferred metal is K. The salt could be formed using alkali metal carbonate or hydroxide. The preferred base is K2C03. Removal of water during the salt formation, whether K2CO3 or KOH was used, is important for the smooth polymerization process. The temperature required for reasonable rates of polymerization is in the range of 300-340°C, the more preferred range being 325-335X.
The above invention of ours has led to an industrial process of purification of the key monomer CHBP suitable for polymerization, giving high quality PEK.
The present invention will now be explained below in further detail with examples of specific embodiments. However, it should be understood that the present invention is by no means restricted to the specific examples given below.
140 g of anhydrous AICI3 was slurried into 300 ml of o-dichlorobenzene (ODCB) solvent at 30°C. A solution of 94 g of phenol in 100 ml of ODCB was added over 2 hours at 30°C. The addition was exothermic and cooling was required. A solution of 174g of p-chlorobenzoyl chloride in 200 ml of ODCB was added to the
mixture which was kept stirred at 30°C over 3 hours. After the addition, the mixture was heated to 80°C over 2 hours and maintained at 80°C . HCI gas was evolved and scrubbed out. Samples of the reaction mixture were analyzed by glc until >99% reaction was found to have been completed. The reaction mixture was drowned into 1 It of 0.5N HCI maintained at The solid thus formed was further purified by dissolution in 1400 ml of a toluene-acetone (90:10) solvent mix at 80°C and charcoalised using 1 g of activated carbon. The filtrate was cooled to 20°C and filtered to give a product weighing 158 g, viz 68% overall yield. The product was analyzed by glc and was found to be >99% pure. However this product polymerized only with difficulty and did not give a polymer of good quality and consistency.
100 g of the product obtained in Examplel was taken for vacuum distillation for further purification to remove non-volatile substances. The apparatus consisted of a flask heated by the heating oil Therminol, an externally electrically heated vapor line, a solid scraping condenser, and a solids receiver. In an alterantive arrangement the vapor line could directly lead to the receiving pot which was kept cooled, and the product could then be removed by melting and casting into a tray.
The crude product was melted in the flask at at least 200°C and then a vacuum was applied to reduce the pressure in the flask to 1-2 mmHg. The distillation occurred in a vapor temperature range of 210-225°C. The distillation took about 1 hr. The distillate weight was 86g, i.e. 86% recovery, and its purity was found to
be 99.5% by glc. It was a near white material. The product was directly used for polymerization.
100 g of the product obtained in Example 1 was mixed with 260 g of pure diphenyl sulfone in a 1000 ml distillation flask. The mixture was melted and distilled under vacuum directly at a vapor temperature of 192-205°C at a pressure of 2 mmHg. The product had a lower melting point and a boiling range than CHBP itself. The distilled product was analyzed by glc analysis. The analysis indicated that 96 g of CHBP had distilled out along with the DPS02 solvent. The distillation residue weighed 3.5g indicating very low degradation during distillation. The distilled product along with the co-distilled DPS02 was used for polymerization.
116.3 g of the distilled CHBP obtained from Example 2 was mixed with 300 g of diphenyl sulfone in a polymerization reactor of a suitable corrosion resistant steel alloy. The reactor consisted of a 3" dia cylindrical vessel with an oil heating jacket arrangement. The stirrer was of a helical type fabrication. The stirrer motor was provided with a sensor arrangement for measuring the torque developed during the polymerization reaction and to indicate the viscosity level of the reaction mixture. A thermocouple temperature indicator was present in the reactor to measure the reaction mixture temperature. Provision for N2 gas purging of the reactor was also made.
To the reaction mixture, 0.2625 moles of K2C03 (36.30 g) passable through a 200 mesh sieve was added at 135°C. The mixture was heated to 200°C and maintained for one hour under an N2 atmosphere to facilitate the dehydration of the mixture. The temperature was then increased to 300°C over 1.5 hrs and maintained for 2 hrs. The temperature was then further raised to 330°C over 1 hr and maintained at this temperature to build the required viscosity of the reaction
mixture. When the required viscosity was reached, the polymer was end capped by adding 1 mole% of 4-fluoro benzophenone and maintaining for 0.5 hrs. The reaction mixture was cooled to 300°C and discharged into another vessel containing 2 It of chlorobenzene solvent kept stirred at 130°C. The mixture was filtered at 130° and the cake refluxed with chlorobenzene and filtered. The process was repeated 4 or 5 times until all the DPS02 solvent was leached out. The cake was further refluxed with water to remove mineral salts and dried to give 93 g of solids - a yield of 95% PEK polymer. The solids as a 0.25% solution in 98% H2S04 had an inherent viscosity of 0.92 dl/g.
The experimental procedure of Example 4 was repeated with the exception that
the distillate mixture of CHBP and DPS02 obtained from Example 3 was directly
used after analyzing the content of CHBP in it. The batch size was adjusted to
0.5 mole (116.3 g) CHBP as in Example 4 and the process was continued in the
The weight of product obtained was 94 g, i.e. a weight yield of 96%. The inherent
viscosity measured as a 0.25% solution in 98% H2S04 was 0.93 dl/g.
1. A process for the production of purified 4-chloro-4'-hydroxy benzophenone comprising distilling a liquid containing 4-chloro-4'-hydroxy benzophenone under reduced pressure.
2. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the distillation pressure is less than 5mm Hg, and preferably 3 to 1mm Hg, more preferably about 2.5 mm Hg.
3. A process as claimed in claim 1 or claim 2 wherein the liquid being distilled contains a compatible solvent which lowers the boiling point of the 4-chloro-4'-hydroxy benzophenone and is thermally stable at the lowered boiling point.
4. A process as claimed in claim 3 wherein the compatible solvent is diphenylene sulphone, or more preferably diphenyl sulphone.
5. A process as claimed in claim 4 wherein the ratio in the liquid being distilled of 4-chloro-4'-hydroxy benzophenone to diphenyl sulphone is between 1:2 and 1:5, preferably 1:2.6, by volume.
6. A process as claimed in claim 1 substantially as hereinbefore described.
7. A process as claimed in claim 1 substantially as hereinbefore described in any one of the Examples.
8. A process for the production of unsubstituted poly ether ketone comprising polymerising 4-chloro-4'-hydroxy benzophenone which has been purified by a process as claimed in any one of the preceding claims.
9. A process as claimed in claim 8 wherein the polymerisation is effected by the self condensation of an alkali metal salt formed from the purified benzophenone.
10. A process as claimed in claim 9 wherein the alkali metal salt is formed by reacting the purified benzophenone with the carbonate or hydroxide of either sodium or potassium, preferably potassium carbonate.
11. A process as claimed in claim 8 or claim 9 wherein the purified benzophenone is polymerised in the presence of diphenyl sulphone.
12. A process as claimed in claim 11 wherein the ratio of the purified benzophenone to diphenyl sulphone is between 1:2 and 1:5, preferably 1:2.6 by volume, and the polymerization is carried out at a temperature of 300 - 340°C, preferably 325 to 335°C, and more preferably at about 330°C.
13. A process as claimed in claim 8 substantially as hereinbefore described.
14. A process as claimed in claim 8 substantially as hereinbefore described in any one of the Examples.
Date: 04th sept. 2006
Satish Bhalchandra Limaye (Senior Officer-Scientific Information and I PR Management)
Improved processes for the production of poly (ether ketone)-
PEK - and its monomer
4-Chloro-4'-hydroxybenzophenone - preferably prepared by reaction of 4-chlorobenzoyl chloride and phenol using AICI3 catalyst in orthodichlorobenzene solvent - is purified by distillation under vacuum, more conveniently in combination with a solvent such as diphenyl sulfone, to give a high purity monomer which can be polymerized, using, e.g.,K2C03 at 330°C, to yield poly(ether ketone) - PEK - with excellent properties.
|Indian Patent Application Number||1413/MUM/2006|
|PG Journal Number||11/2010|
|Date of Filing||04-Sep-2006|
|Name of Patentee||GHARDA CHEMICALS LIMITED|
|Applicant Address||B-27/29 MIDC PHASE-1, DOMBIVLI, DIST. THANE, PIN 421 203,|
|PCT International Classification Number||C08F246/00|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|