Title of Invention  "A SYSTEM FOR OBTAINING INFORMATION ON OBJECTS" 

Abstract  A method for obtaining information on objects, for communication to users in one or more groups of users or cohorts. User record information, including user characteristics and a record of previous evaluations of objects by users are recorded. Cohort specific parameters are determined from said user record information, characterizing predicted evaluations of objects by users in a particular cohort. Discrete user specific parameters are determined for individual users within a cohort from cohort specific parameters corresponding to said user and on the basis of the record of previous evaluations of objects by that user. Said discrete user parameters thereafter determine predicted evaluations of objects for each of said one or more users, which predicted evaluations are communicated to the users. A related method is provided for identifying similar users on the basis of the record of previous evaluations and the cohort specific parameters and discrete user parameters. 
Full Text  CrossReference to Related Applications [01] This application claims the benefit of U. S. Provisional Application No. 60/404,419, filed August 19,2002, U. S. Provisional Application No. 60/422,704, filed October 31,2002, and U. S. Provisional Application No. 60/448, 596 filed February 19, 2003. These applications are incorporated herein by reference. Background [02] This invention relates to a system for obtaining information on objects, for communication to users in one or more groups of users or cohorts and for identifying similar users, on the basis of a record of previous evaluations of objects. Summary [03] In a general aspect, the invention features a method for recommending items in a domain to users, either individually or in groups. Users' characteristics, their carefully elicited preferences, and a history of their ratings of the items are maintained in a database. Users are assigned to cohorts that are constructed such that significant betweencohort differences emerge in the distribution of preferences. Cohortspecific parameters and their precisions are computed using the database, which enable calculation of a riskadjusted rating for any of the items by a typical nonspecific user belonging to the cohort. Personalized modifications of the cohort parameters for individual users are computed using the individualspecific history of ratings and stated preferences. These personalized parameters enable calculation of a individualspecific riskadjusted rating of any of the items relevant to the user. The method is also applicable to recommending items suitable to groups of joint users such a group of friends or a family. In another general aspect, the invention features a method for discovering users who share similar preferences. Similar users to a given user are identified based on the closeness of the statistically computed personalpreference parameters. [04] In one aspect, in general, the invention features a method, software, and a system for recommending items to users in one or more groups of users. Userrelated data is maintained, including storing a history of ratings of items by users in the one or more groups of users. Parameters associated with the one or more groups using the userrelated data are computed. This computation includes, for each of the one or more groups of users, computation of" parameters characterizing predicted ratings of items by users in the group. Personalized statistical parameters are computed for each of one or more individual users using the parameters associated with that user's group of users and the stored history of ratings of items by that user. Parameters characterizing predicted ratings of the items by the each of one or more users are then enabled to be calculated using the personalized statistical parameters. [05] In another aspect, in general, the invention features a method, software, and a system for identifying similar users. A history of ratings of the items by users in a group of users is maintained. Parameters are then calculated using the history of ratings. These parameters are associated with the group of users and enable computation of a predicted rating of any of the items by an unspecified user in the group. Personalized statistical parameters for each of one or more individual users in the group are also calculated using the parameters associated with the group and the history of ratings of the items by that user. There personalized parameters enable computation of a predicted rating of any of the items by that user. Similar users to a first user are identified using the computed personalized statistical parameters for the users. Therefore the invention provides a method for obtaining information on objects, for communication to users in one or more groups of users comprising recording user record information, wherein said user record information includes a record of previous evaluations of objects by users in said one or more groups of users, determining parameters corresponding to said one or more groups on the basis of the user record information, including determining for each of said one or more groups of users, parameters characterizing predicted evaluations of objects by users in the corresponding one or more groups, determining discrete parameters for each of one or more individual users on the basis of the parameters relating to the group corresponding to said user and on the basis of the record of previous evaluations of objects by said user and determining parameters characterizing predicted evaluations of the objects for the each of one or more users on the basis of said discrete parameters, said parameters comprising the information on objects for communication to users. The invention further provides a method for identifying similar users comprising providing a record of previous evaluations of the objects by users in a group of users, determining parameters on the basis of the record of previous evaluations, said parameters corresponding to the group of users and enabling determination of a predicted evaluation of any of the objects by an unspecified user in the group, determining discrete parameters for each of one or more individual users in the group using the parameters associated with the group and the record of previous evaluations of the objects by that user, said discrete parameters enabling determination of a predicted evaluation of any of the objects by that user and identifying similar users on the basis of the determined discrete parameters for the users. [06] Other features and advantages of the invention are apparent from the following description, and from the claims. Description of Drawings [07] FIG. 1 is a data flow diagram of a recommendation system; [08] FIG. 2 is a diagram of data representing the state of knowledge of items, cohorts, and individual users; [09] FIG. 3 is a diagram of a scorer module; [010] FIG. 4 is a diagram that illustrates a parameterupdating process; Description 1 Overview (FIG. 1) [011] Referring to FIG. 1, a recommendation system 100 provides recommendations 110 of items to users 106 in a user population 105. The system is applicable to various domains of items. In the discussion below movies are used as an example domain. The approach also applies, for example, to music albums/CDs, movies and TV shows on broadcast or subscriber networks, games, books, news, apparel, recreational travel, and restaurants. In the first version of the system described below, all items belong to only one domain. Extensions to recommendation across multiple domains are feasible. {012] The system maintains a state of knowledge 130 for items that can be recommended and for tisers for whom recommendations can be made. A scorer 125 uses this knowledge to generate expected ratinp 120 for particular items and particular users. Based on the expected ratings, a recommender 115 produces recommendations 110 for particular users 106, generally attempting to recommend items that the user would value highly. {013J To generate a recommendation 110 of items for a user 106, recommendation system 100 draws upen that user's history of use of the system, and the history of use of the system by other users. Over time the system receives ratings 145 for items that users are familiar with. For example, a user can provide a rating for a movie that he or she has seen, possibly alter that movie was previously recommended to that user by the system. The recommendation system also supports an elicitation mode in which ratings for items are elicited from a user, for example, by presenting a short list of items in an initial enrollment phase for the user and asking the user to rate those stems with which he or she is familiar or allowing the user to supply a list of favorites. [014] Additional information about a user is also typically elicited. For example, the user's demographics and the user's explicit likes and dislikes on selected item attributes are elicited. These elicitation questions are selected to maximize the expected value of the information about the user's preferences taking into account the effort required to elicit the answers from the user. For example, a user may find that it takes more "effort" to answer a question that asks how much he or she likes something as compared to a question that asks how often that user does a specific activity. The elicitation mode yields eticttations 150. Ratings 145 and elicitations 150 for all users of the system are included in an overall history 140 of the system, A state updater 135 updates the state of knowledge 130 using this history. This updating procedure makes use of statistical techniques, including statistical regression and Bayesian parameter estimation techniques. 015] Recommendation system 100 makes use of explicit and implicit (latent) attributes of the recommendable items. Item data 165 includes explicit information about these recommendable items. For example, for movies, such explicit information includes the director, actors, year of release, etc. An item attributizer 160 uses item data 165 to set parameters of the state of knowledge 130 associated with the items. Item attribulizer 160 estimates latent attributes of the items that are not explicit in item data 165. [016] Users are indexed by n which ranges from 1 to N. Each user bclonp to one of a disjoint set of D cohorts, indexed by d. The system can be configured for various definitions of cohorts. For example, cohorts can be based on demographics of the users such as age or sex and on explicitly announced tastes on key broad characteristics of the items. Alternatively, latent cohort classes can be statistically determined based on a weighted composite of demographics and explicitly announced tastes. The number and specifications of cohorts are chosen according to statistical criteria, such as to balance adequacy of observations per cohort, homogeneity within cohort, or heterogeneity between cohorts. For simplicity of exposition below, the cohort index d is suppressed in some equations and each user is assumed assigned on only one cohort The set of users belonging to cohort d is denoted by Dd. The system can be configured to not use separate cohorts in recommending items by essentially considering only a single cohort with D=l. 2 State of Knowledge 130 (FIG. 2) [01?] Referring to FIG. 2, state of knowledge 130 includes state of knowledge of items 210, state of knowledge of users 240, and state of knowledge of cohorts 270. [018) State of knowledge of items 210 includes separate item data 220 for each of the /recommendable items. [019 ] Data 220 for each item i includes K attributes, Xik, which are represented as a Kdimensional vector, xi 230. Each xik is a numeric quantity, such as a binary number indicating presence or absence of a particular attribute, a scalar quantity that indicates the degree to which a particular attribute is present, or a scalar quantity that indicates the intensity of the attribute, 020] Data 220 for each item i also includes V explicit features, vik, which at; represented as a Kdimenstonal vector, vi 232. As is discussed further below, some attributes xik are deterministic functions of these explicit features and are termed explicit attributes, while other of the attributes x,ik are estimated by item attributizer 160 based on explicit features of that item or of other items, and based on expert knowledge of the domain. [021] For movies, examples of explicit features and attributes are the year of original release, its MPAA rating and the reasons for the rating, the primary language of the dialog, keywords in a description or summary of the plot, production/distribution studio, and classification into genres such as a romantic comedy or action scifi. Examples of latent attributes are a degree of humor, of thoughtfuktcss, and of violence, which are estimated from the explicit features. {022 J State of knowledge of users 240 includes separate user data 250 for each of the N users. 1023) Data for each user n includes an explicit user "preference" zkl for one or more attributes k. The set of preferences is represented as a Kdimensiooal vector, zn„ 265. Preference znk indicates the liking of attribute k by user n relative to the typical person in the user's cohort. Attributes for which the user has not expressed a preference are represented by a zero value of znk, A positive (larger) value znk corresponds to higher preference (liking) relative to the cohort, and a negative (smaller) z„k corresponds to a preference against (dislike) for the attribute relative to the cohort. (024) Data 250 for each user n also includes statistically estimated parameters *„ 260. These parameters include a scalar quantity αn 262 and a K'dimensional vector 0n 264 that represent the estimated (expected) "taste" of the user relative to the cohort which is not accounted for by their explicit preference. Parameters an 262 and 0„ 264, together with the user's explicit "preference" zn 265, are used by scorer 125 in mapping an item's attributes x, 230 to an expected rating of that item by that user. Statistical parameters 265 for a user also include a V +1 dimensional vector rn 266 that are used by scorer 125 in weighting a combination of an expected rating for the item for the cohort to which the user belongs as well as explicit features v, 232 to the expected rating of that item by that user. Statistical parameters xn 260 are represented as the stacked vector r, =[α„,ß,,r),]' of the components described above. J025J User data 2S0 also includes parameters characterizing the accuracy or uncertainty of the estimated parameters tn in the form of a precision (inverse covariance) matrix P„ 268. This precision matrix is used by state updater 135 in updating estimated parameters 260, and optionally by scorer 125 in evaluating an accuracy or uncertainty of the expected ratings it generates. [026J State of knowledge of cohorts 270 includes separate cohort data 280 for each of the D cohorts. This data includes a number of statistically estimated parameters that are associated with the cohort as a whole. A vector of regression coefficients p^ 290, which is of dimension I + K + V, is used by scorer 125 to map a stacked vector (l,xj, vj) for an item 1 to a rating score for that item that is appropriate for the cohort as a whole. [027] The cohort data also includes a Kdimensional vector d292 that is used to weight the explicit preferences of members of that cohort. That is, if a user n has expressed art explicit preference for attribute k of z„k, and user » is in cohort d, then that product z^ = Zn k k is used by scorer 125 in determining the contribution based on the user's explicit ratings as compared to the contribution based on other estimated parameters, and in determining the relative contribution of explicit preferences for different of the K attributes. Other parameters, including d 296, d 297, and d 294, are estimated by state updater 135 and used by scorer 125 in computing a contribution of a user's cohort to the estimated rating. Cohort data 280 also includes a cohort rating or fixedeffect vector f 298, whose elements are the expected rating fa of each item i based on the sample histories of the cohort d that "best" represent a typical user of UK cohort. Finally, cohort data 280 includes a prior precision matrix P. 299, which characterizes a prior distribution for the estimated user parameters i, 280, which are used by state updater 125 as a starting point of a procedure to personalize parameters to an individual user. 028J A discussion of how the various variables in state of knowledge 130 are determined is deferred to Section 4 in which details of state updater 125 are presented. 3 Scoring (FIG. 3) 029J Recommendation system 100 employs a model that associates a numeric variable rm to represent the cardinal preference of user n for item 1. Here rm can be interpreted as the rating the user has already given, or the unknown rating the user would give the item. In a specific version of the system that was implemented for validating experiments, these rating lie on a 1 to 5 scale. For eliciting ratings from the user, the system maps descriptive phrases, such as "great" or "OK." or "poor," to appropriate integers in the valid scale. f030J For an item 1 that a user n has not yet rated, recommendation system 100 treats the unknown rating rm that user « would give item 1 as a random variable. The decision on whether to recommend item i to user n at time t is based on state of knowledge 130 at that time. Scorer 125 computes an expected rating rm 120, based on the estimated statistical properties of rm, and also computes a confidence or accuracy of that estimate. {031 ] The scorer 125 computes rtn based on a number of subestimates that include: a. A cohortbased prior rating fa 310, which is an element of f 298. b. An explicit deviation 320 of user I'S rating relative to the representative or prototypical user of the cohort d to which the user belongs that is associated with explicitly elicited deviations in preferences for the attributes x, 230 for the item. These deviations are represented in the vector zn 265. An estimated mapping vector d 292 for the cohort translates the deviations in preferences into rating units. c. An inferred deviation 330 of user »"*s rating (relative to the representative or prototypical user of the cohort d to which the user belongs taking into account the elicited deviations in preferences) arises from any nonzero personal parameters, α„ 262, ßn 264, and r„ 266, in the state of knowledge of users 130. Such nonzero estimates of the personal parameters are inferred from the history of ratings of the user /. This inferred ratings deviation is the inner product of the personal parameters with the attributes xt 230, the cohort effect term fa 298, and features vf 232. (032] The specific computation performed by scorer 125 is expressed as: (033) (Equation Removed) (1) [034] Here the three parenthetical terms correspond to the three components (a.c.) above, and zn m diag(zn,) d (i.e., the direct product of z„ and d ). Note that multiplication of vectors denotes inner products of the vectors. [035] As discussed further below, fa is computed as a combination of a number of cohortbased estimates as follows: [036] (Equation Removed) (2) [037} where rd = Σ nmDd /Nd is the average rating for item . for users of the cohort, and Ji d is the average rating for users outside the cohort. As discussed further below, parameters id and id depend on an underlying set of estimated parameters (Equation Removed) [038] Along with the expected rating for an item, scorer 125 also provides an estimate of the accuracy of the expected rating, based on an estimate of the variance using the rating model. In particular, an expected rating rtH is associated with a variance of the estimate am which is computed using the posterior precision of the user's parameter estimates. {0391 Scorer 125 does not necessarily score all items in the domain. Based on preferences elicited from a user, the item set is filtered based on the attributes for the item by the scorer before passing computing the expected ratings for the items and passing them to the recommendcr. 4 Parameter compoutation [040] Cohort data 280 for each cohort d includes a cohort effect term fid for each item i. If there are sufficient ratings of item i by users belonging to Dd, whose number is denoted by Nid, then the cohort effect term fa can be efficiently estimated by the sample's average rating (Equation Removed) (041] In many instances, N id is insufficient and the value of the cohort effect term of the rating is only imprecisely estimated by the sample average of the ratings by other users in the cohort. A better finitesample estimate of fa is obtained by combining the estimate due to rjd with alternative estimators, which may not be as asymptotically efficient or perhaps not even converge. J042] One alternative estimator employs ratings of item i by users outside of cohort d. Let Njtd denote the number of such ratings available for item i. Suppose the cohorts arc exchangeable in the sense that inference is invariant to permutation of cohort suffixes. This alternative estimator, the sample average of these N id rating for item i users outside cohort, is denoted r j d. 043J A second alternative estimator is a regression of rm on [1, x 1]' yielding a vector of regression coefficients pd 290. This regression estimator is important for items that have few ratings (possibly zero, such as for brand new items). [044J All the parameter for the estimators, as well as parameters that determine the relative weights of the estimators, are estimated together using the following nonlinear regression equation based on the sample of all ratings from the users of cohort d: {045] (Equation Removed) (3) (046] Here r d m is the mean rating for item i by users in cohort d excluding user m pd is interpretable as the vector of coefficients associated with the item's attributes that can predict the average betweenitem variation in ratings without using information on the ratings assigned to the items by other users (or when some of the items for whom prediction is sought are as yet unrated). The weights id and id are nonlinear functions of Nid and Nid which depend on the underlying set of parameters 1047) I048 (Equation Removed) (049] The . 's are positive parameters to be estimated. Note that the relative importance of r id grows with N i d. [050] All the parameters in equation (3) are invariant across users in the cohort d. However, with smalt N□D , even these parameters may not be precisely estimated. In such cases, an alternative is to impose exchangeability across cohorts for the coefficients of equation (3) and then draw strength firom pooling the cohorts. Modern Bayesian estimation employing MarkovChain MonteCarlo methods are suitable with the practically valuable assumption of exchangeability. 1051] The key estimates obtained from fitting the nonlinear regression (3) to the sample data, whether by classical methods for each cohort separately or by pooled Bayesian estimation under assumptions of exchangeability, are: yd, and the parameters that enable fa to be computed for different i. [052] Referring to FIG. 4, state updater 135 includes a cohort regression module 430 that computes the quantities yd 292, pd 290, and the four scalar components of d = ( equation (2). Based on these quantities, a cohort derived terms module 440 computes 296 and id 297 and from those fa 298 according to equation (2). [053] State updater 135 also includes a Bayesian updater 460 that updates parameters of user data 280. In particular, Bayesian updater 460 maintains an estimate zN = (α ßn, Tn )' 260 as well as a precision matrix P„ 268. The initial values of Pn and rn are common to all users of a cohort. The value of xn is initially zero. [054] The initial value of P„ is computed by precision estimator 450, and is a component for cohort data 280, Pd . The initial value of the precision matrix P„ is obtained through a random coefficients implementation of equation (I) without the fa term. Specifically, each user in a cohort is assumed to have coefficient that are a random draw from a fixed multivariate normal distribution whose parameters are to be estimated. la practice, the multivariate normal distribution is assumed to have a diagonal covariance matrix for simplicity. The means and the variances of the distribution are estimated using MarkovChain MonteCarlo methods common to empirical Bayes estimation. The inverse of this estimated variance matrix is used as the initial precision matrix P„. [055] Parameters of state of users 250 are initially set when the cohort terms are updated and then incrementally updated at intervals thereafter. In the discussion below, time index t= 0 corresponds to the time of the estimation of the cohort terms, and a sequence of time indices t = 1,2,3... correspond subsequent times at which user parameters are updated. [056] State updater 135 has three sets of modules. A first set 435, includes cohort regression module 430 and cohort derived terms module 440. These modules are executed periodically, for example, once per week. Other regular or irregular inter als are optionally used, for example, every hour, day, monthly, etc. A second set 436 includes precision estimator 450. This module is generally executed less often that the others, for example, one a month. The third set 437 includes Bayesian updater 460. The user parameters are updated using this module as often as whenever a user rating is received, according to the number of ratings that have not been incorporated into the estimates, or periodically such as ever hour, day, week etc. [057] The recommendation system is based on a model that treats each unknown rating rltt (i.e., for an item i that user n has not yet rated) as an unknown random variable. In this model random variable rm is a function of unknown parameters that are themselves treated as random variables. In this mode), the user parameters *sn = (α ßn rn ) introduced above that are used to computer the expected rating rtn arc estimates of those unknown parameters. In this model, the true (unknown random) parameter xn is distributed as a multivariate Gaussian distribution with mean (expected value) xn and covariance P1, which can be represented [058] Under this model, the unknown random rating is expressed as: [059] (Equation Removed) (4) {060] where e in is an error term, which is not necessarily independent and identically distributed for different values of i and n. [061] For a user n who has rated item i with a rating rM, a residual term rm reflects the component of the rating not accounted for by the cohort effect term, or the contribution of the user's own preferences. The residual term has the form [062] (Equation Removed) [063) As the system obtains more ratings by various users for various items, the estimate of the mean and the precision of that variable are updated. At time index /, using ratings up to time index t, the random parameters are distributed as xH □ N (xj(t)', P'). As introduced above, prior to taking into account any ratings by user n, the random parameters are distributed as x„ □ N( 0, P.d) , that is, x (0) 0 and (064 J At time index t +1, the system has received a number of ratings of items by users n, which we denote A, that have not yet been incorporated into the estimates of the parameters x (t) and P()'. An hdimensional (column) vector fn is formed from he h residual terms, and the corresponding stacked vectors (l.x.fid)' form a hcolumn by 2+K+Vrow matrix A. 065) The updated estimate of the parameters xn(1+1) and P'+! given r„ and A and the prior parameter values r(t) and P(t) are found by the Bayesian formulas: I066J (Equation Removed) (5) [067] Equation (5) is applied at time index t=l to incorporate all the user's history of ratings prior to that time. For example, time index t=1 is immediately after the update to the cohort parameters, and subsequent time indices correspond to later times when subsequent of the user's ratings incorporated. In an alternative approach, equation (5) is reapplied using t1 repeatedly starting from the prior estimate and incorporating the user's complete rating history. This alternative approach provides a mechanism for removing ratings from the user's history, for example, if the user rerates an item, or explicitly withdraws a past rating. 5 Item Attributizcr (068] Referring to FIGS. I2, item attributizer 160 determines data 220 for each item i. As introduced above, data 220 for each item i includes K attributes, xik, which are represented as A"dtmenstonal vector, x, 230, and V features, vik, which are represented as Vdimcnsional vector, v, 232. The specifics of the procedure used by item attributizer 160 depends, in general, on the domain of the items. The general structure of the approach is common to many domains. [069] Information available to item attributizer 160 for a particular item includes values of a number of numerical fields or variables, as well as a number of text fields. The output attribute xik corresponds to features of item i for which a user may express an implicit or explicit preference. Examples of such attributes include "thoughtfulness," "humor," and "romance." The output features V& may be correlated with a user's preference for the item, but for which the user would not in general express an explicit preference. An example of such an attribute is the number or fraction of other users that have rated the item. [070J In a movie domain, examples of input variables associated with a movie include its year of release, its MPAA rating, the studio that released the film, and the budget of the film. Examples of text fields are plot keywords, keyword that the movie is an independentfilm, text that explains the MPAA rating, and a text summary of voe film. The vocabularies of the text fields are open, in the range of 5,000 words for plot keywords and 15,000 words for the summaries. As is described further below, the words in the text fields are stemmed and generally treated as unordered sets of stemmed words. (Ordered pairs/triplets of stemmed words can be treated as unique metawords if appropriate.) J071J Attributes xik are divided into two groups: explicit attributes and latent (implicit) attributes. Explicit attributes are deterministic functions of the inputs for an item. Examples of such explicit attributes include indicator variables for the various possible MPAA ratings, an age of the film, or an indicator that it is a recent release. (072J Latent attributes are estimated from the inputs for an item using one of a number of statistical approaches. Latent attributes form two groups, and a different statistical approach is used for attributes in each of the groups. One approach uses a direct mapping of the inputs to an estimate of the latent attribute, while the other approach makes use of a clustering or hierarchical approach to estimating the latent attributes in the group. {073 J In the first statistical approach, a training set of items are labeled by a person familiar with the domain with a desired value of a particular latent attribute. An example of such a latent attribute is an indication of whether the film is an "independent" film. For this latent variable, although an explicit attribute could be formed based on input variables for the film (e.g., the producing/distributing studio's typical style or movie budget size), a more robust estimate is obtained by treating the attribute as latent and incorporating additional inputs. Parameters of a posterior probability distribution Prfattr. k I input 11, or equivalently the expected value of the indicator variable for the attribute, are estimated based on the training set. A logistic regression approach is used to determine this posterior probability. A robust screening process selects the input variables for the logistic regressions from the large candidate set In the case of the "independent" latent attribute, prefixed inputs include the explicit text indicator that the movie is independentfilm and the budget of the film. The value of the latent attribute for films outside the training set is then determined as the score computed by the logistic regression (i.e., a number between 0 and I) given the input variables for such items. (0741 In the second statistical approach, items are associated with clusters, and each cluster is associated with a particular vector of scores of the latent attributes. All relevant vectors of latent scores for real movies are assumed to be spanned by positively weighted combinations of the vectors associated with the clusters. This is expressed as: [075](Equation Removed) where S□k denotes the latent score on attribute k, and E(□) denotes the mathematical expectation. [076] The parameters of the probability functions on the righthand side of the equation are estimated using a training set of items. Specifically, a number of items are grouped into clusters by one or more persons with knowledge of the domain, hereafter called "editors." In the case of movies, approximately 1800 movies are divided into 44 clusters. For each cluster, a number of prototypical items are identified by the editors who set values of the latent attributes for those prototypical items, i.e., Sck. Parameters of probability, Frw € cluster c I inputs of/J, are estimated using a hierarchical logistic regression. The clusters are divided into a twolevel hierarchy in which each cluster is uniquely assigned to a higherlevel cluster by the editors. In the case of movies, the 44 clusters are divided into 6 higherlevel clusters, denoted C, and the probability of membership is computed using a chain rule as (077] Pr(cluster c I input i) Pr( cluster c I cluster C, input nPr( cluster CI input i) 078J The righthand side probabilities are estimated using a multinomial logistic regression framework. The inputs to the logistic regression are based on the numerical and categorical input variables for the item, as well as a processed form of the text fields. [079] In order to reduce the data in the text fields, for each higherlevel cluster C, each of the words in the vocabulary is categories into one of a set of discrete (generally overlapping) categories according to the utility of the word in discriminating between membership in that category versus membership in some other category (i.e., a 2class analysis for each cluster). The words are categorized as "weak," "medium," or "strong." The categorization is determined by estimating parameters of a logistic function whose inputs are counts for each of the words in the vocabulary occurring in each of the text fields for an item, and the output is the probability of belonging to the cluster. Strong words are identified by corresponding coefficients in the logistic regression having large (absolute) values, and medium and weak words are identified by corresponding coefficients having values in lower ranges. Alternatively, a jackknife procedure is used to assess the strength of the words. Judgments of the editors are also incorporated, for example, by adding or deleting works or changing the strength of particular words. [080] The categories for each of the clusters are combined to form a set of overlapping categories of words. The input to the multinomial logistic function is then the count of the number of words in each text field in each of the categories (for all the clusters). In the movie example with 6 higherlevel categories, and three categories of word strength, this results in 18 counts being input to the multinomial logistic function. In addition to these counts, additional inputs that are based on the variables for the item are added, for example, an indicator of the genre of a film. [081J The same approach is repeated independently to compute Pn cluster c  cluster C, input i) for each of the clusters C. That is, this procedure for mapping the input words to a fixed number of features is repeated for each of the specific clusters, with different with different categorization of the words for each of the higherlevel clusters. With C higherlevel clusters, an additional C multinomial logistic regression function are determined to compute the probabilities Pr (cluster c I cluster C, input i J. [082] Note that although the training items are identified as belonging to a single cluster, in determining values for the latent attributes for an item, terms corresponding to each of the clusters contribute to the estimate of the latent attribute, weighted by the estimate of membership in each of the clusters. {083] The V explicit features, vk, are estimated using a similar approach as used for the attributes. In the movie domain, in one version of the system, these features are limited to deterministic functions of the inputs for an item. Alternatively, procedures analogous to the estimation of latent attributes can be used to estimate additional features. 6 Recommender [084] Referring to FIG. 1, recommender 115 takes as inputs values of expected ratings of items by a user and creates a list of recommended items for that user. The recommender performs a number of functions that together yield the recommendation that is presented to the user. (085] A first function relates to the difference in ranges of ratings that different users may give. For example, one user may consistently rate items higher or lower than another. That is, their average rating, or their rating on a standard set of items may differ significantly from than for other users. A user may also use a wider or narrower range of rating than other users. That is, the variance of their ratings or the sample variance of a standard set of items may differ significantly from other users. [ 086] Before processing the expected ratings for items produced by the scorer, the recommender normalizes the expected ratings to a universal scale by applying a userspecific multiplicative and an additive scaling to the expected ratings. The parameters of diese scalings are determined to match the average and standard deviation on a standard set of items to desired target values, such as an average of 3 and a standard deviation of 1. This standard set of items is chosen such that for a chosen size of the standard set (e.g., 20 items) the value of the determinant of X'X is maximized, where X is formed as a matrix whose columns are the attribute vectors x, for the items i in the set. This selection of standard items provides an efficient sampling of the space of items based on differences in their attribute vectors. The coefficients for this normalization process are stored with other data for the user. The normalized expected rating, and its associated normalized variance are denoted rm and σ fn , [087] A second function is performed by the scorer is to limit the items to consider based on a preconfigured floor value of the normalized expected rating. For example, items with normalized expected ratings lower than 1 are discarded. [088] A third function performed by the recommender is to combine the normalized expected rating with its (normalized) variance as well as some editorial inputs to yield a recommendation score, .sin„. Specifically, the recommendation score is computed by the recommender as: [089] (Equation Removed) [090] The term φ n represents a weighting of the risk introduced by an error in the rating estimate. For example, an item with a high expected rating but also a high variance in the estimate is penalized for the high variance based on this term. Optionally, this term is set by the user explicitly based on a desired "risk" in the recommendations, or is varied as the user interacts with the system, for instance starting at a relatively high value and being reduced over time. {091] The term φn represents a "trust" term. The inner product of this term with attributes xt is used to increase the score for popular "item. One use of this term is to initially increase the recommendation score for generally popular items, thereby building trust in the user. Over time, the contribution of this term is reduced. (092] The third term φ3Etf represents an "editorial" input. Particular items can optionally have their recommendation score increased or decreased based on editorial input. For example, a new film which is expected to be popular in a cohort but for which little data is available could have the corresponding term Eid set to a nonzero value. The scale factor φ3 determines the degree of contribution of the editorial inputs. Editorial inputs can also be used to promote particular items, or to promote relatively profitable items, or items for which there is a large inventory. 7 Elicitation Mode 093] When a new user first begins using the system, the system elicits information from the new user to begin the personalization process. The new user responds to a set of predetermined elicitation queries 155 producing clicitations 150, which are used as part of the history for the user that is used in estimating userspecific parameters for that user. [094] Initially, the new user is asked his or her age, sex, and optionally is asked a small number of additional questions to determine their cohort For example, in tht movie domain, an additional question related to whether the watch independent films is asked. From these initial questions, the user's cohort is chosen and fixed. [095] For each cohort, a small number of items are preselected and the new user is asked to rate any of these items with which he or she is familiar. These ratings initialize the user's history or ratings. Given the desired number of such items, with is typically set in the range of 1020, the system preselects the items to maximize the determinant of the matrix X'X where the columns of X are the stacked attribute and feature vectors (xjvj)' for the items. [096] The new user is also asked a number of questions, which are used to determine the value of the user's preference vector zn. Each question is designed to determine a value for one (or possibly more) of the entries in the preference vector. Some preferences are used by the scorer to filter out items from the choice set, for example, if the user response "never" to a question such as "Do you ever watch horror films?" In addition to these questions, some preferences are set by rule for a cohort, for example, to avoid recommending Rratcd films for a teenager who does not like science fiction, based on an observation that these tastes are correlated in teenagers. 8 Additional Terms (097] The approach described above, the correlation structure of the error term em in equation (4) is not taken into account in computing the expected rating rln One or both of two additional terms are introduced based on an imposed structure of the error term that relates to closeness of different items and closeness of different users. In particular, an approach to effectively modeling and taking into account the correlation structure of the error terms is used to improve the expected rating using was can be viewed as a combination of userbased and an itembased collaborative filtering term [098] An expected rating rm for item t and user n is modified based on actual ratings that have been provided by that user for other items/ and actual ratings for item t by other users m in the same cohort Specifically, the new rating is computed as [099](Equation Removed) [0100] where εm * rm  rtn are fitted residual values based on the expected and actual ratings [0101} The terms Λ = [ij] and Ω =[ij] are structured to allow estimation of relative small number of free parameters This modeling approach is essentially equivalent to gathering the errors stn in a I□N dimensional vector e and forming an errorcovanance as e(e e') = Λ ® 0 . 19102] One approach to estimating these terms is to assume that the entries of A have the form Λ ij = y where the terms . are precomputed terms that are treated as constants, and the scalar term is estimated. Similarly, the other term assumes that the entnes of Ω have the form mn = wmn (01031 One approach to precomputtng the constants is as y lx,  xl where the norm is optionally computed using the absolute differences of the attributes (LI norm), using a Euclidean norm (L2 norm), or using a covariancc weighted norm using a covariance Σ ß is the covariance matrix of the taste parameters of the users in the cohort. (0104} In the analogous approach, the terms ay represent similarity between users and is computed as nm, where nm = (ß„ + zy)  (ßm + zm). A covarianceweighted norm, 'nmΣxnm, uses Σx, which is the covariance matrix of the attributes of items in the domain, and the scaling idea here is that dissimilarity is more important for those tastes associated with attributes having greater variation across items; 10105J Another approach to computing the constant terms uses a Bayesian regression approach using E(,m ljm) = j jm The residuals are based on all users in the same cohort who rate both items i and/, j  N{,σx) and ij is specified based on prior information about the closeness of items of type i and/ (for example, the items share a known common attribute (eg., director of movie) that was not included in the model's x, or the preferenceweighted distance between their attributes is unusually high/low). The Bayesian regression for estimating the Ayparameters may provide the best estimate but is computationally expensive. It employs i 's to ensure good estimates of the parameters associated with the errorstructure of equation (4). To obtain the I's in practice for these regressions when no preliminary Xy values have been computed, the approach ignores the errorcorrelation structure (i.e., 0ij 0) and compute the individualspecific idiosyncratic coefficients of equation (4) for each individual in the sample given the cohort function. The residuals from the personalized regressions are the i *s. Regardless, the ij parameters can always be conveniently precomputed since they do not depend on user it for whom the recommendations are desired. That is, the computations of the ij parameters are conveniently done offline and not in realtime when specific recommendations are being sought. [0106] Similarly, the Bayesian regression E(ijn ijm) = m„mjm, where the residuals are based on equation is based on all items that have been jointly rated by users m and «. The regression method may not prove as powerful here since the number of items that are rated in common by both users may be small; moreover, since there are many users, real time computation of N regressions may be costly. To speed up the process, the users can optionally be clustered into G □ N groups or equivalcntly the Ω matrix can be factorized with G factors. 9 Other Rccommcndatiori Approaches 91 Joist Recommendation [0107] In a first alternative recommendation approach, the system described above optionally provides recommendations for a group of users. The members of the group may come from different cohorts, may have histories of rating different items, and indeed, some of the members may not have rated any items at all. (0108) The general approach to such joint recommendation is to combine the normalized expected ratings rm for each item for all users n in a group G. In general, in specifying the group, different members of the group are identified by me user soliciting the recommendation as mart "important" resulting in a nonuniform weighting according to coefficients wnG, where ΣnEG wnG =1 . If all members of the group are equally "important," the system sets the weights equal to WNG =G1 . The normalized expected joint rating is then computed as (0109] (Equation Removed) [0110] Joint recommendation scores siG are then computed for each item for the group incorporating risk, trust, and editorial terms into weighting coefficients φk G where the group as a whole is treated as a composite "user": [0111] (Equation Removed) (0112) The risk terra is conveniently the standard deviation (square root of variance) σiG;, where the variance for the normalized estimate is computed accord to the weighted sum of individual variances of the members of the group. As with individual users, the coefficients are optionally varied over time to introduce different contributions for risk and trust terms as the users' confidence in the system increases with the length of their experience of the system. [0113] Alternatively, the weighted combination is performed after recommendation scores for individual users sin are computed. That is, [0114) (Equation Removed) [0115] Computation of a joint recommendation on behalf of one user requires accessing information about other users in the group. The system implements a twotiered password system in which a user's own information in protected by a private password. In order for another user to use that user's information to derive a group recommendation, the other user requires a "public" password. With the public password, the other user can incorporate the user's information into a group recommendation, but cannot view information such as the user's history of ratings, or even generate a recommendation specifically for that user. [0116] In another alternative approach to joint recommendation, recommendations for each user are separately computed, and the recommendation for the group includes at least a best recommendation for each use in the group. Similarly, items that fall below a threshold score for any user are optionally removed from the joint recommendation list for the group. A conflict between a highest scoring item for one user in the group that scores below the threshold for some other user is resolved in one of a number of ways, for example, by retaining the item as a candidate. The remaining recommendations are then included according to their weighted ratings or scores as described above. Yet other alternatives include computing joint ratings from indiviuual ratings using a variety of statistics, such as the maximum, the minimum, or the median individual ratings for the items. [0117] The groups are optionally predefined in the system, for example, corresponding to a family, a couple, or some other social unit. 9.2 Affinity groups [0118] The system described above can be applied to identifying "similar" users in addition to (or alternatively instead of) providing recommendations of items to individuals or groups of users The similarity between users is used to can be applied to define a user's affinity group. [0119] One measure of similarity between individual users is based on a set of standard items, J. These items are chosen using the same approach as described above to determine standard items for normalizing expected ratings, except here the users art not necessarily taken from one cohort since an affinity group may draw users from multiple cohorts [0120] For each user, a vector of expected ratings for each of the standard items is formed, and the similarity between a pair of users is defined as a distance between the vector of ratings on the standard items For instance, a Euclidean distance between the ratings vectors is used. The sire of an affinity group is determined by a maximum distance between users in a group, or by a maximum siae of the group [0121] Affinity groups arc used for a variety of purposes. A first purpose relates to recommendations. A user can be provided with actual (as opposed to expected) recommendations of other members of his or her affinity group. [0122] Another purpose is to request ratings for an affinity group of another user. For example, a user may want to see ratings of items from an affinity group of a well known user. [0123] Another purpose is social rather than directly recommendationrelated. A user may want to find other similar people, for example, to meet or communicate with. For example, in a book domain, a user may want to join a chat group of users with simitar interests. [0124] Computing an affinity group for a user in real time can be computationally expensive due to the computation of the pair wise user similarities. An alternative approach involves precomputing data that reduces the computation required to determine the affinity group for an individual user. [0125] One approach to precomputing such data involves mapping the rating vector on the standard items for each user into a discrete space, for example, by quantizing each rating in the rating vector, for example, into one of three levels. For example, with 10 items in the standard set, and three levels of rating, the vectors can take on one of 3 values. An extensible hash is constructed to map each observed combination of quantized ratings to a set of users. Using this precornputed hash table, in order to compute an affinity group for a user, users with similar quantized rating vectors are located by first considering users with the identical quantized ratings. If there are insufficient users with the same quantized ratings, the least "important" item in the standard set is ignored and the process repeated, until there are sufficient users in the group. [126] Alternative approaches to forming affinity groups involve different similarity measures based on the individuals' statistical parameters. For example, differences between users' parameter vectors x (taking into account the precision of the estimates) can be used. Also, other forms of preeomputation of groups can be used. For example, clustering techniques (e.g., agglomcrative clustering) can be used to identify groups that are then accessed when the affinity group for a particular user is needed. (0127) Alternatively, affinity groups are limited to be within a single cohort, or within a predefined number of "similar" cohorts. [0134] The approach described above considers a single domain of item, such as movies or books. In an alternative system, multiple domains are jointly considered by the system. In this way, a history in one domain contributes to recommendations for items in the other domain. One approach to this is to use common attribute dimensions in the explicit and latent attributes for items. (013SJ It is to be understood that the foregoing description i$ intended to illustrate and not to limit the scope of the invention, which is defined by the scope of the appended claims. Other embodiments are within the scope of the following claims. We claim: 1. A system for obtaining information on objects, for communication to users in one or more groups of users comprising: a database in which user record information is recorded, wherein said user record information comprises a record of previous evaluations of objects by users in said one or more groups of users; and a state updater (135) for: determining parameters corresponding to said one or more groups on the basis of the user record information, including determining for each of said one or more groups of users, parameters characterizing predicted evaluations of objects by users in the corresponding one ottnore groups; said state updater comprising a Bayesian updater (460) for determining discrete parameters for each of one or more individual users on the basis of the parameters relating to the group corresponding to said user and on the basis of the record of previous evaluations of objects by said user; and a scorer (125) for determining parameters characterizing predicted evaluations of the objects for the each of one or more users on the basis of said discrete parameters, said parameters comprising the information on objects for communication by a recommender (115) to users. 2. The system as claimed in claim 1 wherein the one or more groups of users comprise cohorts. 3. The system as claimed in claim 2 wherein the cohorts comprise latent cohorts. 4. The system as claimed in claim 3 wherein the cohorts are specified in terms of object preferences. 5. The system as claimed in claim 3 wherein the assignment of users to the latent cohorts is probabilistic. 6. The system as claimed in claim 5 wherein at least some users correspond to multiple cohorts. 7. The system as claimed in claim 1 wherein the scorer (125) determines parameters characterizing the predicted evaluations of objects by determining an expected evaluation. 8. The system as claimed in claim 1 wherein the Bayesian updater (460) determines discrete parameters for each of one or more users by modifying the parameters relating to the one or more groups specifically for each of said individuals. 9. The system as claimed in claim 1 wherein the scorer (125) determines parameters characterizing predicted evaluations of objects by users by determining discrete parameters from the record of previous evaluations. 10. The system as claimed in claim 9 wherein the scorer (125) determination of the parameters characterizing predicted evaluations of objects by users comprises determining discrete parameters associated with each of a plurality of variables from the record of previous evaluations. 11. The system as claimed in claim 10 wherein the Bayesian updater (460) determination of the discrete parameters comprises determining estimated values of at least some of the variables. 12. The system as claimed in claim 11 wherein the Bayesian updater (460) determination of the discrete parameters comprises determining accuracies of estimated values of at least some of the variables. 13. The system as claimed in claim 10 wherein the Bayesian updater (460) determination of discrete parameters related to variables comprises applying at least one of a regression approach, a linear regression approach, and a risk adjusted blending approach. 14. The system as claimed in claim 1 wherein the state updater (135) determination of parameters associated with the one or more groups of users comprises determining prior probability distributions corresponding to the discrete parameters for the nonspecific users in each of said groups. 15. The system as claimed in claim 14 wherein the Bayesian updater (460) determination of the discrete parameters for each of the one or more users comprises using the prior probability distribution of the parameters corresponding to said user's group of users. 16. The system as claimed in claim 15 wherein the Bayesian updater (460) determination of the discrete parameters comprises determining a posterior probability distribution. 17. The system as claimed in claim 16 wherein the Bayesian updater (460) determination of the discrete parameters comprises determining a Bayesian estimate of the parameters. 18. The system as claimed in claim 1 comprising obtaining evaluations for one or more objects by one or more users; and the database recording redetermined discrete parameters for said user using said evaluations. 19. The system as claimed in claim 18 wherein obtaining the evaluations of objects by one or more users comprises accepting evaluations for objects not previously evaluated by said users. 20. The system as claimed in claim 18 wherein obtaining the evaluations of objects by one or more users comprises accepting redetermined evaluations for objects previously evaluated by said users. 21. The system as claimed in claim 18 comprising obtaining the additional evaluations by identifying the one or more objects to the user. 22. The system as claimed in claim 18 wherein the database recording of the redetermined discrete parameters comprises a Bayesian redetermination of the parameters. 23. The system as claimed in claim 18 comprising the state updater (135) redetermining the parameters associated with the one or more cohorts on the basis of the evaluations. 24. The system as claimed in claim 23 comprising the Bayesian updater (460) redetermining the discrete parameters for each of the one or more users on the basis of the redetermined parameters corresponding to said user's cohort. 25 . The system as claimed in claim 1 wherein the database recording of a user identification list having user information comprises recording user preferences. 26. The system as claimed in claim 25 wherein the database recording of said preferences comprises communication of said preferences by the user. 27. The system as claimed in claim 25 wherein the Bayesian updater (460) determination of the discrete parameters comprises determination on the basis of user preferences. 28. The system as claimed in claim 25 wherein the state updater (135) determination of parameters associated with the one or more groups of users comprises determination of a weighting of a eontribution of the user preferences in determining the predicted evaluations. 29. The system as claimed in claim 25 wherein the state updater (135) determination of parameters associated with the one or more groups of users comprises determination on the basis of user preferences. 30. The system as claimed in claim 29 wherein the parameters associated with the one or more groups of users enable the scorer (125) to determine a predicted evaluation of any of the objects by an unspecified user in the cohort with unknown user preferences for said user. 31. The system as claimed in claim 1 comprising communicating a request for evaluations from a user for each of a set of selected objects, and wherein the database recording of the previous evaluations comprises recording evaluations communicated by the user in response to previous requests. 32. The system as claimed in claim 31 comprising selection of the set of objects for which requests for evaluations based on features of the objects are communicated. 33. The system as claimed in claim 32 wherein selection of the set of objects comprises selection on the basis of the state updater (135) determined parameters corresponding to the one of more groups of users. 34. The system as claimed in claim 33 wherein selection of the set of objects comprises selection of said objects to increase an expected information related to discrete parameters for the user. 35. The system as claimed in claim 1 wherein one or more of the multiple objects corresponds to an external preference, and the scorer (125) determination of the evaluation for each of the multiple objects comprises combining the predicted evaluation for the object and said external preference. 36. The system as claimed in claim 1 comprising the scorer (125) determining parameters enabling determination of a predicted evaluation of an object by a user on the basis of actual evaluations of said object by different users. 37. The system as claimed in claim 36 wherein the different users are in the same cohort as the user for whom the predicted evaluation is determined. 38. The system as claimed in claim 1 comprising the scorer (125) determining parameters enabling determination of a predicted evaluation of an object by a user on the basis of an actual evaluation of different objects by said user. 39. The system as claimed in claim 38 comprising the state updater (135) determining a weighting term for a contribution of the actual evaluations of the different objects by said user. 40. The system as claimed in claim 39 comprising the state updater (135) determining a weighting term using the record of previous evaluations. 41. The system as claimed in claim 40 wherein the state updater (135) determining the weighting term on the basis of the record of previous evaluations comprises a determination on the basis of differences between actual evaluations and predicted evaluations. 42. The system as claimed in any of the preceding claims wherein similar users are identified on the basis of the state updater (135) determined discrete parameters for the users. 43. The system as claimed in claim 42 wherein identification of the similar users comprises the scorer (125) determining predicted evaluations on a set of objects for the first user and a set of potentially similar users, and selecting the similar users from the set on the basis of the predicted evaluations. 44. A system for obtaining information on objects, for communication to users in one or more groups of users, substantially as hereinbefore described, with reference to, or as illustrated in the accompanying drawings. 

706delnp2005complete specification (granted).pdf
706delnp2005correspondenceothers.pdf
706delnp2005correspondencepo.pdf
706delnp2005description (complete).pdf
706delnp2005petition138.pdf
Patent Number  238762  

Indian Patent Application Number  706/DELNP/2005  
PG Journal Number  9/2010  
Publication Date  26Feb2010  
Grant Date  18Feb2010  
Date of Filing  22Feb2005  
Name of Patentee  CHOICESTREAM, INC  
Applicant Address  210 BROADWAY STREET FOURTH FLOOR CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 02139 U.S.A.  
Inventors:


PCT International Classification Number  G06F 17/60  
PCT International Application Number  [CT/US2003/025933  
PCT International Filing date  20030819  
PCT Conventions:
