|Title of Invention||
A PROCESS FOR ERADICATION OF POLLUTING GAS.
|Abstract||A new simple efficient and economical process has been described that relates to eradication of air pollution from natural and human activity that has various potential non-industrial and industrial applications, i.e. eradication of poisonous killer gas form irrigation wells, the pollution indoor in basements, caves, cinema houses and ware houses etc, marshy lands and biogas chambers or for improving oxygen circulation at the surface of water bodies covered by vegetation and floating plants. The process relates to the reaction convened by chemigation for conversion of carbon dioxide in to a non-polluting, non-poisonous, amorphous, non- metal carbonate compound .Steps of certain embodiments may be rearranged in order to converge the process of control/eradication of air pollution. The invention is simple, efficient cost effective, environment friendly process for eradication of polluting gas resulting from natural and human activities. The process does not require any sophisticated equipment and skilled personnel and comprises contacting the gas with calcium hydroxide till eradicated.|
|Full Text||This invention relates to a process for eradication of polluting gas. Particularly, the invention relates to eradication of polluting gas generated through natural and human activities; Particularly it relates to take care of CO2 produced through natural & human activities; More particularly it describes a new simple process that relates to eradication of air pollution from natural and human activity that has various potential non-industrial and industrial applications, for example, eradication of poisonous killer gas from irrigation wells, the pollution indoor, in basements, caves, cinema houses and ware houses etc, marshy and other lands, and biogas chambers or for improving oxygen circulation at the surface of water bodies covered by vegetation, floating plants including water hyacinth. The process relates to the reaction convened by chemigation for conversion of carbon dioxide in to a non-polluting, non-poisonous, amorphous, non-metal carbonate compound. The invention is simple, cost effective, environment friendly process for eradication of polluting gas resulting from Natural and Human activities.
Background of invention
Whereas fresh air is essential for life, oxygen is the requirement for survival. Environment is a major global concern as of today. The biosphere contains different gases (Table 1).
Table 1 Composition of gases in the biosphere
The air pollution is the presence of one or more contaminants in such quantities and for such duration that is injurious to human health and welfare, animal and plant life, & property or would unreasonably interfere with the enjoyment of life or property (TERI, 1998). There exist various types of natural and human activity induced air pollution problems. Whereas human activity that induce pollution monitoring and awareness campaigns are carried out, the vagaries caused by naturally induced air pollution are not adequately perceived and visualised. Instead, calamities/damages caused by such naturally induced air pollution are accepted at instances as 'God's will', particularly in uneducated societies. There is no adequate control measure to check air pollution. Intrinsic and extrinsic effect of such induced air pollution cause tremendous material and nonmaterial losses. Many natural processes such as respiration in humans, animals and plants, production of methane in paddy fields and marshy lands, and many industrial processes release certain gases such as C02, NO2 and CH4 that causes imbalance of gases in air, increase in the concentration of gases leading to air pollution.
Cloudy days occur invariably in continuous spells of 6-8 days. C02 accumulation is natural when no photosynthesis takes place. C02 being heavy settles down in the depressions, wells, trenches and closed spaces etc. As per definition of pollution (TERI, 1998), the
case of killer gas is a natural pollution and it has serious consequences on human, animal & plant life.
The CO2 being heaviest tries to settle down and can not be pushed out by applying any pressure. No pumping out is possible as it is possible in case of water. Further, gas pumps etc cannot be operated for distantly & remotely located wells, basements, caves and open atmosphere above the ground. Table 2 shows the existing patents on reducing air pollution as on 5-1-2002.
Table : 2 Patents on Pollution based on Patent Search on Internet
Largely, in the existing art, the approach has been to alter the combustion process to reduce air pollution caused by exhaust from the vehicles. In the U.S. patent no. 5676913, a vehicle preferably public transport vehicle, transports an apparatus providing for an intake of polluted air, which is purified of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and sulphur oxide, unburnt matter and particulate. The impurities are collected and disposed of after a working cycle of around 10 hours. Thus, no simple method has been documented for the eradication of polluting gas generated through natural & human activities. The natural source of pollution is the respiration process wherein 02 is inhaled and C02 is exhausted. Green vegetation
perform natural process of photosynthesis where in the following chemical reaction takes place:
However, as indicated above, Green vegetation also releases C02, which is more noticeable in absence of sunlight as photosynthesis does not take place in absence of light. In nights, during rains or during cloudy day accumulation of C02 increases. This is due to the presence of respiration at normal rate and photosynthesis, if any, at a very reduced rate. Rainy and cloudy days occur every year in variable spells of 6-8 days of the longest continuous spell, followed by 3-8 days, 3-5 days and 2-5 days. Further, humanly induced pollution are of many types viz indoor such as in basements, caves, etc. The C02 is transferred from one place to another by air and as C02 is the heaviest of all gases in the air, it settles down-in the depressions and wells, particularly irrigation wells and tube wells, etc. Accumulation of CO2 also increases close to orchards and forest. Wells located close to orchards and forest, get charged with this poisonous gas and pose problems in the use of irrigation wells. India is agriculture based highly populated country. It has to depend on sustainable irrigation technology i.e., using irrigation wells in view of the inadequate availability of surface water for irrigation purposes. The accumulation of C02 in columns in wells makes it impossible to operate, unless eradicated from the well, resulting in hampering irrigation and food situation.
The accumulation of C02 in water bodies results in fish kill, suffocation of animals, human beings and induce septic conditions. In the atmosphere the C02 remains in the column like situation (as it happens in a well) or strata as in case of open fields, marshy lands, water bodies with heavy vegetation.
Thus, it is imperative to develop a simple and effective control measure to eradicate air pollution caused by natural phenomena or that induced by human activity. Further, the process should be such that does not require sophisticated instruments or infrastructure. The process should be new, simple & feasible, environment friendly, economic, and capable of being adopted in remote or less developed areas.
The main object of the present invention is to provide a process for eradication, of polluting gas.
Another object is to provide a process for eradication of a polluting gas generated through natural and human activities.
Still another object is to provide a process to take care of polluting gas such as CO2 produced through natural and human activities as herein described.
Yet another object is such that the process should be simple, easy to operate at remote places, does not require any sophisticated equipment, eco-friendly and economic.
Still yet another object is to provide a process that is affordable to an average level Farmer or a community of Farmers.
Accordingly, this invention provides a process for eradication of polluting gas, which comprises contacting polluting gas with calcium hydroxide till polluting gas is eradicated.
The calcium hydroxide may be used in solution form (lime water). The polluting gas contacted may be C02 in the form of column in irrigation well or in the form of strata in marshy or other lands or surface of water bodies having excess vegetation or as aerial column.
The contacting may be affected by spraying the solution of calcium hydroxide using conventional means such as ordinary garden shower, spraying nozzle, hosepipes and aerial spray.
The solution calcium hydroxide in droplet size of 1-6 mm; wherein its optimum concentration is a strength of 3.0 + 0.5% w/v or 4.0 + 0.5% w/v or 5.0 + 0.5% w/v or a specific strength in the range of 3-5% w/v is optimum in repeated applications. However, up to 5% w/v solution is preferred.
The research has been carried out for three years during which two cycles of natural pollution problem reoccurred that confirmed the validity of the process developed and claimed in the this invention.
The process of the present invention is further illustrated by the following studies actually performed. However, this should not limit the scope of the invention.
The research was carried out in a well located close to forest in deep gullies at Chhalesar, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. The well is equipped with centrifugal pump installations. The method was devised to eradicate killer gas problem in 1999. The poisonous killer gas was identified as CO2 by testing it by lantern method.
For continuous flaming essentially requires a continuous oxygen supply and flame will get extinguished in absence of oxygen and presence of carbon dioxide, the level of presence of gas in the well was ascertained by hanging lighting lantern. The lighting lantern got extinguished in the presence of C02. After the first round of chemigation treatment, the level of gas in the well was again ascertained by hanging lighting lantern. The limewater was sprayed again to eradicate the remaining gas. The presence of lantern flame light indicated that in the second round of the spray all gas in the well that hindered the burning and emission of light processes was eradicated. As an extra precaution, another round of spraying was carried out and gas eradication task for the CO2 emitted by the
lantern was completed. Next day pump repairing work was resorted to and irrigation started.
The process of this invention helps solving real field problem and requires materials readily available in the local markets. One can carry out the entire operation of eradication of poisonous killer gas on small scale at the local level at a nominal cost or large scale by aerial spray for control of green house effect.
At first hanging the flaming lantern in the well infested with the polluting gas, the presence of killer gas was reconfirmed. As the lantern extinguished after a certain depth, it indicated type and extent of the gas. The absence of flame confirmed that the gas was CO2 only, as in the presence of CO2 any flame gets extinguished. Table 3 contains details of well gas level and operational details. Gas was almost full in the well as evident from the level of the flames extinguishing. The rate of eradication of gas was 3 meters per round and was sufficient to eradicate almost all gas in the well at the experimental site. The lighting lantern in the well that kept turning after eradication confirmed the identification of the kind of the poisonous gas. Cost of eradication of the gas was just INR 5 per well per instance.
Table 3 Particulars of well and gas eradication operational details
First round of application of treatment reduced level of CO2 to almost half of the level it was present in the well. The second round completely eradicated the CO2 from the well. The CO2 filled in the well got converted into CaCO3 and got eradicated from the well. When the CO2 got eradicated the suffocation of the persons when entered in the well did not occur and they were able to carryout the repairing work as usual. Thus pumping set could be brought in operation again after the rainy season.
Reoccurrence of existence of poisonous killer gas was noticed again on 23 August, 2001 in the same well. Suffocation of people who entered in the well occurred. The basic materials were again procured from the market. Entire operation was again conducted in the presence of scientists, technical offices and workers at the farm to proved functioning o f the process so developed, beyond doubt and full satisfaction of different strata of the society.
Improving aquatic environment adversely affected bv the presence of excess floating plants such as water hyacinth: Excessive growth of floating plants including water hyacinth is increasingly infesting Water bodies such as ponds, reservoirs, lakes, and rivers. The respiration process of aquatic plants like water hyacinth and its decomposition spreads on the water surface that prevents circulation of the oxygen in the water bodies. These floating plants whether micro or macro consume the oxygen dissolved in the water. Thus, reduced supply of dissolved oxygen in the water bodies adversely affects aquatic life. The accumulation of CO2 on the water surface of the water bodies can be easily eradicated by adopting the new simple method developed in the present invention,
Though the invention is exemplified by irrigation wells, it can be applicable to marshy or other lands or water bodies, indoor and outdoor accumulation of CO2 or biogas units to mitigate to safe levels if
not eliminate the carbon dioxide accumulated. The process of contacting can be repeated as shown in the case study for complete eradication of CO2. With further marginal improvements it may be applicable to-vehicular pollution.
TERI. 1998. Looking back to think ahead: Green India 2047. Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi, pp. 267.
• The process is simple, easy to operate as and when and wherever required including remote and open places.
• Materials, tools, machine and skilled person are easily available and accessible.
• The process does not require sophisticated gadgets, and high skill to operate.
• The process is cost effective and environment friendly.
1. A process for eradicating CO2 from on-site confines and off-site existence as herein described, by application of a neutralizer suspension-solution of optimum concentration, characterized in that the said neutralizer suspension-solution consists of calcium hydroxide of optimum concentration in the range of 3-5% w/v in water of droplet size 1-6 mm.
2. A process for eradication of polluting gas substantially as herein described with reference to case studies.3. A process for eradicating CO2 from on-site confines and off-site existence as herein described, by application of a neutralizer suspension-solution of optimum concentration, characterized in that the said neutralizer suspension-solution consists of calcium hydroxide of optimum concentration in the range of 3-5% w/v in water of droplet size 1-6 mm.
4. A process for eradication of polluting gas substantially as herein described with reference to case studies.
|Indian Patent Application Number||1142/DEL/2002|
|PG Journal Number||5/2010|
|Date of Filing||12-Nov-2002|
|Name of Patentee||INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH|
|Applicant Address||KRISHI BHAVAN, DR. RAJENDRA PRASAD ROAD, NEW DELHI-110001|
|PCT International Classification Number||B01D 53/00|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|