|Title of Invention||
A PROCESS FOR PREPARATION OF BESAN ( BENGAL GRAM/CHICPEA FLOUR) BY WET MILLING.
|Abstract||A Process for preparation of besan (Bengal gram / chickpea flour) by wet milling The invention relates to a Process for preparation of besan (Bengal gram / chickpea flour), by wet milling. A pretreatment is given to grains prior to dhal making and grinding that gives flour suitable for the preparation of Sev & boondi. Besan prepared by this process could be used for preparation of sev and boondi especially medium coarse fraction (100 to 300 microns) is suitable for sev while fine fraction (< 100 microns) could be used for boondi preparations|
|Full Text||This invention relates to a process for preparation of besan(Bengal gram/chickpea flour) by wet milling. The besan is suitable for the preparation of Sev , boondi and similar products.
Fried foods are enjoyed for their special taste and textural qualities. Several cereal and legume based products are well known and among them chickpea or Bengal gram is consumed to a larger extent as several types fried snacks (1).
"Besan" is the choice base for several traditional deep-fried sweet and savory products. The traditional producers of these products recognize that some of these products need a particular type of flour, and hence look for specific types of besan for the preparation of different products, though this is generally not available. Generally besan is prepared by grinding Bengal gram dhal in commercial units like plate mill, burr type stone mill or hammer mill (by adjusting the machine parameters like speed and clearance between grinding plates).
Sev is a dough-based product prepared after addition of other ingredients like salt, turmeric powder, jeera powder, chili powder etc. to the flour & preparation of the dough of the appropriate consistency. Dough is extruded through a die (generally 1-2 mm dia) directly into the heated oil and deep fat fried till an yellowish-brown coloured crunchy product is obtained.
Boondi is made from Chickpea / Bengal gram flour as globules by passing a batter of thick consistency through a perforated ladle "boondi jhara" and deep fat frying in oil (2). Boondi is a primary product which is further processed to sweet boondi by surface coating/sprinkling of powdered sugar along with flavoring, or made into 'Ladoos' by
soaking boondi in hot sugar syrup and molding as balls (3). A savoury product' Khara
Boondi' is prepared by sprinkling salt and chili powder. Boondi is soaked in seasoned
curd after a short dip in hot water to get 'Raita', a well known adjunct in Indian dish.
Current knowledge and methodologies in the process for making Bengal gram flour
(besan) is described. The reference may be made to publication by Kurien P.P.,
Desikachar H S R and Parpia HAB (1972) (4) in the proceedings of a symposium on
food legumes in Tokyo (Japan), wherein grinding of [Bengal gram was described. It
was mentioned that texture of product depends on flour composition, degree of fineness
of flour and proportion of particles of different sizes but the process for making besan
suitable for different products was not described.
The reference may be made to the publication by Romeo-Baranzini et. al (1995) (5)
wherein production of a high protein product (flour) using low commercial grade
chickpeas was described. This study describes steps for fractionation of BGF to
produce high protein flour but does not describe the production of flour from Bengal
gram dhal suitable for a product.
The reference may be made to the publication by Srivastav P P et. al (1992) (6)
wherein a process for preparation of roasted grain powders including Bengal gram was
explained and process variables (roasting time, temp, etc.) were optimized: But the
process for preparation of Bengal gram flour suitable for making products in question
(Sev or boondi) was not described.
The reference may be made to the publication by Saxena A K et. al (1986) (7)
where replacement of besan by maize flour (upto 30%) and the additives to the flour
(besan or composite flour) were explained. However the actual process for making
besan or composite flour was not described.
The batter rheology of boondi has been studied by Bhattacharya S.(1992) et.al.
(8) and the time and temperature variations on boondi quality has also been determined
(Bhat K.K.)(2001) (9). Some observations on microbiological studies have been
reported for the sweet product (Dwarakanath C.T. and Srikanta S)(1977) (10). Shelf life
studies have been carried out for 'Khara boondi' in flexible pouches (Mahadevaiah B.
et. al.)(1979) (11). The effect of food additives such as Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)
and Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) on boondi quality and reduction of fat
content by 22-26% has also been reported (Priya R.et. al) (1996) (12).
However, no information is available regarding the quality flour with respect to
quality attributes of the prepared snack products - sev and boondi and several queries
on commercial scales are there regarding quality flour suitable for a specified product.
The main objectives of the present invention A process for preparation of besan
suitable for the preparation of Sev, boondi like products.
Another objective is to provide a pretreatment to be given to grains prior to dhal
making and grinding that gives flour suitable for the preparation of Sev & boondi.Yet another objective is to provide information on suitable grinding machine for
Still another objective is to provide information on particle size distribution in the flour
(besan) suitable for making the above products.
Yet another objective is to prepare dough and batters of suitable consistency from
the whole flour and size graded flour fractions, and make sev and boondi from the
above flour or flour fraction.
Yet another objective is to characterize sev and boondi for studying changes in
physical properties and determine their fat contents.
Still another objective is to profile the sensory attributes of sev and boondi obtained
from the above flour samples.
Accordingly, a Process for preparation of besan (Bengal gram / chickpea flour) using wet milling which comprises; characterized in that soaking the dhal grains in water for 30-45 min, draining out excess water and equilibration of soaked grain for 2-4 hrs and heaping before drying, drying the pretreated grain at 50-60°C for 4-6 hrs till the moisture level of grains reach 11-12%, denuding the dried grains to get dhal/dehulled splits (dhal), grinding the dhal to obtain flour in the particle size ranging 100-300 microns.
In an embodiment of the process the pretreatment is provided by soaking the grains in water for 30-45 min, draining out excess water and equilibration of soaked grain for 2-4 hrs heaping before drying.In an another embodiment of the process the grinding of the dhal is carried out with
0.5 - 2mm clearance to obtain the particle size at least 100 microns
In yet other embodiment the pretreatment is provided by soaking the grains in water
for 30-45 min, draining out excess water and equilibration of soaked grain for 2-4 hrs
heaping before drying.
Novelty and inventive steps of this invention lie in the fact that new process has been
developed which includes a new type of pretreatment to be given to the grains and
selection of appropriate particle size flour that are suitable for the preparation of Sev &
boondi. The products so prepared would also have lower fat contents compared to the
traditionally prepared product (sev/ boondi)
FLOW CHART OF THE PROCESS
Clean Raw Bengal gram (100 kg)
Pretreatment soaking followed by
equilibration or holding
Dehulling and splitting - Husk & Brokens powder (22 kg)
Dhal - (78 kgs)
Grinding to flour to get more yield of
specific particle size - (77.5 kgs)
Sieving (1 kg) - Coarse flour
Medium Coarse flour (57.5 kg) Fine flour (19 kgs)
The summary of the steps of the process of present inventions is:
a. Soaking Bengal gram grains in excess water for 30-45 minutes.
b. Draining out the water after soaking period.
c. Equilibration of soaked grains in a heap for 2-4 hrs in shade.
d. Drying the equilibrated grains in Sun or hot air drier at 50-60° C air temp, for 5-6
hrs, till the moisture level of grains reach 11-12 % and dehulled to get dhal.
e. Grinding the dried dhal in cast iron vertical type plate mill or Burr (stone) mill with
suitable clearance adjustment so as to get maximum possible flour in the particle
size range of 100 to 300 microns and
Sieving out very coarse (more than 300 microns) and very fine (less than 100
micron) flour using 44 and 150 BSS mesh sieves.
The process is further illustrated by the example given below which should
not however be construed to limit the scope of this invention.
1. 25Kg of Bengal gram (Desi variety) is soaked in excess water for 35 min and
soaked grains taken out after draining water.
2. Soaked grains are spread in 1 cm thick layer and equilibrated for three
and half hrs in shade.
3. Equilibrated grains are dried in Sun or in a mechanical cross flow tray drier at
an air temperature around 60°C for 8 hr. or till it reaches a moisture content of
3. Dried grains are dehulled and split to dhal in CFTRI designed Mini Dhal Mill
4. Dhal is ground to flour (besan) in a commercial plate mill by adjusting the
clearance so as to get maximum yield of medium coarse flour in the range of
300-100 microns (about 65% of the flour).
5. The flour (besan) is sieved through 44 BSS mesh sieve to remove any
coarser particles (less than 5%).
6. 1 kg. of flour (besan) is mixed with 520 ml. of water to make easily extrudable
dough (for sev) or suspended in water to obtain 40% slurry (for boondi).
7. The dough is then extruded directly into oil, which is heated to around 180°C
and fried to obtain Sev and evaluated for quality'attributes. (Table 1)
Batter is poured through a 'Boondi jhara' or perforated ladle (0.2 mm dia.) and deep
fried in oil at 175°C to get boondi and evaluated for quality attributes (Table 2)
Sev and boondi prepared from the besan fractions obtained as described above gives
superior products in terms of crispness and less oil uptake compared to the traditional
1. The flour obtained as explained in examplel, is sieved to get medium
coarse flour (100-300 micron) and fine flour (less than 100 micron) using
vibro screen unit with appropriate sieves
2. 1 kg of this flour fraction (100-300 micron) is added with 530 ml of water to
make easily extrudable dough.
3. The dough is then extruded in to oil heated to around 180°C and Sev
prepared is evaluated for quality attributes (Table 1)
Sev prepared using besan obtained in the above mentioned process rated better than
given in Example 1 in terms of crispness and less oil uptake and hence this process can
be used for the preparation of product (Sev) targeted flour from Bengal gram dhal.
Sev prepared using besan with particle size less than 100 microns, was soggy
and less acceptable (Table 1) and hence the flour fraction below 100 microns was found
less suitable for making sev.
1. The flour obtained as explained in example.1, is sieved to get medium
coarse flour (100-300 micron) and fine flour (less than 100 micron)
2. 1 kg of fine flour (-150 BSS mesh / 85% of 100 microns) is suspended
in water and mixed thoroughly to a batter with a solid content of 40-
3. The batter is poured through a 'boondi jhara' or perforated ladle (0.2
mm dia.) over hot oil in frying pan. The batter is fried at 175° C for 3
min. till the boondi is crisp and golden yellow in colour.
Boondi obtained from the example 3, is characterized and the results are shown
in the Table 2. The batter was slightly viscous and sticky, but no phase separation
occurs. Size of boondi was smaller. The boondi obtained had lower fried gram aroma,
but had comparable sensory profile, compared to the traditional boondi.
Boondi could not be prepared with coarse fraction (300-100 microns) because of
phase separation in the batter and resulted in non-uniformity in boondi.
Summary & Advantages:
Besan prepared by the improved process could be used for preparation of sev
and boondi especially medium coarse fraction (100 to 300 microns) is suitable for sev
while fine fraction ( 100 microns) could be used for boondi preparations. The
advantages of the new process are;
1. Two types of flours (besan) from the process stream
2. Ease of handling dough / batter.
3. Lower fat content in fried products (sev & boondi)
4. Lesser stickiness of the dough (sev).
5. Less wastage, especially in dough.
1. A Process for preparation of besan (Bengal gram / chickpea flour), by wet milling which comprises; characterized in that soaking the dhal grains in water for 30-45 min, draining out excess water and equilibration of soaked grain for 2-4 hrs heaping before drying, drying the pretreated grain in sun or hot air drier at 50-60°C for 4-6 hrs till the moisture level of grains reach 11-12%, dehulling the dried grains to get dhal/dehulled splits (dhal), grinding the dhal to obtain beasn in the particle size ranging 100-300 microns.
2. A Process for preparation of besan (Bengal gram / chickpea flour), using wet milling process substantially as herein described with reference to examples.
|Indian Patent Application Number||426/DEL/2003|
|PG Journal Number||52/2009|
|Date of Filing||26-Mar-2003|
|Name of Patentee||COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH|
|Applicant Address||RAFI MARG, NEW DELHI-110 001,INDIA.|
|PCT International Classification Number||A23L 1/172|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|