Title of Invention  PROCESS OF NORMALIZED AMPLITUDE DIFFERENTIAL PHASESHIFT KEYING MODULATION FOR MULTI USER COMMUNICATION. 

Abstract  It is characterized in that the information to be modulated in the phase difference, that belongs to the set of information possible according to the number of phases of the constellation to be used, an injective application between this set and the set of information possible to be modulated corresponding to the constellation with the maximum number of phases is carried out. This permits bits to be changed by a carrier without sending a new phase reference, to maximize the number of symbols of information within the frame and to implement a modulator and a low complexity modulator and demodulator. Applicable in multiuser digital communication that requires bits to be changed by the carrier of the constellation in one single data frame, in order to adapt to the maximum transmission capacity of the channel, to follow the amplitude variations thereof and to allow information to be transmitted from one to several users. 
Full Text  1 NORMALISED COHERENT AMPLITUDE AMD DIFFERENTIAL PHASE MODULATION METHOD FOR MULTIUSER COMMUNICATIONS As expressed in the title of this specification, the present invention refers to a process for standardized differential inphase and coherent in amplitude modulation for multiuser communication. The process of the invention is applicable to communication systems irrespective of the physical medium that they use for the communication and the main characteristics thereof consist of allowing adaptation to the maximum transmission capacity offered by the channel, carrying out a followup of the amplitude variations thereof and allowing transmission from one to several users in an efficient way, facilitating the implementation of a low complexity modulator and demodulator. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION In telecommunication systems in order to send information by way of a communication channel it is usually necessary to modulate said information; in other words, to adequate and adapt the information to the channel. Some of the main problems that a digital communication receiver encounters are equalization that entails an estimation of the channel, and the deviation in frequency of the clock of the receiver with respect to the transmitter. When coherent QAM modulations (quadrature amplitude modulation) are used, it is necessary to greatly increment the complexity of the demodulator in order to challenge the abovecited problems. One solution consists of using differential modulations or DAPSK (differential amplitude phase modulation) wherein the information is encoded in the increments of amplitude and phase. This differential encoding eliminates the need of the estimation of the reception channel and minimizes to a large degree the effects of deviation of frequency between the clocks of the transmitter and of the receiver. But this reduction in complexity of the receiver when using totally differential modulation entails an increment in the probability of bit error 2 for the same value of SNR (SignaltoNoiseRatio) with respect to the performance of the QAM modulations. On the other hand, ADPSK modulation (amplitude differential phase modulation) is known in the prior art just as it appears in "Comparison and optimization of differentially encoded transmission on fading channels", L. Lampe and R. Fischer, Proceedings ISPLC'99; "Performance evaluation of noncoherent transmission over power lines", L. Lampe, R. Fisher and R. Schober, Proceedings ISPLC'OO; and "Differential encoding strategies for transmission over fading channels", R. Fischer, L. Lampe and S. Calabro, International Journal on Electronics and Communications. Said modulation is a modulation mixed between the two preceding ones (QAM and DAPSK), and represents a middle point, as far as the performance and complexity of the receiver is concerned, between both. In other words, it minimizes the problem posed by the deviation of frequency between the clocks of the transmitter and receiver of a digital communication system and reduces the complexity of the estimation of the channel, since it is only necessary to estimate the channel in amplitude. Therefore, ADPSK modulation represents the best compromise between performance and complexity of the receiver for a practical implementation. On the other hand, if one desires to always obtain the maximum data transfer rate, it is necessary to adapt the bits per carrier of the modulation to the capacity offered by the channel. In other words, given the probability of objective bit error it is sought to use the maximum number of bits per carrier to ensure a probability of error equal to or lower than this value. Furthermore, in a multipoint to point multiuser communication or multipoint to multipoint, a transmitter can send information to several receivers through different channels in a single data frame. Therefore, in a single frame different constellations will be used. Another important factor to achieve this maximum data transfer rate is to minimize the overhead 3 (control information of the system necessary for correct reception of the data and that it is sent together therewith) . This overhead is more important if transmission strategies based on the use of multiple carrier such as OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexity) are used where the times of symbols are much longer and contain much more information than in a digital communication wherein a single frequency information carrier is used. ADPSK modulation has two important requirements. This first one is that, due to the fact that part of the information is encoded in the phase increments, it is necessary to previously send a symbol that constitutes a phase reference for the receiver. Likewise, the rest of the information is encoded in the value of the amplitude of the symbol received. Therefore, the second requirement is that it is necessary to estimate the value of the amplitude of the response of the channel to correct the effect thereof on the receiver. Besides, the real channels have a certain variation of their characteristics with time, which forces the receiver to carry out a followup and updating of the initial estimation. The abovecited articles describe the operation of the ADPSK modulator and demodulator and the performance thereof, and does not describe the possibility of using different constellations within a single data frame. In this latter case, in order to change the constellation it would be necessary to send a new phase reference or increment to a large degree the complexity of the modulator, which hampers the practical implementation thereof and prevents optimum multiuser communication. The process of the invention filed solves this problem, permitting a single phase reference to be sent at the beginning of the frame and facilitating practical implementation of the low complexity modulator. Likewise, the invention permits the insertion of data symbols in the frame in such a way that users to whom the transmitter data are not going to be directed can monitor the 4 channel and follow the variations thereof. DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION In order to achieve the aims and avoid the drawbacks indicated in the preceding paragraphs, the invention consists of a process for standardized differential inphase and coherent in amplitude modulation applicable in any communication system that carries out bidirectional communications of user■s multiple equipment. In this modulation the information is modulated in the value of the amplitude and the phase increments and requires a phase reference symbol to be sent prior to sending information symbols, just as it has been described in the preceding section. The invention is characterized in that the information to be modulated in the phase difference, that belongs to the possible information set according to the number of phases of the constellation to be used, an injective application is carried out between this set and the set of information possible to be modulated corresponding to the constellation with the maximum number of phases. This application consists of a projection of the elements of the first set in the same number of elements of the second set that produces the maximum separation, measured in radians, of the points resulting from the constellation with the maximum number of phases. In this way, the information of input into the phase differential modulator belongs to this second set. Equalization of the channel, that is carried out in the reception, is carried out in two steps, wherein the first one consists of obtaining an initial estimation of the attenuation of the channel, and the second one carries out the followup and reduction of the residual error of the first estimation by means of applying an adaptive algorithm. In reception, in order to carry out the initial estimation of the attenuation of the channel, the phase reference symbol is used and a certain number of the following symbols received. This set of symbols, formed by the reference, and a number of symbols following the reference set, has an amplitude value 5 known in advance. The estimation is carried out by means of the accumulation of the amplitudes of the symbols that form the set and the mean by the number of symbols that comprise said set. Besides, thanks to the process of the invention, in these symbols following the reference symbol, information encoded in the phase difference is sent, whereby these symbols are used to send information and to carry out the initial estimation of the attenuation of the channel. On the other hand, this initial estimation of the attenuation of the channel is used as an initial input to an adaptive algorithm that permits the changes of channel amplitude to be followed and the error made in the first estimation to be reduced from the modulated information received. In order to improve this followup of the channel, and so that users who are not receivers of the information can carry out said followup, symbols with encoded phase and amplitude information known in certain instants indicated by the transmitter to the receiver are inserted in the frame. The described process of the invention permits practical ? implementation of an optimum multiuser communication system, minimizing the overhead and reducing the modulator and demodulator complexity upon permitting the constellation or user to be changed in a single frame. Furthermore, it facilitates the sending of information in the symbols used for the estimation of the amplitude or attenuation of the channel. Likewise, it permits the initial estimation of the channel to be updated to the users who are not receivers of the information. In this way, the variation thereof can be followed in time by means of the insertion of symbols in the known amplitude frame, but with information on the phase increment. Hereinafter to provide a better understanding of this specification and forming an integral part thereof, some figures wherein the object of the invention has been represented in an illustrative and nonrestrictive manner are accompanied. 6 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES Figure 1 represents the block diagram of an embodiment of an ADPSK modulator that integrates the process of the invention. Figure 2 represents the block diagram of the ADPSK demodulator that functions according to the invention. Figure 3 represents the frame structure used in a system that carries out the process of the invention. DESCRIPTION OF AN EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION Hereinafter a description of an embodiment of the invention is made, making reference to the numbering used in the figures. As it has been commented on in the section on the background of the invention, ADPSK modulation is a mixed modulation between DAPSK (differential) modulations and QAM (coherent) modulations. Hence, the bits to be modulated are converted into amplitudes ak {information to be modulated into amplitude), and in Abk phase increments (information to be modulated in the phase increment), assuming that the M constellation points are distributed in R rings and P phases, according to the following formulae: { (ak, AbJ, k = ...,0,1,2,... }, wherein: ak e {0,l,...,fil} Abk e (O,1,...,P1) The lowpass equivalent of the modulated value will be: Wherein A is the displacement of the first ring with respect to the center, \i is the factor that modifies the separation between the rings, and 7 is made, making reference to the numbering used in the figures. As it has been commented on in the section on the background of the invention, ADPSK modulation is a mixed modulation between DAPSK (differential) modulations and QAM (coherent) modulations. Hence, the bits to be modulated are converted into amplitudes ak (information to be modulated into amplitude), and in Abk phase increments (information to be modulated in the phase increment), assuming that the M constellation points are distributed in R rings and P phases, 'according to the following formulae: { (ak, Abk), k = ...,0,1,2,... }, wherein: ak e {0,l,...,Hl} Abk e {0,1,..., F~l} : The lowpass equivalent of the modulated value will be: Wherein A is the displacement of the first ring with respect to the center, p is the factor that modifies the separation between the rings, and )That is used to standardize the constellation to power unit. Y: bk = (bk_!+ Abk)mod P Which represents the differential character of the phase. The lvalues of R, p, A and p determine the geometry of the constellation and, therefore, the performance thereof. The optimum values are obtained by minimizing the probability of bit 8 error in reception. For each value of p there is a value of A that minimizes said probability, and therefore, in order to simplify the calculations in this embodiment of the process of the invention p is established to be 1 and consequently the 5preceding equations remain: The optimum value for each constellation, in this embodiment, is the following: 10 Bits Bmntw A mu 2 4 4x1 1 1 3 8 4x2 0,8 1 4 16 8x2 1.7 1 5 32 8X4 1.7 1 6 64 16x4 2.5 1 Given the characteristics of the modulation, the demodulator needs a phase reference in order to begin to demodulate the encoded bits in the phase increments, and an estimation of the attenuation of the channel in order to equalize the amplitude and in order to be able to demodulate the bits encoded therein. In this embodiment, multiple carriers (OFDM) are used and each carrier is modulated in ADPSK in order to implement a point to multipoint communication. In an OFDM 9 injective application explained above is carried out by a block (4) and AJb '^ (11) is obtained. For the optimum constellations described above, the quotient ^ax__f P is a power of two, therefore, only the input value (1) has to be displaced in terms of the bits per carrier (3). By means of a block (5), the differential phase modulation is implemented in the following manner: wherein Jbjt.^ (16) is the phase value of the preceding symbol, obtained in a memory block (9), to which the phase increment hbk (11) is applied thereto in order to obtain the absolute phase value bk (15) . As it has been explained above, it is necessary to send a phase reference at the beginning of the frame. For this purpose, the signal that indicates the sending of the phase reference (17) controls a switch (14) in order to select between the input value &bk (11) or the result of the increment bk (15) . This output value (18) is kept in the memory (9) in order to use it in the following symbol. Therefore, Sk will be the following in the reference phase: . Sk = A (A+ak) ej An efficient implementation of the modulator requires a memory (7) with 2 Pmax positions that contain the following values: But the size of the memory (7) can be reduced to Pmax / 4 +1 taking the following trigonometric ratios into account: 10 of the bits per carrier (3) . By means of a block (5) , the differential phase modulation is implemented in the following manner: wherein b Vi (16) is the phase value of the preceding symbol, obtained in a memory block (9) , to which the phase increment Ab 'k (11) is applied thereto in order to obtain the absolute phase value b ' k (15) . As it has been explained above, it is necessary to send a phase reference at the beginning of the frame. For this purpose, the signal that indicates the sending of the phase reference (17) controls a switch (14) in order to select between the input value Ajb' k (11) or the result of the increment b'k (15). This output value (18) is kept in the memory (9) in order to use it in the following symbol. Therefore, Sk will be the following in the reference phase: Sk = A(A+ak)ei{(2n/Fmax)Ab memory (7) with 2 Praax positions that contain the following values: But the size of the memory (7) can be reduced to Pmax/4 hi taking the following trigonometric ratios into account: 11 containing only A block (8) converts the signal (18) into two suitable indexes to index the memory (7) and to obtain (19) and (20). The information to be modulated in amplitude, a* (2) , and the number of bits per carrier (3) determine the value of the amplitude to be obtained in a memory (6). The memory (6) contains the values X (A+aj) (21) , therefore, it has as many positions as the sum of the possible number of all the constellations that are used. If the signal (17) indicates that it is necessary to send a phase reference, the amplitude corresponding to the constellation of 2 bits per carrier, that only has information in the phase and has a known amplitude, is selected. This phase reference symbol is one of the ones that are used in reception order to estimate the channel. Finally, the modulator composes the component in phase (12) and in quadrature (13) by means of some multipliers (10). Figure 3 shows the frame structure that is used in the multiuser in this embodiment of the invention. The first symbol (44) is the phase reference, followed by a series of symbols (45) modulated with 2 bits per carrier and that can be directed to all the possible receiving users. The set formed by said symbols (45) and the phase reference (44) is likewise used in the receiver of each one of them for the initial estimation of the channel. The symbols (45) carry information modulated in the phase, thus reducing the overhead of the channel estimation. Afterwards, data symbols (46) are sent that can be directed to a specific user or a set of them, modulated with a certain number of bits per carrier. Besides, known amplitude symbols (which in this embodiment are modulated with 2 bits per carrier) are inserted in the frame. This modulation is known by all the equipment that implement the process of the invention) (47) so that the users who have not been receivers of the preceding data symbols (46) can update their estimations of the channel amplitude and thus follow up the variations thereof. Once again, these symbols carry information modulated in the phase. Figure 2 shows the block diagram of the demodulator of the multiuser communication system for this embodiment of the process of the invention. The modulated low pass signal received (21) is converted into polar signals in a block (22) obtaining the phase &k (2 4) and the amplitude received Ak (23) received. The phase increment, AQ'k (28) , is obtained by means of a subtractor (27) that subtracts the phase received, 20memory (25) wherein it was previously stored: After this operation, the phase received, Ok (24) , is always kept in the memory (25) in the position wherein &ki was. This phase increment (28) is accompanied by noise, for which reason it is necessary to determine to which of the transmitted possible increments it corresponds. A phase detector (2 9) carries out this task by selecting the closest one, as far as Euclidean distance is concerned, as the transmitted increment (43) , from the one received 4 increments transmitted. On the other hand, by means of a signal (30), the detector (29) in the phase reference symbol is incapacitated. 13 The amplitude received, Ak (23), is processed differently since it does not have a differential nature. First it is necessary to carry out an estimation of the attenuation of the channel in order to be able to equalize the amplitude received and detect it. The estimation of the channel is carried out by means of a block (36) . The channel estimator (36) calculates a mean during the first S symbols ( (44) and (45) ) and calculates the weight necessary to equalize the amplitude, w (39), in the following way: In order to increase the values of Ak (23) and in order to maintain the calculated weight w (39) that will be applied for the symbol S+l, a memory (37), from which the same positions may be reused is used. The channel estimation signal (33) indicates during which symbols it is necessary to calculate the mean. Besides, a block (35) is incapacitated by means of the one that updates the weights w (39) , and an amplitude detector (32) , given that the value of the weight needed to equalize the amplitude is being calculated. The amplitude received Ak (23) is equalized by a multiplier (38) in order to obtain the input amplitude value A* (41), and to' apply it to the amplitude detector (32). The amplitude inputted into the detector, Ak (41), is accompanied by noise; therefore the detector (32) must determine at what amplitude of the possible ones transmitted it corresponds. The bits per carrier of the constellation (31) determine the set of possible amplitudes transmitted. The detected amplitude Ak (42) is the closest one, as far as the Euclidean distance is concerned, from the equalized one received, A* (41). Likewise, the amplitude detector (32) 14 CLAIMS 1. Process for standardized differential inphase and coherent in amplitude modulation for multiuser communication, applicable in bidrectional communication of user multiple equipment wherein a differential inphase and coherent in amplitude modulation, that requires the sending of a phase reference symbol prior to the sending of information, is used, characterized in that the information to be modulated in the phase difference, that belongs to the set of possible information according to the number of phases of the constellation to be' used, an injective application is carried out between this set and the set of information possible to be modulated corresponding to the constellation with the maximum number of phases, consisting of a projection of the elements of the first set in the same number of elements of the second set that produce the maximum separation, measured in radians, of the points resulting from the constellation with the maximum number of phases; so that the information inputted in the phase differential modulator belongs to this second set, and thus minimize the overhead (information to control the system necessary for a correct reception of the data and that is sent along therewith), and to optimize the change of constellation or user within a single frame. 2. Process for standardized differential inphase and coherent in amplitude modulation for multiuser communication, according to claim 1, wherein equalization is done in reception, characterized in that the equalization of the channel is done in two steps, wherein the first one carries out an initial estimation of the attenuation of the channel, and the second one carries out the followup and reduction of residual error of said estimation by an adaptive algorithm. 3. Process for standardized differential inphase and coherent in amplitude modulation for multiuser communication, according to claim 2, characterized in that the initial estimation of the attenuation of the channel is carried out by 15 using the phase reference symbol and a certain number of the following symbols received, wherein the symbols of the set formed by the reference symbol and the following symbols have an amplitude value known in advance; said estimation being carried out by the accumulation of amplitudes received from the symbols of the set and the mean between the number of symbols that comprise said set. 4.  Process for standardized differential inphase and coherent in amplitude modulation for multiuser communication, according to claim 3, characterized in that encoded information is sent in the phase difference in the symbols used for the initial estimation of the attenuation of the channel following the phase reference. 5.  Process for standardized differential inphase and coherent in amplitude modulation for multiuser communication, according to claim 3, characterized in that the estimation of the attenuation of the channel is used as an initial input into a adaptive algorithm in order to follow the changes of amplitude of the channel from the modulated information received and to reduce the error made in the first estimation. 6.  Process for standardized differential inphase and coherent in amplitude modulation for multiuser communication, according to claim 1, characterized in that known amplitude symbols are sent and with inphase encoded information at certain instants indicated by the transmitter to the receiver, in order to selectively improve the amplitude estimation, the signaltonoise ratio or both. It is characterized in that the information to be modulated in the phase difference, that belongs to the set of information possible according to the number of phases of the constellation to be used, an injective application between this set and the set of information possible to be modulated corresponding to the constellation with the maximum number of phases is carried out. This permits bits to be changed by a carrier without sending a new phase reference, to maximize the number of symbols of information within the frame and to implement a modulator and a low complexity modulator and demodulator. Applicable in multiuser digital communication that requires bits to be changed by the carrier of the constellation in one single data frame, in order to adapt to the maximum transmission capacity of the channel, to follow the amplitude variations thereof and to allow information to be transmitted from one to several users. 

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2313kolnp2005grantedabstract.pdf
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Patent Number  235097  

Indian Patent Application Number  2313/KOLNP/2005  
PG Journal Number  26/2009  
Publication Date  26Jun2009  
Grant Date  24Jun2009  
Date of Filing  21Nov2005  
Name of Patentee  DISENO DE SISTEMAS EN SILICIO, S.A.  
Applicant Address  CHARLES ROBERT DARWIN 2, PARQUE TECNOLOGICO E46980 PATERNA (VALENCIA, SPAIN  
Inventors:


PCT International Classification Number  H04L 27/34  
PCT International Application Number  PCT/ES2004/000207  
PCT International Filing date  20040511  
PCT Conventions:
