Title of Invention

"FEED NOZZLE ASSEMBLY."

Abstract A feed nozzle assembly for introducing a mixture of a gas and a liquid hydrocarbon droplets into a vessel in the form of a substantially sheet-like spray, which feed nozzle assembly comprises a nozzle body provided at its upstream part with means to supply the gas and means to supply the liquid hydrocarbon to said nozzle body and at the downstream end with a closed outlet end which outlet end is provided with an elongated opening wherein in the opening an insert is positioned such that a continuous loop opening results for discharge of the mixture of gas and liquid droplets.
Full Text FEED NOZZLE ASSEMBLY
Field of the invention
The invention is directed to a feed nozzle assembly for introducing a mixture of a gas and a liquid hydrocarbon into a vessel in the form of a substantially sheet like spray. Background of the invention
A single contact zone of the hydrocarbon feedstock with the catalyst is important in a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process in order to control the reaction time in the riser. Moreover, a fast mixing of the liquid hydrocarbon feed and the hot regenerated catalysts is desirable to vaporize the feed. The feed nozzle assembly of US-A-5306418 was able to achieve these objectives by having the nozzle assembly inserted from the periphery of the riser reactor, known as side-entry in the industry, and discharging a single sheet-like spray through a single slit opening at the outlet end of the nozzle assembly.
US-A-5673859 described several feed nozzle assembles for similar side-entry applications, one assembly having two converging slits, another having two parallel slits and another having two diverging slits for discharge of a mixture of gas and hydrocarbon liquids. It was described in US-A-5673859 that these nozzle assembles with two discharge slits had the advantage of providing better contacting with catalyst compared to those with a single slit opening, such as US-A-5306418.
US-A-5794857 and US-A-6012652 further described different variations of nozzle assemblies with multiple slit openings at the outlet ends of the nozzle for the side entry application.
US-A-6387247 described a feed nozzle assembly for inserting the nozzle from the bottom of a FCC riser reactor, known as bottom entry in the industry. The spray discharged from such a feed nozzle has the form of a hollow cone. This nozzle cannot achieve a single contact zone of the hydrocarbon feedstock with the catalyst if it is applied to a side entry nozzle configuration because of the discharge being a hollow cone spray.
Although it is commonly understood that the feed nozzle assembly for side entry application with multiple outlet slits, such as US-A-5673859, has the advantage of providing better feed contacting compared to the one with a single outlet slit, such as US-A-5306418, a major disadvantage of the former is that erosion could take place through the gaps in between the multiple slit openings as a result of FCC catalyst particles moving past through these gaps at high velocities, possibly due to a vacuum effect between adjacent sheet like sprays.
One object of the present invention is to create a feed nozzle assembly, which has the advantageous operating properties of a single contact zone with a sheet-like spray. Another objective is to have a feed nozzle assembly providing good feed contacting, such as the nozzle disclosed in for example US-A-5794857 with multiple slits, but is less prone to erosion. Summary of the invention
These objects are achieved with the following feed nozzle assembly. A feed nozzle assembly for introducing a
mixture of gas and liquid hydrocarbon droplets into a vessel in the form of a substantially sheet-like spray, which feed nozzle assembly comprises a nozzle body provided at its upstream part with means to supply the gas and means to supply the liquid hydrocarbon to said nozzle body and at the downstream end with a outlet end which outlet end is prpvided with an elongated opening wherein in the opening an elongated insert is positioned such that a continuous loop opening results for discharge of the mixture of gas and liquid droplets.
Applicants have found that when the feed nozzle according to the invention is used, a uniform, substantially sheet-like spray is generated, providing a single layer contacting and which feed nozzle is less prone to erosion.
The invention is also directed to a reactor riser provided with the above feed nozzles as side entry feed nozzles and use of the reactor-feed nozzle assembly in a process wherein catalysts and a liquid hydrocarbon are contacted.
The invention is also directed to a reactor riser provided with the above feed nozzles as bottom entry feed nozzles and use of the reactor-feed nozzle assembly in a process wherein catalysts and a liquid hydrocarbon are contacted. Brief description of the drawings
FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of the invention taken along the longitudinal axis.
FIG. 2 is an enlarged view of the nozzle of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken along reference line 3—3 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 4A is a plan view of the first nozzle tip.
FIG. 4B is a cross-sectional view of the first nozzle tip taken along reference line 4C—4C in FIG. 4A.
FIG. 5A is a cross-sectional view of the second (feed) nozzle tip taken along reference line 5A—5A in FIG. 5B.
FIG. 5B is a plan view of the second nozzle tip.
FIG. 5C is a crosfe-sectional view of the second nozzle tip taken along reference line 5C—5C in FIG. 5B.
FIG. 6 depicts in one embodiment a side cut away view of the nozzle of this invention in a side entry riser reactor configuration. Detailed description of the invention
Although the feed nozzle assembly for side entry application with multiple outlet slits, such as US-A-5673859, has the advantage of providing better feed contacting compared to the ones with a single outlet slit, such as US-A-5306418, a major disadvantage of the former is that under some circumstances erosion to the nozzle outlet end may occur. Applicants believe that the disadvantage of the prior art feed nozzles with multiple slits, such as disclosed in US-A-5794857 and US-A-5673859, is that erosion could take place through the gaps in between the multiple slit openings as a result of FCC catalyst particles moving past through these gaps at high velocities, possibly due to a vacuum effect between adjacent sheet like sprays. Applicants believe that catalyst is drawn into this gap, due to the same vacuum effect to cause the convergence of the adjacent sheet like sprays.
Applicants further believe that the present invention can achieve the objective of preserving the advantages of the feed nozzle assembly for side entry application with
multiple outlet slits for providing better feed contacting while avoiding the disadvantages of possible erosion problem by using the new design according to the present invention.
One preferred embodiment of the present invention is to have a feed nozzle assembly with a loop opening at the outlet end, which is a continuous opening. Instead of having two separated elongated slit openings and a gap in between them open to catalyst attack, such as
US-A-567.3859, the present invention has an outlet opening
^ which connects the ends of the two elongated slits with
two half loop slits, forming a continuous loop slit and thus closing the gap between the two elongated slits which is prone to catalyst attack.
In order to achieve such a continuous loop slit, an insert is positioned in said an elongated opening. The insert is preferably fixed to an upstream position in the nozzle body. Although the different Figures show the nozzle outlet with a single loop slit, the present invention also covers a number of variations, such as positioning multiple inserts into an elongated opening to form multiple loop openings.
The elongated opening preferably is elongated such that substantially parallel sheets of sprays are emitted from the two elongated sections of the loop opening. More preferably the elongated opening is defined by its maximum length 1 and its maximum width h, wherein the length 1 is measured along the optionally curved surface of the closed end of the feed nozzle body. The ratio of 1/h is preferably greater than 1.5, more preferably greater than 2, even more preferably greater than 3. The
ratio of 1/h is preferably smaller than 20, more preferably smaller than 10.
An even more erosion resistant opening is obtained when the width of the elongated opening h has a preferred lower limit of 10 mm, more preferably 15 mm, even more preferably 20 mm and most preferably 30 mm. The width of the elongated opening'h has a preferred upper limit of preferably 200 mm, more preferably 150 mm, even more preferably 120 mm and most preferably 80 mm. Also preferred to obtain an even more erosion resistant feed nozzle is to use a wall thickness of the downstream end of the nozzle body at the location of the elongated slit is between 5 and 100 mm, more preferably between 5 and 40 mm.
Preferably the outlet end of the nozzle body is dome shaped because this achieves a more evenly distributed sheet-like spray being emitted from the loop opening.
The feed nozzle according to the present invention will preferably be provided with means to form a mixture of gas and liquid hydrocarbon droplets, also referred to as atomizing means. Such atomizing means may be as for example described in EP-A-717095. Preferably the feed nozzle is as described below wherein the atomizing means are achieved by the specific design of the loop opening a: the means to supply gas and liquid hydrocarbon. Such a preferred feed nozzle has a nozzle body comprising of: (a) a substantially cylindrical inner tube defining a gas conduit fluidly connected to the means to supply gas at its upstream end and a dome shaped downstream end, which dc...e shaped outlet end is provided with one or more gas outlet openings;
(b) an annular liquid hydrocarbon conduit defined by the
outer surface of the inner tube and the inner surface of
the nozzle body, which liquid hydrocarbon conduit is
fluidly connected to the means to supply liquid
hydrocarbons at its upstream end;
(c) wherein the gas outlet openings of the gas conduit
are substantially aligned with the loop opening in the
dome shaped end of the nozzle body; and wherein
(d) the insert positioned in the elongated opening of the
.nozzle body is fixed to the gas dome shaped, downstream
end.
The feed nozzle may have dimensions and design for the nozzle body and the inner tube as described in more detail in US-A-5794857, which reference is hereby incorporated by reference.
Preferably the downstream end of the inner tube is dome shaped. This downstream end is provided with one or more gas outlet openings. The gas outlet opening is preferably single or multiple rows of holes. Through these holes gas, preferably steam, will flow into the heavy petroleum hydrocarbon passing through the outer heavy petroleum hydrocarbon conduit. This results in a mixture of steam and heavy petroleum hydrocarbon having a velocity in the direction of the gas being emitted from said holes. Because openings in the gas conduit are substantially aligned with the loop opening in the nozzle body the mixture of hydrocarbons and gas are directed to the loop opening. As a result of the pressure of both hydrocarbons and gas a fine atomization of the hydrocarbon results.
Typically the openings in the closed end of uhe inner gas tube will consist of at least one row of small holes,
numbering from about 7 to about 50 and ranging in size from about one-sixteenth inch to about three-eighth inch in diameter, which line up with each corresponding loop opening in the nozzle body. The angle formed from the substantially spherical or elliptical center of the typically substantially hemi-spherical or hemi-elliptical outlet end of the inner tube through the length of the rows of openings is preferably from 45° to 120°.
In the process for catalytically cracking a heavy petroleum hydrocarbon a heavy petroleum hydrocarbon is preheated, mixed with steam, arid fed into a catalytic cracking reactor riser. The heavy petroleum hydrocarbon is then contacted with a cracking catalyst to produce light hydrocarbons and spent catalyst coated with a thin coke layer. The light hydrocarbons are removed from the reactor. The spent catalyst coated with a thin coke layer is passed ~o a regenerator vessel. At least a portion of the coke „s then burned off the spent catalyst. This results in a hot regenerated catalyst.
Steam is passed through the substantially cylindrical inner steam conduit into the heavy petroleum hydrocarbon. This results in the forming of a fine two-phase mixture by the steam bubbles jetting through the hydrocarbon mixture. The fine two-phase mixture of steam and heavy petroleuir 'drocarbons passes through the feed nozzle outlet in~o the catalytic cracking reactor, resulting in fine atomization. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. " depicts a side sectional view of one embodimer.^ of the invention. Feed nozzle assembly 100 includes inner steam conduit 105 and outer annular oil (or liquid) conduit 115. Inner steam (or gas) conduit 105
was inlet end 120 and outlet end 130. Outer annular oil conduit 115 has inlet end 125 and outlet end 135.
First nozzle tip 140 is attached at its inlet end to outlet end 130 of inner steam conduit 105. The outlet end of first nozzle tip 140, opposite its inlet end, is a substantially hemi-spherical or hemi-elliptical outlet end. The outlet end of first nozzle tip 140 has, in one embodiment, a loop row of a plurality of passageways 145 for the passage of steam.
Second nozzle tip 150 is attached at its inlet end to outlet end 135 of outer annular oil conduit 115. The end of second nozzle tip 150 opposite its inlet-end is preferably a substantially hemi-spherical or hemi-elliptical outlet end. The outlet end of second nozzle tip 150 is provided with an elongated opening 154.
FIG. 2 shows an enlarged view, in one embodiment, depicting the first and second nozzle tips. The numbering 01 these elements is the same as used in FIG. 1. In this Figure an insert 155 is shown in opening 154. Insert 155 is fixed to inner conduit 105 by means of bridging part 156.
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken along reference line 3—3 of FIG. 1 of one embodiment of the feed nozzle assembly. Inner steam conduit 105 is centered w:'. "hin the outer annular oil conduit 115 by spacer s:._ds 310.
FIG. 4A is a plan view of the first nozzle tip. FIG. 4B is a cross-sectional view of the first nozzle tip taken along reference line 4C—4C in FIG. 4B. First nozzle tip 140 is depicted along with a loop row of passageways 145.
FIG. 5A is a cross-sectional view of the second (feed) nozzle tip taken along reference line 5A—5A in FIG. 5B. FIG. 5B is a plan view of the second nozzle tip. In Figure 5B the elongated opening 154 and the insert 155 is shown from above. Clearly is shown that the resulting opening for passage of gas and liquid is a continuous loop opening and not interrupted by any bridges from insert to second nozzle tip 150. Figure 5A and 5B shows how the length 1 and the width h of the elongated opening 154 is measured along the optionally curved ••> surface of the closed end of the feed nozzle body. Although Figure 5B shows the nozzle outlet with a single loop slit, the present invention also covers a number of variations, such as positioning multiple inserts into an elongated opening to form multiple loop openings.
FIG. 5C is a cross-sectional view of the second nozzle tip taken along reference line 5C--5C in FIG. 5B. In Figure 5C the correcting bridging part 156 is not shown.
FIG. 6 depicts in one embodiment a side cut away view of the nozzle of this invention in a side entry riser reactor configuration. The angle of the outlet openings in the steam (not shown) and hydrocarbon feed nozzles is shown to be below the longitudinal axis of the steam and hydrocarbon conduit: One benefit of this nozzle assembly is that optimum mixing of feed and catalyst can be achieved by adjusting this angle independently. The difference between the injection angle and the axis of the conduits can range from +45° to -45°, and more preferably from +30 to -30°.
One application of this invention is that the nozzle body is typically oriented horizontally or diagonally
into the riser reactor, wherein the nozzle body will typically protrude through the walls of the riser reactor in an orientation between vertical and horizontal.
In another application of this invention the nozzle body is protruding through the bottom walls of the riser reactor and typically oriented vertically into the riser reactor, wherein the nozzle body will typically have an off-axis injection, as'shown in Figure 6. In such an embodiment preferably more than one, more preferably between 2 and 12 feed nozzles according to the invention are arranged. Preferably such nozzle are arranged such that the respective sheet like sprays emitted from said nozzles converge towards each other in order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of hydrocarbon droplets in the reactor riser.






CLAIMS
1. A feed nozzle assembly for introducing a mixture of
gas and liquid hydrocarbon droplets into a vessel in the
form of a substantially sheet-like spray, which feed
nozzle assembly comprises a nozzle body provided at its
upstream part with means to supply the gas and means to
supply the liquid hydrocarbon to said nozzle body and at
the downstream end with a closed outlet end which outlet
*
end is provided with an elongated opening wherein in the opening an insert is positioned such that a continuous loop opening results for discharge of the mixture of gas and liquid droplets.
2. Feed nozzle according to claim 1, wherein the insert
is fixed at an upstream position in the nozzle body.
3. Feed nozzle according to any one of claims 1-2,
wherein atomizing means are pre ent in the nozzle body.
4. Feed nozzle according to any one of claims 1-3,
wherein the elongated opening is defined by its maximum
length 1 arid its maximum height h and wherein the ratio
of 1/h is between 1.5 and 20
5. Feed nozzle according to any one of claims 1-4,
wherein the width of the loop opening has a lower limit
of 10 mm, preferably 15 mm and ?.". upper limit of 200 mm,
preferably 120 mm.
6. Feed nozzle according to claim 5, wherein the wall
thickness of the downstream end of the nozzle body at the
location of the elongated slit is between 5 and 100 mm,
preferably between 5 and 40 mm.

7. Feed nozzle according to any one of claims 1-6,
wherein the outlet end of the nozzle body is dome
shaped.
8. Feed nozzle according to claim 1, wherein the nozzle
body comprises of:
(a) a substantially cylindrical inner tube defining a gas
conduit fluidly connected to the means to supply gas at
its upstream end and a dome shaped downstream end, which
dome shaped outlet end is provided with at least a gas
outlet opening,
(b) an annular liquid hydrocarbon conduit defined by the
outer surface of the inner tube and the inner surface of
the nozzle body, which liquid hydrocarbon conduit is
fluidly connected to the means to supply liquid
hydrocarbons at its upstream end and to discharge from a
dome shaped downstream end, which dome shaped outlet end
is provided with an elongated opening wherein in the
elongated opening an insert is positioned such that a
continuous loop opening is formed;
(c) wherein the gas outlet opening of the gas conduit is
substantially aligned with the loop opening in the dome
shaped end of the nozzle body; and wherein
(d) the insert positioned in the elongated opening of the
nozzle body is fixed to the gas dome shaped downstream
end.

9. Reactor riser provided at its upstream end with an
inlet for hot regenerated catalyst particles and at a
distance downstream said inlet with at least one side
entry feednozzle according to any one of claims 1-8, and
a reaction zone downstream said feednozzle position.
10. Reactor riser according to claim 9, wherein the axis
which runs along the maximum length 1 of the elongated
opening of the feed nozzle is positioned substantially horizontal.
11. Process to contact a moving stream of catalyst particles with a liquid hydrocarbon reactant in a elongated vertically positioned reactor riser according to any one of claims 9-10, wherein a mixture of gas and liquid hydrocarbon droplets is introduced using the feednozzle as a substantially sheet-like spray such that the angle between the sheet-like spray and the axis of the nozzle body is between +45° and -45°.

Documents:

2545-delnp-2006-abstract.pdf

2545-delnp-2006-claims.pdf

2545-delnp-2006-correspondence- other.pdf

2545-DELNP-2006-Correspondence-Others-(30-09-2009).pdf

2545-DELNP-2006-Correspondence-Others-(7-1-2010).pdf

2545-delnp-2006-correspondence-others-1.pdf

2545-delnp-2006-description (complete).pdf

2545-delnp-2006-drawings.pdf

2545-delnp-2006-form-1.pdf

2545-delnp-2006-form-18.pdf

2545-delnp-2006-form-2.pdf

2545-DELNP-2006-Form-3 (7-1-2010).pdf

2545-DELNP-2006-Form-3-(30-09-2009).pdf

2545-delnp-2006-form-3.pdf

2545-delnp-2006-form-5.pdf

2545-delnp-2006-gpa.pdf

2545-delnp-2006-pct-101.pdf

2545-delnp-2006-pct-210.pdf

2545-delnp-2006-pct-311.pdf


Patent Number 237416
Indian Patent Application Number 2545/DELNP/2006
PG Journal Number 01/2010
Publication Date 01-Jan-2010
Grant Date 21-Dec-2009
Date of Filing 05-May-2006
Name of Patentee SHELL INTERNATIONALE RESEARCH MAATSCHAPPIJ B.V.
Applicant Address CAREL VAN BYLANDTLAAN 30, NL-2596 HR THE HAGUE, NETHERLANDS.
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 CHEN YE-MON 2215 BENT RIVER DRIVE, SUGAR LAND, TEXAS 77479, USA.
PCT International Classification Number C10G 11/18
PCT International Application Number PCT/EP2004/0052923
PCT International Filing date 2004-11-11
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 60/519,755 2003-11-13 U.S.A.