|Title of Invention||
"A PROCESS FOR CONVERTING STORAGE RESERVES OF DICOT SEEDS INTO COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING ONE OR MORE GENE PRODUCTS"
|Abstract||The present invention is related to a process based on a source-sink principle, for producing products of interest from crushed or uncrushed germinating dicot seeds comprising an expression system, which is induced or can be induced during germination. The product is either a seed derived composition comprising one or more gene products. Alternatively, it is a product of interest obtained by placing the composition in contact with a substrate, containing a substance capable of being transformed by the seed derived composition as such, dried or in down-stream processed form.|
|Full Text||The Technical Field of the Invention
The 'present invention is related to a process based on a source-sink principle for converting the storage reserves of transgenic dicot seeds into a composition comprising one or more gene products of interest. The invention also discloses a germinating seed derived composition comprising at least one gene product in the cotyledon including the seedling or in the medium surrounding the germinating seed or seedling.
The Background of the Invention
Methods for producing therapeutically active mammalian proteins, by isolation and purification from mammalian sources, have nowadays due to an increased contamination risk, largely been replaced by recombinant DNA technology providing new means for producing large amounts of industrially desirable mammalian proteins. Recombinant DNA technology provides a large choice of hosts and expression systems. When mammalian proteins are the desired target proteins, eukaryotic host systems are preferred in order to obtain glycosylated forms of the desired proteins.
Fungi represent the most effective host system for high volume and low cost production of glycosylated proteins. Even if fungi have been successful for producing high amounts of their native proteins, they have not been equally successful in expressing heterologous proteins, such as therapeutic mammalian proteins.
Fungi are nowadays mainly used for large scale production of homologous industrial enzymes, whereas the focus of research has been turned oh finding alternative expression systems for producing glycosylated heterologous proteins. Because glycosylation patterns and folding processes in plant host systems resemble those in mammalian systems, plant host expression systems are by far the most cost-effective of the available systems. The main interest has been directed on production of pharmaceuticals and industrially important enzymes. The production of interferon, enkephalins, epidermal growth factor and human serum albumin in tobacco, and/or potato can be mentioned. The expression levels in transgenic plants have been rather low.
metabolic pathways, such as respiration and sucrose synthesis should be replaced with gene encoding enzymes in a pathway leading to polyhydroxyalkanoates useful for the production of biodegradable thermoplastics.
Even if malting process are known and have been used especially for preparing monocot plants, it is to be noted that those processes are restricted to processing starch. The methods disclosed in the patents WO 94/11519 and WO 97/32986 even if they suggest the use of the storage reserves in dicotyledons are restricted to the use of enzymes and pathways which lead sucrose and energy production and how to use these products from the respiratory pathways for resynthesis.
Even if malting is known and methods for using the respiratory pathways in plants for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, the use of the storage reserves in dicot plants for producing proteinaceoiis products, such structural proteins and enzymes has not been solved.
It is to be noted that there is a great demand of proteinaceous products and because of that it is the main objective of the present invention to solve the problem of converting the storage reserves in plants into different proteinaceous products, which can be further applied for production of desired products.
The main objective of the present invention is to provide a new, more feasible, cost effective, environmentally friendly process and production system for producing gene products, especially proteinaceous gene products in the cotyledons of transgenic dicot seeds. Another advantage of the present invention is that it provides a production system for contained use, in which the gene product can be produced in confined conditions and not in the field. This allows the present process to be carried out under almost contaminant-free conditions.
The Summary of the Invention
The objectives of the present invention are achieved by harnessing the regulatory sequences of transient proteins accumulating during the initiation of germination for the production of desired gene products.
Die characteristics of the present invention are as set out in the claims.
The Brief Description of Drawings
Figure 1A shows a germinated transgenic seed expressing the GUS gene. The GUS gene is linked to a soybean heat shock promoter. On the right side an untransformed control seedling is shown.
Figure 1B shows a germinated transgenic seed expressing the GUS gene. The GUS gene is linked to an endopeptidase promoter.
Figure 1C shows a germinated transgenic seed expressing the GUS gene. The GUS gene is linked to a salicylate inducible promoter.
Figure 1D shows a germinated transgenic seed expressing the GUS gene. The GUS gene is linked to a 35S promoter.
Figure 2 shows the colourless substrate ß-Glucuronide (100 µg/ml) which is enzymati-cally converted into the blue-coloured glucopyranosiduronic acid and aglycone by the GUS enzyme produced by the germinated transgenic seed.
Figure 3 depicts various germination stages of a Brassica campestris seed, indicated as days after the onset of germination.
Figure 4 shows a SDS-PAGE gel of germinated seeds. The samples were collected daily, starting from the dry seed. The storage proteins and Rubisco subunits are marked in the Coomassie-stained gel. After three days of germination, the amount of Rubisco protein produced per day has increased significantly as visibly demonstrated in the Figure.
Figure 5 shows a northern blot of germinated seeds using RNA probes. The samples were collected daily, starting from dry seed.
The Detailed Description of the Invention
In the present invention most terms used have the same meaning as they generally have in the fields of recombinant DNA techniques, molecular biology ana Dotany, especially in fields related to production of transgenic plants and gene products. Some terms are, however, used in a somewhat different way and are explained in more detail below.
In plants, foreign genes are generally expressed under strong tissue specific plant promoters in developing plant organs. Typical examples are the seed storage protein promoter or the tuber specific patatin promoter in potato tubers. Alternatively, cell or organ cultures and algal cultures are used as well as even more sophisticated systems including plant virus based systems, with the desired gene coupled inside the virus genome and expressed concurrently with viral proteins. The most advanced systems rely on inducible expression and secretion of recombinant protein to the medium.
The patents US 5,693,506 and US 5,994,628 disclose a production system for producing foreign proteins in germinating monocot seeds. Recombinant proteins are expressed under a strong amylase promoter in a cell culture or in germinating seed and the protein is secreted into the growth medium or extracted from malt. In a monocot seed the storage reserves mainly consist of the starchy endosperm. The protein stores in mono-cots are scarce as compared to those in dicot seeds. In addition, even if the amylase expression is high in specific cells, only a small number of cells in the seed express amylase. These cells are restricted to the scutellum of the embryo and the aleurone layer of
the endosperm. There is a great demand to provide more cost effective systems, which
would take advantage of the storage reserves of proteins and oils in dicot seeds. The
patents US 5,543,576 and US 5,714,474 disclose a method in which transgenic seeds are
added without any pregermination and in ground form into feed mixtures as additional
The patent US 5,670,349 discloses the use of wound inducible HMGR/HMG2 promoters for expressing recombinant proteins in fresh tobacco leaves harvested from the field. Wounding of fresh or stored plant material by excision or crushing triggers a rapid increase in expression. However, the protein content in tobacco leaf is small compared to that obtainable from a dicot seed. Furthermore, the storability of fresh leaves is not comparable to that of dry seed in respect of time, space and/or storage costs. The use of fresh plant material, such as leaves harvested from the field is also a major source of microbial contamination; which is a serious problem in -fermentation technology.
The patent applications WO 94/11519 and WO 97/32986 disclose methods and plants for producing degradation and conversion products in plants by the aid of a malting process. In said methods it is suggested that the enzymes are active m giyoxysomes, which catalyze the breakdown of fatty acids into acetyl-CoA. This acetyl-CoA which normally is used to make organic acids that can be exported from the glyoxysomes and used in other
The term "seed plants" means Sperrnatophyta the most developed plants, characterized by complex structures including fully developed organs like root, stem, leaf, flower and the vascular system. Seed plants are divided into two classes, angiosperms and gymno-sperms. Angiosperms are further divided into subclasses, i.e. monocotyledons and dicotyledons. The embryo of a mature seed of a monocot comprises only one cotyledon, which is reduced to the absorptive scutellum. In dicots the embryo has two cotyledons which serve as storage organs. The assimilates required for storage deposition in the dicot cotyledons are translocated from the mother plant through the vascular system to the seed coat and finally to the cotyledon. The seed coat is a maternal tissue and there are no symplastic connections to the embryo. The assimilates pass to the apoplasmic space and are then taken up by the embryo, redistributed symplastically and utilized in the synthesis of the reserves.
The term "dicot seed" means seed obtainable from a dicot plant comprising a versatile storage reserve including proteins, lipids and carbohydrates present in the cotyledons in contrast to the storage reserves of monocot seeds, which consist mainly of carbohydrates and only minor amounts of other compounds. In the present invention "dicot seed" means the complete seed or a fragment or a part of the seed obtainable by precrushing the seed, preferably in dry form. It is to be noted that the present invention is related to dicotyledons, monocotyledons cannot be used-to achieve the objectives of the present invention.
The most preferred plant genera which can be applied for producing gene products of interest according to the process of the present invention include, but are not limited to dicot plants with high protein or oil content in seeds. Typical examples are the following genera: Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Polygonaceae. The genus Brassicaceae includes for example the following species: Brassica napus, Brassica campestris, Camelina sativa, Sinapis alba, Fabaceae includes Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus vulgaris, Glysine max, Vicia faba, Lens culinaris, Pisum sativum, Vigna mungo and Medicago sativa. The genus Polygcnaceae includes the species Polygonum. Also sunflower, Helianthus annuus, is potentially useful because of high oil contents in seeds.
The term "source-sink principle" means a production system or production entity, which can be separatea into two "distinct stages, the accumlirauoii stage in whicn protein, carbohydrate and lipid reserves are stored into the seed and the mobilization/production stage in which the accumulated reserves normally mobilized for the initiation of growth of the
plant' are instead mobilized or harnessed for the production of one or more foreign gene products of interest by triggering on the expression system. The accumulation stage comprises cultivation of the transgenic plant with substantially no expression of the gene product in the field whereas the production of the gene products is restricted to the germination in confined conditions. This, is achievable by the specificity of expression systems, described in more detail elsewhere in the specification.
The term "surrounding medium" means an aqueous buffer solution either in liquid, semisolid or solid form, which comprises substances capable of initiating, enhancing, delaying or elongating the most favourable stage of the germination. The "surrounding medium" can contain germination inducing, factors up-regulating certain processes and/or factors down-regulating certain other processes as well as external nutrients. The "surrounding medium" can also be a humid space or room.
The term 'substrate" means a solid, semisolid or liquid composition or medium, which comprises at least one compound or substance, which can be transformed into another compound or substance with more desirable properties by using die composition of the present invention comprising one or more of the gene products of interest as catalyzators.
The term "seed derived composition" means the crude mixture produced by the process
of the present invention obtainable from a germinating dicot seed comprising one or
more de novo -synthesized gene products expressed in the cotyledon of the germinated
dicot seed including the seedling or secreted into the medium surrounding the
germinating seed or seedling. The "seed derived composition" can be used as such, by
placing it in contact with the substrate. Naturally the seed derived composition can be
dried and/or treated with applicable down-stream processing methods as well as being
isolated and/or purified before use. Alternatively, the substrate is a reagent comprising
one or more compounds capable of modifying one or more of the gene products in the
composition. For example substituents may be added or the folding patterns of the gene
product may be modified or fragments or parts removed or added in order to get a morf
stable product. The "seed derived composition" can also be. formulated, i.e. provided
with suitable additives, such as granulation improving agents, fillers, lubricants, etc. The
germinated seed-derived composition of the present invention can also be added into
animal fodder to improve the digestive properties of the fodder.
The term "substantially sterile source-sink production system" means that the dicot seed
can be surface sterilized with methods such as radiation or chemical sterilization. The germination can be carried out in or on a presterilized surrounding medium, using methods applied in aseptic working methods and/or when working in sterile or super-clean conditions. The fact that the whole production can be performed in sterile conditions means that the main causes of seed being killed or not germinating, i.e. fungal or bacterial contamination of seed, can be avoided. Furthermore, the end-product is (also substantially contaminant-free and not prone to degradation by contaminants having proteolytic activities. Thus, the production system is also especially suitable for producing pharmaceutical products which require high hygienic standards.
The term "initiating the germination of the transgenic dicot seed" means providing conditions favourable for germination. Optionally, it includes storing, drying, sterilizing, adding water, supplementing the seed with inducing as well as up- and/or down-regulating factors as well as external nutrition. The supplements include both physical or chemical means. External nutrition comprises for example N- and/or C-sources, vitamins, minerals, trace elements, etc. Growth factors, germination triggering factors, inducers, factors capable of up-regulating some and down-regulating other processes during the de novo synthesis, include for example plant hormones, such as auxin and cvtokinin. The physical means includes for example a flash of light or illumination for a longer time, as well as sterilization and/or heating.
fine term "expression system" means a DNA construct comprising one or more DNA sequence encoding one or more gene products of interest, operably linked with expression regulating sequences, such as enhancers, promoters and/or terminators. The expression system is preferably such that it is induced or can be induced during germination of the seed, but is substantially silent or can be silenced when the dicot plant is multiplied and cultivated in field conditions. Preferably, the expression regulating sequences comprise a promoter, which can be called a "camera obscura" promoter, i.e. a promoter which is triggered on or activated during germination, when the seed is kept in non-illuminated conditions in a dark room. This does not preclude the use of illumination or light. On the contrary subjecting the source-sink production system to a flash of light may increase the production of the gene product of interest by inducing and enhancing the activity of the specific promoters.
The expression systems take advantage of such expression regulating sequences which are especially active in de novo synthesis of transient proteins which accumulate in the cotyledon during the initiations of the germination.
Said inducible expression system comprising inducible regulatory sequences selected from the regulatory sequences of the genes encoding transient proteins which are de novo synthesized during the initiation of germination and accumulating in the cotyledons and endosperm of the plant,
Said expression systems can be prepared by selecting suitable regulatory sequences. The selection method comprises the steps of
isolating total RNA from cotyledons and/or leaves of dicots;
preparing cDNA from said isolated RNA by amplifying said RNA with one plant specific primer and a primer specific for a protein which is de novo synthesized during the initiation of germination and accumulating in the cotyledons and endosperm of the plant;
collecting and plating the cDNA comprising clones;
comparing the results with clones obtained from leave derived RNA; and
recovering the clones comprising the cDNA showing an increased activity in germinating dicot seeds.
The term "gene product" in the present invention meals proteins, polypeptides, including both strctural proteins and/or enzymes. Usually, the "gene product""!!" a peptide, comprising at least two amino acids linked together by a peptide bond. Peptides comprising 2-10 amino acids are called oligopeptides, whereas peptides comprising more than 10 amino acids are called polypeptides. A polypeptide may be a polyamino acid chain, such as a polylysine chain consisting solely of lysine molecules, but it can also be a protein, a protein complex or a part or a fragment of the protein.
As said in the previous paragraph the term "gene product" can also mean nucleotide-based products, such as mRNA. Also included in the term are other desired biochemicals, compounds or substances, which are obtainable for example by biotransformation processes, in which one or more of the gene products present in the seed derived compositions of the present invention act as catalyzators when placed in contact with a substrate comprising the compound or substance which can be transformed to the desired product or transforms the gene product in desired manner.
Alternatively, "derivatives of the gene products" are obtainable by transformation process in which one or more of the original "gene products" of the present invention are modified by allowing a reagent present in the substrate to modify it. The gene products can be made more stable or more active by changing their secondary
and/or tertiary structures e.g. by refolding or unfolding the amino acid chain, removing ior adding fragments complexmg, or adding structures or substituents to said gene [products. Such "derivatives of the gene products" are also included within the term i"gene products" of the present invention. Usually, the gene products produced byjhe process of the present invention are heterologous foreign proteins. This means that the "gene product" is not produced by the wild type plant. In other words, it is not native to the host plant. Naturally, the native seed products can be produced using the process of the present invention. It is especially useful to increase the production of certain pharmaceutically useful native homologous plant-derived products.
The term "recovering with or without down-stream processing the gene product expressed by the germinating transgenic dicot seed" means that the cotyledons including the seedlings can be recovered as such by separating them from the surrounding liquid medium with or without any down-stream processing. Alternatively, the surrounding medium is recovered as such. The storability of the "seed-derived composition" can be improved by drying, extracting, filtering, crushing; etc. Many of these means are simultaneously used for stopping the germination. Heating, drying, crushing, separating, extracting, pressing and filtering are usually applied to stop the germination before the rate of de novo synthesis declines and/or the concentration of the desired gene products goes down. The stopping is of importance, since the germination when allowed to continue too long, start to reuse de novo synthesized desired proteins for production of other substances needed by the nascent plant.
The General Description of the Invention
The stored reserves in germinating dicot seeds, which include liberated amino acids and
other biochemical substrates, comprise a renewable raw material source entity, whereas
expression of the desired transgene by the transcription regulation, functioning in the
cotyledon during germination and subsequent seedling growth, forms the production
(sink) entity. Thus, the present invention is above all related to a production system
comprising two entities, the source and the sink, i.e. two separate stages, a raw material
accumulation stage and a production stage, in which the raw material source is used for
de novo synthesis of the gene products and their derivatives or products modified by the
gene product from the raw material source obtained in the first stage of the production
The goal of the present invention is to develop a novel process based on a source-sink
production system for producing gene products in dicot seeds. The production system comprises two distinct stages. The first stage is taking advantage of the versatile renewable resources of raw material, such as protein and oil, which are accumulating in the storage reserves of the dicot plant during cultivation and which can be optionally harvested in form of seeds. The other stage comprises mobilization of the storage reserves in germinating transgenic plant for the production of one or more gene products by de novo synthesis of the desired gene product with or without adding supplements such as nutritional factors and providing physical and/or chemical means as well as genetical engineering for inducing germination and up- and/or down-regulating the de novo syntheses including transcription, expression and/or secretion.
The present invention takes in its first stage advantage of the versatile storage reserves comprising proteins, oils and/or carbohydrates, present! in dicotyledons, but lacking from monocotyledons, in which the storage reserves mostly comprise two related forms of starch, amylose and amylopectin. In monocotyledons starch is mobilized by amylases during germination and subsequent growth of the nascent seedling. Resulting sucrose is used as a source of energy and carbon compounds, but the raw material for de novo synthesis, especially of proteins, is much more scarce than in dicots making the germinated dicot seeds into an incomparably excellent source-sink production system.
In the present invention transgenic dicot seeds are harvested from the field, transported and stored as usual. The viability of stored seeds can be maintained for long periods, usually up to several years. The temperature and seed moisture content are the major factors in determining seed viability during storage. Generally, seeds are stored at temperatures between 0-5°C. The normal moisture content of storaged seed is 4-10 %. If the moisture content is less than 20% seed respires and heat is generated. If ventilation conditions are poor, the heat generated can kill the seed. If the moisture content is over 20% it can result in deterioration of the seed by microbial growth.
Maturation drying is the normal event in seed development during which seed passes to a metabolically quiescent state. However seed of many species may germinate without desiccation. Tomato seeds can be germinated when taken from ripening fruit and placed on water. In several other species including Brassica campestris, starch content rapidly decreases and the concentration of certain sugars and oligosaccharides increases during desiccation of seeds. Also certain hydrophilic proteins are expressed strongly in.desiccat-ing seed. They have the ablity to attract water and they are thought to play an important role in the protection against harmful effects of desiccation. Mature dry seed may main-
tain germination ability and be stored from days to many years. The crude non-formulat-ed raw material, the dicot seed, can be stably stored up to several years.
In dicot seeds, triacylglycerols are the major storage form of lipids stored in subcellular organelles as oil bodies. Seed oil content can be as high as 64% in castor bean or 48% in rape seed. Storage oil is synthesized from sucrose entering the developing seed. In the cytosol, sucrose is converted to hexosephosphate, which is translocated into the plastids or converted to glycerol-3-phosphate (glycerol backbone). In the plastids, fatty acids are synthesized starting from hexosephosphate, malate and acetate. In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) glycerol backbone and fatty acids are esterified to give triacylglycerols.
In dicot plants the major amino acids transported in the phloem are glutamine and aspaiagine. In seed coat, before translocation to the cotyledons, part of the glutamine and asparagine are converted to other amino acids. In cotyledons, amino acids are used for the synthesis of storage proteins which are packed in protein bodies. Early in the seed development the cotyledon cells contain one or two large vacuoles which later become filled with storage protein and gradually fragment to form distinct and discrete smaller protein bodies. Usually dicot seed contains two or more different storage proteins. For example, Brassica campestris has a total protein content of 24%, containing for example 2S'albumin, napin, US globulin and cruciferin. Of the total protein content in the seed napin represents 20% and cruciferin 60%. It is feasible to make use of the genes encoding said proteins in the present invention.
Storage proteins are generally coded by multigene families. A common feature for the luminal endoplasmic reticulum proteins of eukaryotes is a conserved carboxy-terminal tet-rapeptide KDEL, which serves as the ER-retention signal and is always found at the extreme carboxyl terminus. There is no evidence that conservation of more than four terminal amino acids would be needed (Pelham, H.R.B., TIBS 15:483^486, 1990), although it has been claimed that composition of acidic residues among the terminal 20 amino acids might have some importance for efficient retention (Wandelt, C.I., et al., Plant J., 2:181-192, 1992). The suggested mechanism of retention is most likely recep-tor-mediated and involves binding of the KDEL-signal to the membrane receptor and fast return of the signal-receptor complex in the ER, if it is released as a vesicle (Pelham, H.R.B., TIBS 15:483-486, 1990).
Genetically modified proteins are not always found in their natural cellular compartment.
For example high-Met phaseolin expressed in transgenic tobacco is found only in the ER (endoplastic reticulum), Golgi cisternae and Golgi vesicles. Normally phaseolin accumulates in the matrix of protein storage vacuoles of developing tobacco seeds. Results indicate, that high-met phaseolin is degraded either in Golgi vesicles or just after
entering the protein storage vacuoles (Hoffman, L.M., et al., Plant Mol. Biol.
11:717-730, 1988). High-level accumulation of Vicia faba seed storage protein vicilin
with additional carboxy-terminal KDEL-sequence has been reported with tobacco and
alfalfa (Wandelt C.I., et al., Plant J. 2:181-192, 1992). Modified gene constructs fused with cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter and protein are accumulated in (ER) of the
leaves of transgenic plants. Accordingly, it seems feasible, that when genetically
modified storage proteins are produced, retention in the ER could prevent the degradation and that a DNA construct with cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter could be applied in the present invention.
Gruciferin is a hexamere of six subunits each containing one chain coded by a single gene (Rodin, J. & Rask, L., Physiol. Plant 79:421-426, 1990). For example in Brassica napus cruciferin genes share approximately 60% homology between the members. Napin is the second most prominent seed protein in Brassica napus. Like cruciferin subunits, napin is a single-gene product composed of two different polypeptide chains linked together with disulfide bridges. Both cruciferin and napin are synthesized at the
membrane of ER as precursors containing the ER-targeting signal (Ericson, M.L., et al., J.Biol. Chem.,-261:14576-14581, 1986).
As mentioned earlier, both cruciferin and napin contain the ER-targeting signal sequence at their N-terminal ends. Proteins enter the ER in an unfolded state and the signal sequence is cleaved off soon after the entry. In recent years it has become clear that not all of the proteins entering the ER are further processed and packed into vacuoles. ER also contains a great number of proteins that remain in the lumen and aid the initial steps in the maturation of secretory proteins. Many of these proteins have been characterized also in mammalian systems (Pelham, H.R.B., TIBS 15:483-486, 1990), suggesting that the glycosylation of gene products, especially proteins are similar in mammals as well as in plants. In plants it has been shown that for example the auxin-binding protein is retained in the ER (Inohara, N., et al., Proc.Natl.Acad. Sci. USA 86:3564-3568, 1989).
Usually the first group of proteinases appearing during germination are SH-dependent
proteinases that act on the insoluble native storage proteins. In the Vigna mungo
synthesis of SH-dependent proteinase in the cotyledon is initiated immediately after imbibition and it increases until day 4 after which it decreases (Okamoto, T. & Minamikawa, T., J. Plant Physiol., 152(6): 675-682, 1998). The short chain peptides resulting from endopeptidase activity are cleaved from me native proteins, which in turn increases their susceptibility to other proteinases.
A second group of Droteinases are inactive against, native .storage proteins, but hydrolyze short chain peptides to oligopeptides. At the same time also carboxypeptidases are activated and amino acids are released from peptides. This proteolysis happens in the protein body from which the oligopeptides and amino acids are released in the cytosol, where oligopeptides are degraded further into amino acids by amino- and di- or tri-llpeptidases. Liberated amino acids from the storage organs are further metabolized to the piajor transported form of amino acids, asparagine and glutamine. Storage proteins represent an amino acid source for de novo synthesized proteins during germination.
The second stage of die process of me present invention comprises germination in which the-raw material accumulated during cultivation in the storage reserves of the dicot seed is mobilized for production of the desired gene products. The upscaling time for germination is fast and tne costs low. The production volume is practically unlimited as the raw material is obtainable from renewable resources and the energy input required is obtained from the sun.
In the present invention, germination means the developmental event that begins with water-uptake by the dicot seed and increased respiration and macromolecular syntheses, storage reserve mobilization and subcellular structural changes. Physiologically, germination is a short event ending with the start of the elongation by the embryonic axis. In the present invention germination includes also the growth phase after the start of the elongation of the embryonic axis. Seed imbibes usually no more than two or three times the dry seed weight, but later in seedling development more water is needed. Germination contains numerous events like increased respiration and macromolecular syntheses and subcellular structural changes. Germination is generally completed with the radicle Extension, which occurs by cell expansion without cell division. There are two types of
seedlings classified according to the cotyledon fate after germination. In the hypogeal
type of seedling growth, cotyledon does not raise from the soil with the developing
seedling. Hypocotyl stays short but epicotyl extends and raises the first true leaves out of
the soil. In the epigeal type seedling growth cotyledons are raised by expanding
hypocotyl. Cotyledons usually become photosynthetically active before emerging true
When seed germinates in nature or in the field it uses the reserves of the cotyledon to start the physiological activity generally after a quiet stage as dry seed. Vital functions increase rapidly including gene expression. Significant amounts of amino acids and other biological compounds are liberated from the cotyledon storage reserves during the germination and are subsequently bound during the growth of the seedling.
Germination can also be initiated with surface sterilized seeds by incubating seeds in water or water supplemented with compounds beneficial for the production of a desired gene product. During the germination gene expression to produce the desired gene product is activated. To initiate germination, seeds are first hydrated to a moisture content of 40-50% by steeping in water tanks where temperature is adjusted according to the type of seed and the aeration is organized by compressed air. After imbibition, seeds are | transferred to germinate usually in 100% moisture chambers. Typically the temperature is between 10-30°C and time ranges from 2 to 10 days, preferably 3 to 6 days, most preferably 4 to 5 days.
In the present invention the germinating dicot seed comprises a transgenic cotyledon, i.e. cotyledons of dicotyledon plants being stably transformed with a DNA sequence encoding the desired gene product. Cotyledons are a part of the embryo and they serve as a storage organ. Physiological structure and cell type diversity is relatively simple in the cotyledon. Mobilization of major stored cotyledon reserves begins after germination. In cotyledons the three major forms of storage materials, proteins, oil and carbohydrates are enzymatically converted to a transportable form during seedling growth. Storage proteins are cleaved gradually by a series of proteinases expressed in cotyledon cells. Proteinases are synthesized de novo by structural genes regulated with promoter region functioning in cotyledon.
During germination and subsequent growth of the nascent seedling storage lipid mobilization is initiated by Iipolysis in oil bodies that yields glycerol and free fatty acids from triacylglycerol. In seed storage cell glycerol and free fatty acids are converted to sucrose in complex reactions including dozens of enzymes and at least glyoxysome and mithocon-drion organelles. Sucrose is translocated to the vacuole or embryo.
In the mobilization/production stage the accumulated protein, carbohydrate and lipid 'reserves are used as a source of starting material and converted into the commercially
interesting products instead of the normal proteins produced to form the plant. The
mobilization is started by adding to the seeds a surrounding liquid, semi-solid or solid
medium, comprising water, which is supplemented with optional physical or chemical
means including nutrition, germination inducing factors as well as factors capable of up-
and/or down regulating certain steps in the production (transcription, expression and/or
secretion). This mobilization initiates the germination and the production is going on
until the emergence of green leaves.
Contamination has been known to be a serious problem in fermentation technology. A significant portion (20-25%) of fermentation batches are contaminated in industrial scale production: Also" processes that use fresh plant material like the potato starch production br corn wet milling have problems with microbial growth during the process. Fresh plant material like leaves harvested from the field is a major source of contamination which might cause a serious loss of the end-product.
JThe present invention describes a system that uses dry seed as raw material. There is only a limited foreign gene expression in the field, whereas the expression is mainly carried -out environmentally safely in regulated conditions in a factory instead of field Conditions. Dry dicotyledon seeds can be surface sterilized more easily than monocot plants because they usually have a tight, smooth seed coat unlike monocotyledon kernels. Sterilization can be performed by treatment with chemicals like hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide or with other desinfective compounds. Since dicot seeds have a smooth surface in contrast to the wrinkled surface texture of monocot seeds, sterilization of dicot seeds is much more effective. Consequently, the production of the desired foreign or native gene product(s) can be carried out under sterile conditions, which is a great advantage
especially when the target gene product is a therapeutically active protein, but also because the microbial degradation of the end product can be avoided.
The gene product may be recovered substantially contaminant-free,'either as a dried
plant seed derived composition, comprising one or more gene products accumulated
during the germination of the transgenic dicot seed, preferably recovered at the point of
maximal accumulation by breaking the germination process. The gene product can be
recovered as a down-stream processable mixture of germinated dicolytedon seeds or in a storage-stable form. The composition comprises for example proteins, enzymes,
peptides, hormones, growth factors,,vaccines, amino acids, vitamins and/or antibiotics. The present invention uses an engineered gene expression system to drive the synthesis to
the production of the desired gene product(s) and uses the amino acids, carbon 'Compounds and other "gene products "liberated during initiation of germination as a raw material source tor the de novo synthesis of a transgene product. The natural or native gene products, e.g. proteinases, lipases,, amylases, etc. formed in the germinating seeds pay be used as substrates for the transgenic enzyme or to form desired biochemicals.
In the present invention the goal is to provide a transgenic plant harboring at least one expression system, comprising at least one DNA sequence encodmg at least one desired gene product functionally combined with expression regulating sequences, which are induced or can be induced during germination and are substantially silent or can be silenced when a transgenic dicot plant is grown in field conditions. Promoters, active in dark (non-illuminated conditions), herein so called camera obscura promoters, including
the more or less light independent Rubisco-promoters are useful in the expression system of the present invention.
The present invention provides possibilities to produce different desired gene products,
but also other non-gene biochemicals. The transgene expressed during germination produces the first gene product, RNA, from which other RNA-products are obtainable as
such or after transformation. Usually the RNA-stage is transient and the gene product
recovered is a proteinaceous product. There are principally two kinds of protein products, enzymes and non-enzyme products, which often are structural proteins, vaccines, hormones, etc. The enzymes are capable of modifying an endocellular substrate obtainable from the plant, which is transformed to the desired biochemical compound. Alternatively, an extracellular substrate is added which can be transformed to give another biochemical compound. Subsequently, the protein, whether it is an enzymatically or a non- enzymatically active protein, can be placed in contact with a reagent in which case a derivative of the protein is obtained.
In the present invention heterologous foreign genes or DNA sequences are designed for optimal expression in germinating cotyledons of a dicot plant. Sequence characteristics between plant genes and heterologous genes are checked in order to express the foreign transgenic genes from heterologous sources. In plants, it is beneficial to compare the structure of these genes with known plant genes. Pioneering work in this field has been
done with Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin genes (cry). Several modifications have to
be made in the original gene sequence in order to enhence expression of AT rich cry
genes in plants.
A preferred transcriptional start sequence in plants is AACA ATG G (very conservative
pbsitions of nucleotides are shown in bold). Of the stop codons TGA, TAG and TAA,
the first one has a slight preference and TAA is sparingly used in monocots. Codons in
the 'gene sequence can be converted to appropriate ones in plants according to the codon
usage tables. The converted DNA sequence should be examined for the presence of
putative sites decreasing expression in plants. The putative polyadenylation signal
sequences in plants usually are AATAAA, AATAAT and their variations: AACCAA,
ATATAA, AATCAA, ATACTA, ATAAAA, ATGAAA, AAGCAT, ATTAAT, ATACAT and AAAATA (the most conservative of the A nucleotides are marked by
bold). Putative splicing sites excluded from the gene sequence were CAN7-9AGTNNA.
Additionally, the DNA sequence should be devoid of ATTTA sequence, which is a
putative mRNA degradation element.
The transcription terminator sequences are obtainable from different genes expressed in the seed or other plant genes, for example from the Rubisco gene. Terminators from
different bacteria, for example from Agrobacterium can be used as well as the nos gene or the ocs gene. The nos gene encodes nopaline synthase (Depicker, A., et al., (1982) J.
lifoil. Appl. Genet. 1:561-573 ; Shaw, C.H., et al., (1984) Nucl. Acids Res.
12:7831-7846; and An, G., et al., (1986) Moi. Gen. Genet. 203:245 250). The ocs
gene encodes octopine synthase (Koncz, C, et al., (1983) EMBO J. 3:1597-1603.
Dhaese P. et al., (1983) EMBO J. 2:419-426).
RNA polymerase II transcribes protein coding genes in plants in substantially the same way as in other eukaryctic organisms. At the general level very similar regulation elements can be found in transcription initiation regions (promoter) in eukaryotic cells. TATA box is located 25-40 nucleotides upstream of the transcription initiation site and
translation initiation codon, ATG, is located 40-80 nucleotides downstream of the
transcription initiation site. In mature mRNA an open reading frame follows the ATG
codon and ends with one of three stop codons, UGA, UAG or UAA. promoters from variable sources can be used for transgene expression in plants. Many of
them are from Agrobacterium ssp. and from plant viruses like consututively expressed Agrobacterium nos promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Tissue specific promoters are useful for applications where expression in specific tissues is needed. Tissue specific promoters are usually also developmentally controlled so that they are active only at a certain developmental stage of tissue. In the present invention it is desirable that the promoter is germinating seed specific.
Rubisco (ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxvgenase) represents up to 50% of total protein in germinating cotyledon. It is the most abundant plant protein that catalyzes reactions, where the CO2 molecule condenses with ribulose-l,5-bisphoshate to form two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate. Rubisco is located on the stromal surface of thylakoid membranes. The enzyme consists of eight large subunits, encoded by the chloroplast genome, and eight small subunit. The small subunit is encoded by a nuclear multigene family (rbcS genes). The small subunit is synthesized on cytoplasmic polysomes as a precursor protein. It is transported into the plastids and processed prior to the assembly of a holoenzyme. RbcS gene expression is tissue and developmental stage specific and is controlled by light by the phytochrome system.
In,the present invention, the most preferred gene product or protein production system
uses a promoter of Rubisco small subunit gene. Rubisco small subunit gene promoters
ban be isolated from cotyledons of Brassica campestris grown in dark (camera obscura)
or non-illuminated conditions. This kind of promoter can produce foreign proteins at a
Very high level. Our work has shown that about 50 % of all de novo synthesized proteins
in the dark germinating cotyledons of B. campestris are small and large subunit proteins
bf Rubisco. The mRNA level of the native RbcS gene transcript is as high as 500 pg per
jug total RNA in germinating seeds. Maximal expression is reached about 60 hours after
the start of imbibition. Similar results have been shown with mRNA levels of natural
RbcS gene transcripts from Brassica napus (Fiebig, C, et al., Bot. Acta 103 (3):
258-265, 1990). Germinating seed can be illuminated with visible light for a shorter or
longer time in order to increase expression. Mono-, di- or oligosaccharides, preferably
sucrose or glucose can be added to repress the natural rbcS promoter activity. If sucrose
responsive element is removed from transgene promoter it will not be repressed by
sucrose. When less Rubisco enzyme is produced more free amino acids remain for the
transgene expression. Also antisense technologies may be used to down-regulate endogenous rbcS gene expression: by expressing antisense rbcS gene in germinating
Because Rubisco is the most abundant plant protein, it has been used as a preferred promoter in the present invention, but the expression system of the present invention is in no way restricted to the use of said promoter. An advantageous transgenic cotyledon for production of proteins comprises a promoter system for production of proteins and includes preferably the light inducible Rubisco-promoter highly active in cotyledons. It is possible to produce other highly expressing Rubisco promoters by screening Rubisco
cDNAs expressed in cotyledons especially in non-illuminated conditions. cDNAs may be produced by RT-PCR using oligo-T-primers and sequences from 5'-end of coding sequence of highly conserved Rubisco. In the cotyledon highly expressing cDNAs may be sequenced and variable 3' untranslated region (UTR) may be used as a the probe for detecting expression levels in plant tissues. Using cDNA sequence databases and promoters expressing essentially only in cotyledons may be isolated by using several methods. In a similar way it is possible to use cDNA information to provide other essentially seed specific and germination activated and/or inducible promoters, herein cabled camera obscura-promoters.
Many proteinases and lipases are expressed specifically in the cotyledon of the germinating seeds. One of the most well-characterized is Vigna mungo sulfhydryl-endopeptidase (SH-EP), which is synthesized de novo in the cotyledons soon after the imbibition. Generally, the amount of SH-EP mRNA increases until the third or the forth day. The SH-EP promoter region (gene bank number: EMBL X5I900) is fused with GUS gene to facilitate the measurement of the expression level during germination of the dicot seed.
In addition to promoters regulated in a tissue specific manner, inducible promoters, which can be activated by various stimuli, can be used. A class of genes known as heat shock or stress genes occurs in all organisms from bacteria to man. Transcription of these genes is initiated following a stress treatment (e.g., heat shock) and translation of trie transcripts produces proteins that probably protect the cell temporarily. The production of heat shock mRNAs and proteins is only a temporary phenomenon and the expression of the heat shock genes levels off, after a few hours and then declines. If the temperature is increased slowly, rather than in a single step, an organism can withstand temperatures, which would otherwise be lethal, i.e., the organism can adapt to higher tempera-ties! Germinated seeds can be heated to increase heat shock promoter activity. Soybean heat shock (HS) mRNA levels have been shown to increase from a barely detectable level up to 15 000-20 000 copies after two hours of treatment at 40°C. The HS promoter rigion described in US 5,447,858 can also be used in the expression system of the present invention as an inducible promoter. The HS promoter cloned by PCR is fused with GUS eene to measure the expression level during germination of the seed.
Several types of hydrolytic enzymes are synthesized de novo and functioning in germinating seeds where storage reserves are mobilized. Conversion of stored reserves to transportable form like triacylglycerol to sucrose includes several highly expressed genes like iicitrate lyase and malate dehydrogenase. Promoters from these genes can be used for
transsene expression. Salicylate inducible promoter from tobacco plant, Nicotiana tabacum, can be cloned using PCR. It can be used to express heterologous genes in
A great environmental advantage of the present invention is that the foreign gene is not expressed during cultivation in field conditions. The gene is multiplied and harvested together with the storage reserves, whereas the germination restricted expression of the foreign gene product can be carried out in confined conditions.
In principal, any commercially interesting gene product may be produced by the present invention. These gene products include enzymes, which are heterologous to the plant. In other words, they are not native to the plant species, in which they are produced. Also included are enzymes, homologous to the plants, in which they are produced. Said homologous proteins are generally overexpressed using recombinant DNA techniques. Enzymes of interest include but are not limited to hydrolases, such as proteases, ß-glucanases, cellulases, hemi-cellulases, phosphatases, lipases, phospholipases, pectinases, amylases, amyloglycosidases, lysozymes, pullulanases and chitinases,
peroxidases as well as lyases such as pectinolyase and isomerases, such as glucose isomerase.
It is also possible to produce structural proteins with the process and production system of the present invention. Some interesting embodiments of the present invention are for example collagen, gelatin, spidroin, silk protein, but also many other kinds of proteinaceous gene products can be produced, including enzyme inhibitors, such as the trypsine inhibitor, therapeutic peptides like interferons, insulin, neuropeptides, enkefalin, somatostatin, etc. Also other polyamino acids, such as polylysine and polyglutamate
can be produced, as well as fibers, membranes, coatings, therapeutics or drugs, '
anti-sealants or food/feed additives and vaccines, such as LTB and growth factors,
such as GM-CSF. Non-proteinaceous gene products can also be synthesized, including
As the de novo synthesis during germination is a rapidly passing transient situation, the germination must be broken or ended before the amount of the desired gene product starts to decline. This can be achieved by recovering the desired gene product before its concentration declines by stopping the germination either by heating, codin-N2(Kilning) or Alternatively, by crushing or excision of the germinated dicot seeds including the seedlings. If the germination is stopped by heating the desired gene product can be
recovered as a crude dried product, with a good storability, which means that the enzyme can be retrieved in a crude storage stable form as well. The synthesis of the desired protein can also be stopped at its peak by crushing or excision of the germinating seed. If the germination is stopped by excision or crushing the gene product can be recovered as a crude mixture, it can be used as such or it can be down-stream processed, i.e. formulated, stored, and transported and stored. Preferably, it is used as such in e.g. in biotransformation processes. Naturally the desired gene products can be isolated and purified by conventional well known methods.
If the gene product is used for biotransformation, it is placed in contact with a substrate, i.e. a certain compound or a mixture of compounds, i.e. the gene product(s), often enzyme(s) are allowed to react with the compounds in the substrate. Either the gene product, e.g. the enzyme acts as an catalyzer and "modifies the compound(s) in the substrate, or alternatively the substrate or reagent contains at least one substance or compound capable of modifying the gene product, for example its folding patterns can be modified, glycosylation or deglycosylation can be carried out or it can be provided with substituent to facilitate conjugation of me gene product with other products.
In the present invention, after the germination, in conditions where a desired gene product can be produced, the substrate is enriched with the gene product. Seed derived composition include cotyledons, hypocotyls, root and in hypogeal type plants also epicotyl and sometimes small primary leaves. The gene product can be extracted or left in the composition.
The gene product may be a protein encoded by a gene provided by the expression system of the present invention or some other biochemical compound produced by a transgenic enzyme when the native gene products stored in the seed are mobilized by germination and used as such and allowed to act on an exogenously added substrate to provide the desired (bio)transformation of the substrate.
If the gene product is extracted from the composition, it can be used either in fresh or dried form. Drying can be performed in a heated dryer at 40 - 80°C or in a lyophilizator at -20 - -80°C. The dried material can be crushed or powdered. Before extraction the imposition may be mechanically disrupted and/or enzymatically treated bringing the :otal protein into a slurry or solution. The cellular debris may then be separated by any convenient means, such as centrifugation, sedimentation and/or filtration.
,The supernatant or filtrate will normally comprise 1-40 % (w/w) desired gene product of the total protein in the medium, preferably at least about 30 % (w/w). When the desired product is not water soluble, it can for example be extracted with a convenient jsolvent. Alternatively, another process, which allows renaturation or solubilization jand/or extraction of the product without loss of the activity of the desired product.
After isolation of the protein of interest from the aqueous medium, the gene product can be purified in conventional ways. Since the gene product will comprise a substantial portion of the total protein present in the mixture, often being the greatest percentage of any individual protein, purification is greatly simplified. Furthermore, contaminants in the product after purification are not likely to be of physiological concern for any of applications of the gene products, including therapeutic applications. If the gene product is not extracted from the composition but left in it, it can also be recovered in fresh form or dried form. The drying can be performed as described above. The dried material can further be crushed or powdered. The fresh material can be mashed by mechanical disruption or enzymatic treatment. Dried and fresh material can be used as a source of gene product. If the gene product is an enzyme, appropriate substrates can be added into the aqueous mixture or to the dried composition or used as fresh material.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the germinated dicot seeds, cotyledons and/or seedlings comprising one or more proteins of interest, can be used as a supplement in feed products. The germinated dicot seeds can be mixed with normal nbn-transgenic seeds to obtain the desired concentration of the gene product of interest in an animal feed product.
Germinated seed derived mixtures or compositions can be dried and stored. The gene products can be isolated or left in the material, when for example the recombinant protein is useful in feed applications. The gene products can be used to increase protein value of animal feed or it can be for example a growth hormone or a vaccine. Also labile or toxic substances can be produced in a strictly controlled manner, which combines efficient protein production with ecological aspects and agricultural interests.
The invention is described in more detail below. The examples and experimental details are disclosed to provide an improved understanding and guidance for those skilled in the
GUS gene expression in germinating Brasssica campestris seeds
GUS expression is demonstrated with a histochemical assay. Four different promoters are used to regulate the GUS expression. The promoters used are Soybean heat shock promoter, Vigna mungo endopeptidase promoter, Nicotiana tabacum pr-promoter and CaMV 35S promoter. Promoter sequences are produced by PCR using plant total DNA as a template.
The promoters were linked to the GUS gene using NcoI enzyme. The promoter-GUS constructs were cloned in a plant transformation vector, pGPTV-hpt (Becker et al. 1992. Plant Mol.' Biol. 20:1195-97). B. campestris was transformed according to the protocol described by Kuvshinov, V. et al. (Plant Cell Reports 18:773-777, 1999). The transgenic plants were grown in greenhouse until they produced seeds. The transgenic seeds were germinated and used for the histochemical GUS assay.
The results are described in the Figures.
On the left side in Figure 1A a germinated seed of a transgenic B. campestris expressing the GUS gene is shown. The GUS gene is linked to me soybean heat shock promoter. On the right side an untransformed control seedling is shown.
In Figure 1B germinated seed of transgenic Brassica campestris expressing the GUS gene is shown. The GUS gene is linked to the endopeptidase promoter.
In Figure 1C the germinated seed of transgenic Brassica campestris expressing the GUS gene is shown. The GUS gene is linked to the salicylate inducible promoter.
In Figure 1D the germinated seed of transgenic Brassica campestris'expressing the GUS gene is shown. The GUS gene is linkedto the 35S promoter.
Figure 2 shows the colourless buffer solution containing the substrate ß-Glucuronide (100 µg/ml) which by the action of the GUS enzyme produced by a germinated transgenic seed is enzymatically converted into the blue-qoloured glucopyranosiduronic acid and aglycone.
Figure 3 shows various germination stages of a Brassica campestris seed, indicated as days after the onset of germination. The surface sterilized seeds were germinated under in vitro conditions, illuminated for 16 hours at the temperature of 22°C, and under non-illuminated (dark) conditions for 8 hours at the temperature of 18°C.
Figure 4 shows a SDS-PAGE gel of germinated seeds. The samples were collected daily, starting from the dry seed. Material was homogenized in liquid nitrogen and resuspended to 50 mM Tris, pH 8.0, in the presence of 850 raM NaCl. After centrifugation, the clear "supernatant was mixed with a loading buffer. The storage proteins and Rubisco subunits are marked in the Coomassie-stained gel. After three days of germination, the amount of Rubisco protein produced per day is significant.
Figure 5 shows a northern blot of germinated seeds using RNA probes. The samples
were collected daily, starting from dry seed. The antisense sequence probe contains 197
bp from exon 3 and 153 bp from the 3'-UTR region of rubisco small subunit cDNA
(unpublished). The probe is generated from pBluescript plasmid by the T7-promoter
using DIG-UTP in the reaction. Each lane was loaded with 3 µg of total RNA. RNA was
extracted using the Qiagen RNeasy Plant Mini Kit. Hybridization was made with DIG
Easy Hyb buffer essentially according to the manufacturer's protocol.
The preparation of novel rbcS-promoters for the expression system
3. Isolation of a novel rbcS-promoter
Rbc cDNA-clones were sequenced from four days old transgenic cotyledons of Brassica campestris. The clones were divided into two groups with similar characteristics based on the sequence of 3'UTR region.
SDS-page analysis of Brassica campestris seedlings. Seeds of Brassica campestris were germinated in series of 1 to 7 days. Five pairs of cotyledons were ground in liquid nitrogen and resuspended in lysis-loading buffer (50 mM Tris HC1 pH 8.5, 2% SDS, 0.1% Bromophenol Blue, 10% glycerol, 2% mercaptoethanol (2-ME). Samples were boiled in a water bath for ten minutes and analysed in 15% SDS-PAGE gel according to the Lacinmli (1970). The Rbc gene expression was estimated to initiate 4 days after imbibition.
b. RNA-purification from Brassica campestris cotyledons.
RNA was purified from 4 days old cotyledons by using Qiagen RNeasy Kit.
c. cDNA-synthesis was carried out from total RNA of Brassica campestris
2 /ig of total RNA and 10 ng of notI-d(T)l$ primer in 16 µl. of water was incubated for 5 minutes at a temperature of 70°C. The mixture was transferred on ice and 5/xI of 5 x "reaction buffer, 2.5µl of 5mM dNTP, 20 U of ribonuclease inhibitor and 200 U of Kl-MLV reverse transcriptase was added. The reaction mixture was incubated at a temperature of 42 °C for 1 hour.
d. PCR-amplification of cDNA clones expressed in cotyledon cells.
PCR was initially optimized by using series of twelve primers consisting of thymine nucleotides and a changing dinucleotide anchor as a 3'-primer and a 49-mer Oligonucleotide from the starting region of the Brassica napus rbc gene (Gene bank accession number g 17849) exon no HI as a 5'-primer. Initial optimization showed that only GCT11 as a 3'-primer resulted in a PCR-product. In order to clone this PCR-product, a 49-mer oligonucleotide was constructed with NotI-restriction site. The primers are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Primers used for PCR-isolation of rubisco cDNA-clones.
3'primers for initial screening 1: 5'TTTTTTTTTTTCA3' (SEQ.ID: 1:) 2: S'TTTTTTTTTTTCT3' (SEQ.ID:2:) 3: 5'TTITTTTTTTTCC3' (SEQ.ID:3:) 4:5'TTTTTTTTTTTCG3' (SEQ.ID:4:) 5: :5,TTTTTTTTTTTGA3, (SEQ.ID:5:) 6. 5'TTTTTTTTTTTGT3, (SEQ.ID:6:) 7.5'TTTTTTTTTTTGC3' (SEQ.ID:7:) 8 5'TTTTTTTTTTTGG3' (SEQ.ID:8:) 9: 5'TTTTTTTTTTTAA3' (SEQID:9:) 10:;5'TTTTTTTTTTTAT3' (SEQ.ID:10) 11: 5TTTTTTTTTTTAC3' (SEQ.ID:11:)
12: 5'TTTTTTTTTTTAG3' (SEQ.ID.12:)
5' CGCGGATCCCACGGGTTTGTTTACCGTGAGCACGGAAGC ACCCCCGGAT3 *
3'-primer for cloning of the rbc cDNA-clone (SEQ.ID: 14:): 5'AAGGAAAAAAGCGGCCGCAATTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGC3'
For the cloning of the rbc cDNA-fragment, PCR-amplification was carried out in using 1µl of cDNA-synthesis reaction mixture as a template, 100 nM 5'-primer, 100 nM 3'-primer, 100 µM. dNTP and 1.25 U of Pfu DNA-polymerase/25 µl of reaction volume. The obtained PCR-fragment was cloned into the Notl and BamHI-sites of a pUK21-vector. Seven individual clones were sequenced. According to the sequence, clones were divided into two groups containing 3 similar respectively 4 similar representatives. One representative from both groups was chosen for further studies. The sequences were named utr2 (SEQ.ID: 15:) and utr8 (SEQ.ID: 16:)
utr2-sequence (SEQ. ID: 15:) :
TTCGCGTTGT AAGACATTTC ATAAATAATA TCTACCTCAT TTCATTTCCA TTTGTCTGTTT TCTTTGGCTTT TTGTTTCTGA GGCATGTTAT ATCGGATTGT CAAGTGTCTG ATTTATGAAC AACATGTAAT CTCTATATGC ATATTTCT
utr8-sequence (SEQ.ID: 16:):
TTCGCTTTCA TATAATAATA TCTTCCTCAT TTCATTTCCA ATAAGTCTGT TTCTTTTTTC TCTTTGGATT TCTGTTACGA GACTTTCTAT ATCGGATTGT AAAATGTCTG ATTTTATGAA GATGTAATTT CGG CAAATA
e. Cloning of Brassica eampestris rubisco small subunit promoter Type I (65A)
The 2.8 kb fragment carrying the promoter and the gene corresponding to UTR 65A
(SEQ.ID:24:) was amplified using bnrbl (SEQ.ID: 17:)
(5'-GAATTCTAACGACCCTTTTCCG-3') which is complementary to B. napus rubisco
small subunit gene as 5'-primer and UTR2 . (SEQ.ID: 18:)
(5'-GGCCACACTTGACAATCCGATATAACATGCCTCA-3') which is specific to UTR 65A (SEQ.ID:24:) as 3'-primer. The amplification was done with Pfx Platinum
DNA polymerase (LifeTechnologies) according to manufacturer s recommendations. The
promoter regions were amplified using the obtained fragment as a template. Bnrb3
(SEQ.ID: 19:) (5'-AAAAAGCTTCTAGACCCTTTTCCGTCATAAGTTTTATA-3')
which is complementary to B. napus rubisco small subunit gene was used as 5'-primer and RbSiB (SEQ.ID:20:) and RBNCO (SEQ.BD:21:) as 3'-primers in separate reactions. RbSiB (5'-CAGGTCTCCCATGCAGCTAACTCTTCCTCCGTTGCT-3r) has 3' end complementary to the end of putative chloroplast targeting signal peptide of B. napus rubisco small subunit gene and 5'-end which carries Eco3ll site which after cutting leaves ATG-containing Ncol site-compatible end for cloning into plant expression vectors. RBNCO (SEQ.ID:21:) (5'-GAGGAAGCCATGGCTACTTCTT-3') is compatible to the start of the coding region of the B. napus rubisco small subunit gene except two-nucleotide change, which creates a Ncol site around the ATG codon.
f. Evaluation of mRNA pool coding small subunit of ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate
carboxylase in Brassica campestris leaves and seedlings-Total RNA was isolated from mature leaves and four day old seedlings using RNeasy kit (Qiagen). Messenger RNA was further purified using Oligo (dT) Cellulose column according manufacturer's recommendation (New England Biolabs). Oligo T primer (SEQ. ID: 22:) (CUACUACUACUAGCGGCCGCTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT VN) and Moloney Murine Leukaemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase (Promega) were used to synthesize total cDNA pool. Rubisco small subunit cDNAs were amplified using two cycles of PCR (1 min 94°C, 1 min 55°C 1 min 72°C). PCR primers; oligo T primer and primer which recognizes the end of the last exon of rubisco small subunit (SEQ.ID:23.) (CAUCAUCAUCAUTCGACGATCATCGGATTCGACA). The PCR product was digested with Uracil DNA Glycosylase and cloned to pAMP1 vector (CloneAMP pAMP System LIFE TECHNOLOGIES). A total of 102 clones was analysed by DNA sequencing. 42 clones were from germinating seedlings and 60 clones from mature leaves. Three different types (Type I, II and HI) of mRNA-were found. The sequences and percentage of the distribution of different types, of sequences in germinating seedlings and mature leafs are presented in Table 2
Table 2. The sequences and percentage of distribution of different types of mRNA.
The sequences of three different types of mRNA are as follows.
Type I (SEQ.ID:24:)
TTAATTCGCGTTGTAAGACATTTCATAAATAATATCTACTCATTTCATTTCCAT TTGTCTGTTTTCTTTGGCTTTTTGTTTCTGAGGCATGTTATATCGGATTGTCAAGT GTCTGATTTATGAACATGTAATCTCTATATTGCATATTTTCTTCTTGGAAAAAAA
TTAATTTGCTATGACATTCACATAATAATCTCTGCTCATTTCATTTCCAATTGT CTGTTTCTTTTCCCTTTGGTTTTCTGTTTCTCAGAC ATTCTATATCGGAT1G TC AAATGTGTGATTGTGAACATGTAATCTCTATATTGCTTCTTCGTCTTGGTAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
Type III (SEQ.ID:26:)
ttaattcgctttcatataataatatcttctcatttcatttccaataagtctgttt gtttttttctctttggatttctgttacgagactttctatatcggattgtaaaat gtctgattttatgaacatgtaatttctaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaaaa
g. Cloning of the most abundant Brassica campestris rubisco small subanit gene
One of the B. campestris rubisco small subunit genes represents 56% of the transcripts
according to quantitative sequencing analysis of 102 cloned rubisco small subunit
UTR-clones. This clone was named UTR56 (Type III, SEQ.ID:26:). In order to clone
the corresponding gene and its upstream region four primers were designed to be used in
two-ftep PCR., In the first PCT primer bnrb4 (SEQ.ID:27:)
(5'-GGCCATGAATTCTAACGACCCTTTTCC GTCATAAAAGT-3') which is a part of B. napus rubisco small subunit gene (accession. number x61097) was used as
5'-primer. The primer 56r6 (SEQ.ID:28:)
(5*-CGCGATATAGAAATTACATGTTCATAAAATCAGACATTTTAC-3') specific to
UTR56 (SEQ.ID:26.) was used as 3'-primer. The,composition of the first PCR was: 75
mM Tris, pH 8.0 at 25°C, 20 mM (NH4)S04, 0.01% Tween 20, 2mM MgCl2, 200 /µM
dNTPs, 0.2 µM primers, 0.025 units/µl Tag DNA polymerase, 0.0016 units/µl Pfu
DNA polymerase and 100 pg/jil B. campestris DNA. The program was: 94° C, 4
minutes, 30 X [(94°C, 30 s), (38°C, 30 s), (72°C, 3 min)]. The expected 2.8 kb
fragment was purified from agarose gel. Because there was no certain sequence
information, the fragment was reamplified using bnrb5 (SEQ.ID:29:)
(5'-GAGGTACCCGCGGCCGC GAATTCTAACGACCC TTTTCCGTCATAAAAG-3')
which has 3'-end complementary to bnrt>4 (SEQ.ID:27:) and 5'-end extension which
carries Notl 8-base cut site and 56r7 (SEQ.ID:30:)
which has 3'-end complementary to 56r6 (SEQ.ID:28:) and 5'-end extension which
carries Ascl 8-base cut site. The PCR composition was similar as in the first PCR with
following modifications: 25 pg/µl of gel-purified fragment from the first PCR was used
as a template and only 7 cycles were performed.
the obtained product was precipitated, cut with Ascl and Notl restriction enzymes and gel-purified. The fragment was cloned into a modified pNEB193, pAN (Pmel site was changed to Notl site) which was opened with Ascl and Notl, treated with Shrimp alkaline phosphatase, and after heat inactivation of the enzymes gel-purified. Four of the obtained clones were sequenced in order to verify that they carry the UTR56 sequence.
The promoter region was amplified using bnrb5 (SEQ.ID:29:) as 5'-primer and as 3|-primers RbSiB (SEQ.ID:20) and RBNCO (SEQ.ID:21:) (see above). The PCR conditions were similar to those which were used to amplify the whole gene with following modifications: 5 ng/µl of piasmid DNA carrying the clones (linearized with AscI) were used as templates, only 10 cycles was performed.
Comparison of different constitutive and inducible promoters for the overexpression of|transgene (GUS) in tobacco and Brassica campestris
Germinating seedlings were frozen with liquid nitrogen and grinded. Proteins were extractea with phosphate-EDTA buffer. Samples were centrifuged and supematants were
i'-primer. The primer 56r6 (SEQ.ID:2S:)
(5'-CGCGATATAGAAATTACATGTTCATAAAATCAGACATTTTAC-3') specific to
UTR56 (SEQ.ID:26:) was used as 3*-primer. The composition of the first PCR was: 75
mM Tris, pH 8.0 at 25°C, 20 mM (NH4)S04, 0.01% Tween 20, 2mM MgCl2, 200 µM
dNTPs, 0.2 µM primers, 0.025 units/µl Taq DNA polymerase, 0.0016 units/µl Pfu
DNA polymerase and 1.00 pg/µl B. campestris DNA. The program was: 94° C, 4
minutes, 30 X [(94°C, 30 s), (38°C, 30 s), (72°C, 3 min)]. The expected 2.8 kb
fragment was purified from agarose gel. Because there was no certain sequence
information, the fragment was reamplified using bnrb5 (SEQ.ID:29:)
(5'-GAGGTACCCGCGGCCGC GAATTCTAACGACCC TTTTCCGTCATAAAAG-3')
which has 3'-end complementary to bnrb4 (SEQ.ID:27:) and 5'-end extension which
carries Notl 8-base cut site and 56r7 (SEQ.ID:30:)
(5' -GAGAATTCGGCGCGCC ATAG AAATTACATGTTCATAAAATC AGAC A-3') which has 3'-end complementary to 56r6 (SEQ.ID:28:) and 5'-end extension which carries Ascl 8-base cut site. The PCR composition was similar as in the first PCR with following modifications: 25 pg/µl of gel-purified fragment from the first PCR was used as a template and only 7 cycles were performed.
The obtained product was precipitated, cut with Ascl and Notl restriction enzymes and
gel-purified. The fragment was cloned into a modified pNEB193, pAN (Pmel site was
changed to Notl site) which was opened with Ascl and Notl, treated with Shrimp alkaline
phosphatase, and after heat inactivation of the enzymes gel-purified. Four of the obtained
clones were sequenced in order to verify uiat they carry the UTR56 sequence.
The promoter region was amplified using bnrb5 (SEQ.ID:29:) as 5'-primer and as 3-primers RbSIB (SEQ.ID:20) and RBNCO (SEQ.ID:21:) (see above). The PCR conditions were similar to those which were used to amplify the whole gene with following modifications: 5 ng/µl of plasmid DNA carrying the clones (linearized with Ascl) were used as templates, only 10 cycles was performed.
Comparison of different constitutive and inducible promoters for the overexpression oftransgene (GUS) in tobacco and Brassica campestris
Germinating seedlings were frozen with liquid nitrogen and grinded. Proteins were extracted with phosphate-EDTA buffer. Sampies were centrifuged and supematants were
analysed using ß-glucuronidase activity detection kit (Sigma). Protein concentration of
samples were analysed with Protein assay reagent (Biorad) using BSA as a standard.
Table 3. The specific activities of GUS with different constitutive and inducible
promoters in tobacco and Brassica campestris.
When following the promoter activity in germinating seed during germination in a series
of seven days an exponential increase in specific activity for example in rubisco
promoter was detected. The specific activity of rubisco promoter was 0.25 on the 4th
day, 0.5 on the 5th day, 1.6 on the 6th day and 7 on the 7th day.
Analysis of chloroplast development inhibitors for rubisco protein and mRNA levels vat germinating seeds
Analysis of germinating natural B. campestris seedlings have shown that rubisco small sujbunit protein get highest concentration three days after initiation of germination and rubisco small subunit mRNA one day earlier. We have found that by adding streptomycin 100 mg/1 into the growth media 48 hour after initiation of germination it is possible to down regulate rubisco protein synthesis but mRNA level remain constant. Because rubisco protein is major protein in certain types of germinating cotyledons it is beneficial to down regulate its synthesis. Seeds were germinated in aerated water supplemented streptomycin. Samples were collected 12 h intervals. Protein levels were analysed from .SDS-PAGE gel and mRNA levels by RNA dot blot analysis.
1. A process based on a source-sink production system for converting storage reserves in transgenic
dicotyledonous seeds to a composition comprising a desired gene product of the kind such as
herein described, produced through de novo synthesis during the germination, which germination
is stopped before the decline of said de novo synthesis and which composition is recovered with
or without down-stream processing, characterized in that said process wherein the desired gene
product is a heterologous protein of the kind such as herein described, comprises the steps of:
(a) cultivating a transgenic dicotyledonous plant having an expression system, comprising a promoter providing high expression levels and de novo synthesis of heterologous proteins in cotyledons of germinating dicotyledonous seeds,.inducible during the germination, in order to provide a storable internal source of protein, which can be harvested as transgenic dicotyledonous seeds, wherein said inducible expression system comprises regulatory sequences selected from regulatory sequences comprises a promoter providing high expression in cotyledons of germinating seed and operably linked to a gene encoding the desired heterologous protein;
(b) placing said transgenic dicotyledonous seeds comprising the expression system of step (a) integrated into the plant genome in contact with an aqueous surrounding medium to germinate, during which germination the internal source of the protein is mobilized as amino acids or peptides and the expression system is triggered on;
(c) harnessing the expression system of step (a) integrated in the plant genome for de novo synthesis of the desired heterologous protein from the internal source of protein mobilized in step (b) to provide germinating dicotyledonous seeds or seedlings comprising the desired heterologous protein.
2. The process as claimed in claim 1, the promoter is a promoter of a gene encoding a Rubisco protein.
3. The process as claimed in claim 2, the down-regulation of the gene is provided by repression or antisense technologies.
4. The process as claimed in claims 1-3, the transgenic dicotyledonous seed having the storable internal source of protein is optionally sterilized and the germination is performed under substantially sterile conditions providing a substantially sterile source-link production system, wherein substantially sterile means that the transgenic dicotyledonous seeds are sterilized, presterilized aqueous medium and sterile conditions are used, and aseptic working methods are applied.
5. The process as claimed in claims 1-4, the aqueous surrounding medium is a buffered solution.
6. The process as claimed in claims 1-5, the source-sink production system is supplemented with at least one physical means for inducing expression selected from the group consisting of a flash of light, illumination for a longer time, sterilization and heating.
7. The process as claimed in claims 1-6, the source-sink production system is supplemented with at least one external nutrient, selected from the group consisting of N or C-sources, vitamins, minerals, trace elements, growth factors, inducers and plant hormones.
8. The process as claimed in claims 1-7, the germination is stopped by at least one means selected from the group consisting of heating, drying, crushing, separating, extracting, pressing and filtering and subsequently recovering with or without down-stream processing methods the heterologous protein.
9. A seed derived composition obtained from transgenic dicotyledonous seeds, the composition is produced with the source-sink production system as claimed.in claims 1-8.
in-pct-2002-00446-del-complete specification [granted].pdf
|Indian Patent Application Number||IN/PCT/2002/00446/DEL|
|PG Journal Number||3/2010|
|Date of Filing||30-Apr-2002|
|Name of Patentee||UNICROP LTD.|
|Applicant Address||HELSINKI SCIENCE PARK VIIKINKAARI 6 FIN-00710 HELSINKI FINLAND|
|PCT International Classification Number||A01H 5/10|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/FI00/01081|
|PCT International Filing date||2000-12-08|