|Title of Invention||
A METHOD OF RENDERING MASS-MARKET CONTENT INFORMATION TO A USER
|Abstract||A method is proposed of enabling to render mass-market content information to a user. The method comprises enabling to use a provile of the user for control of processing the electronic content for the purpose of personalizing the rendering during play-out of the content.|
FIELD OF INVENTION
This invention in general relates to ceramic technology. In particular this invention relates to A PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURING OF TRAFILATO (EXTRUDED) CERAMIC PRODUCTS SUCH AS TILES, SHAPES AND PROFILES.
The particular usage of ceramics was in the field of roofing, flooring and wall cladding. In all the cases the ceramics is expected to last long, give an aesthetic view. The. products are highly prone to staining when used in floor. When the floor in different areas is used with acids, alkalis and different other chemicals, when cleaned leave a permanent mark, (stained) which does not leave the surface even after repeated wash. This creates a permanent blemish causing heavily on the aesthetics.
Therefore to have a blemish free ceramic for a long time, a product is required which is essentially gives aesthetic look once it is laid.
The object of the invention is to invent the unique vitrified stain free ceramic products which have been used in the building industries. The inventor found the process by which vitrified stain free product properties achieved in the process of manufacturing of extruded vitrified unglazed tiles, shapes and profiles.
In the extrusion manufacturing the granules never pressed. The plastic clay mass is pressed through an assorted opening in the die (mouth) during extrusion. The particle size ranges from sub micron to 50 microns. That is in the range of 0.5 x 10 3 mm to 50 x 10 3 mm. This particulate size is very low with respect to granule size in the pressed tile
manufacturing. In the process of extrusion the material is passed through vacuum chamber where by it loses all the air entrapped in the clay mass. During drying the extrusion formed clay mass products suffers considerable shrinkage, which increases the density of the body further. Eventually the product is devoid of any entrapped air interstices the phenomenon that improves the overall property of the extruded products. This product surface has got no dent or micro crater (Open Pore). Since there is no open pore in the surface, the tile surface will remain stain free and also after repeated usage dust accumulation will not occur.
Vitrified Stain Proof Ceramic Products is a ceramic material made from selected raw materials fired at high temperatures to get hard and resistant to wear. In particular it is well known for its susceptibility to staining.
This forms the essential feature and the object of the invention.
SUMMARY OF INVENTION
The inventor has made great effort to provide a system which meet the requirement of the industry and overcome the problem associated in the product.
To achieve the above object according to first aspect and feature of the present invention there is provided a method of manufacturing extruded ceramic tiles, shapes and profiles.
At the outset of the description which follows it is to be understood that ensuring description only illustrates a particular form of this invention. However, such particular form is only an exemplary embodiment without intending to imply any limitation on the scope of this invention. Accordingly, the description is to be understood as an exemplary embodiment and reading of the invention is not intended to be taken restrictively.
The foregoing description is outlined rather broadly preferred and alternative feature of the present invention so that those skilled in the art may better understand the detailed description of the invention that follows. Additional features of the invention will be described hereinafter that form the subject of claims of the invention.
The Research and Development has been carried out in order to over come the problem of staining in the tiles by achieving the novel formulation of raw materials.
The object of invention is to identify and formulate the ingredients of the formulation and the process involved leading to manufacturing stain proof tiles and profiles.
The different interest of technicians in the importance of the process operation in determining the stain free porcelain stone ware products.
This novel process according to invention is significant because the presence of different oxides in the product which will melt at a particular stage in the firing where the body will get melt by eutectic reaction and give the surface free from pores.
Monitoring of the parameters such as temperature and firing cycle (soaking period) must therefore be exceptionally accurate in the critical
sections of the kiln etc. those sections involving the first and second phases of vitrification.
In any case, composition of stain free body have always had the common objective of simplifying the technological process as much as possible to overcome all market problems.
The percentage of the oxides in the plastic clay and fluxing materials are the parameters play the most important role in the body formulation.
An important salient feature of the invention is that the vitrified stain free product is suitable in the market for laying in the floor such as heavy traffic area, industrial floor, colleges and hospitals along with elevations of the building.
The novel stain free process according to invention can infact work in continuous modes according to production requirements or in the event of unexpected stoppages. It has suitable high loading strength with a great advantages to take a heavier load on the surface.
The invention is described in detail in the following pages of the complete specification.
The nature of the invention and the manner in which the invention is to be performed is clearly described in the following description.
The invention is related to a Vitrified Stain Free Products which is unique. The products available in the market are susceptible to stain.
The root cause of the staining problem was identified to be the presence of micro pores in the surface. Therefore to overcome, the problem of staining in product, we have to produce essentially a pore free ceramic. The generation of the micro pores is a function of the following:
i. Particle size distribution of the different raw materials used,
ii. Particle size distribution of the formulated body,
iii. Behaviour of the different raw materials at elevated temperature.
iv. Characteristics of different product which come into existence at
v. Behaviour of the high temperature product in cooling.
In making the stain free product all the above mentioned points have been dealt with to achieve the optimum condition. To attain these robust designs is done to formulate the batch composition to produce the desired results.
When particles of same equivalent diametrical dimension are studied under gravity, it is found that interstices are formed between the particles. These interstices are in turn play host to the crevices to attract staining.
A continuous grading is done in such a way that a progressively finer particle size fraction is available to go to the interstices to reduce the interstitial gap formed by the primary particles. For this reason a five component system is adopted to achieve an almost 99% close packing density. The rest 1% is achieved in the process of vitrification.
The prepared / formulated body is given a shape of a salable product and fired at 1180 - 1200 ° C. During the firing process densification of the particles occur through a liquid phase reaction sintering process. During this phenomenon the particles at the eutectic contact point melt, reacts
to the grain boundary of the other particles and a highly viscous amorphous phase evolves.
This amorphous material flows and fills all the pores. In this process all the pores in the ceramic form are eradicated giving rise to a pore free product. This reaction process being an irreversible one, does not allow the melt to settle in any particular place, in turn the cooling of the ceramic takes place so fast that the viscosity of the melt becomes so high, for all practical purposes it becomes solid. When the ceramic is cooled to the room temperature, the whole reaction product gives rise to a monolithic, pore free and homogenous ceramic. This ceramic when tested under heavy staining condition, shows exceptionally good stain proof ness.
During the various stages of production the chemical changes in the product occurs only when the products are fired. In other stages of process, the raw materials are changed physically with respect to their grain size, water content of the slip etc.
To achieve the above mentioned qualities in ceramics raw materials are carefully chosen and a batch is formulated in such a way so as to produce the required properties after reactions are over.
Following are the general chemical formula of the raw materials.
Raw material stoichiometric details
Note: LOI stands for Loss on ignition.
The Traditional ceramic has the batch composition as per the following:
Clay : 45 - 50%
Non Plastic Clay : 10-15%
Feldspar : 35 - 45%
In the present case, the formulation is done progressively in such a way that one component is placed in the tetrahedral interstice of the other four component particles.
The essence of the invention is in the developing of a novel composition of raw materials leading to a specific formulation based on the raw materials and their proportion of each constituent material shown in the following table.
The raw materials are wet milled and final particle size should be 99% The raw materials are stored in the clay yard for aging and weathering. The raw materials are transferred to storage bins which are in covered area by skip hoist with transfer cars in the form of lumps and powder. The plastic clays are stored for longer time for weathering to get a uniform body colour.
SILO FEEDING SECTION:
The materials shall be taken on the top of storage silos with the help of skip hoist. The skip bucket shall discharge the materials in a hopper located at the top of silos. The outlet of hopper shall have two way / manually rotating chute so that the material discharged by skip bucket shall be received by one of the two transfer cars moving on the top of silos.
BATCHING AND WEIGHING SECTION:
The entire batching and weighing system shall be controlled through batch controllers. The set of four vibrating feeders shall feed the materials into one weigh hopper. Weigh hopper shall be mounted on three load cells. Depending upon requirement of various raw materials, the control room operator shall set proportions (by dry weight) of
materials in a batch. The belt conveyor shall convey the material to a receiving hopper located at discharge end of belt conveyor.
BALL MILL FEEDING SECTION:
From the receiving hopper located at discharge end of belt conveyor the materials shall be taken to the top of ball mills with the help of a conveyor and discharged to a ball mills.
The ball mills are used for grinding of raw materials. The ball mills are lined with alumina brick. The porcelain ball is used as a grinding media in the mill. The raw materials in a pre-determined ratio are loaded into the ball mills. Water is charged into the ball mills to facilitate wet mixing. After grinding the charge of raw materials, thick slurry called slip is produced. The slip or slurry is screened on a vibratory screen to remove unground particles and impurities, if any, and is stored in a storage vats
The storage vats are used to store the slip for ageing. The mechanically driven stirrer has paddle or blades on a shaft and were run to be kept in constant movement to prevent sedimentation.
The slip is then transferred to the filter press through an electro-magnetised screen to remove iron particles out of the slurry. The magnetised slurry is then pumped into the filter press by means of a diaphragm pumps.
The mechanically compressed filter press is used to produce the cakes without any fuel cost. The method of forcing the slip into the filter press has considerable bearing on the uniformity of the filter cake. When sufficient water has been removed, the compression on the press is released and the filter plates are separated. The press cakes are
individually stripped off and dropped on to conveyors under the filter press.
The filter press cakes are transferred to a nooduliser. The nooduliser machine is designed for 10mm dia noodule for the rated output to contra-rotating sigma type arm fitted with adjustable blade pressed the filter cake body of 22% water content.
The filter press cake noodules are transferred to the humidification noodle drier. The dried noodules is then transferred to the storage hopper through a conveyor. The dried noodules are fed to a double shaft mixer through a controlled feeding conveyor fitted with a variable speed motor.
The mixed material is then transferred to pug mill through conveyors. This mill improves the uniformity of a plastic clay body giving it greater workability. The de~airing machine removes air bubbles by evacuation which improves the plasticity.
The extrusion process is used for shaping of pieces by flat punching system. The machine is a continuous one and is fitted with a suitable feeding hopper and a discharge end has an auger and a mouth piece for extrusion of a solid uniform thickness column. The column can then cut into regular lengths and widths.
The extrusion is the main shaping process of the body which is usually stiffer, having less water than a plastic body. Basically the extrusion process consists of pushing a column of clay through a die draw plates. The auger pushes the material in the centre of the column at a different ratio to the sides and by dragging action of the die. The ensures greater
uniformity of the lay and facilitates the production of flat tile and shapes of large dimensions and small thicknesses.
Extrusion of support less staircase treads pieces on flat belt conveyor. Extrusion is done upside up.
CUTTING LINE / PUNCHING LINE
The continuous clay column is then cut into required sizes either using fixed cutting knives or by performing sequentional cutting or punching system. This cutter is fully automatic self adjustment electronic micro processor system capable of controlling the required sizes or dimensions. The cut tiles is sent to the step loading system and then transferred to the drier at a constant density.
The extruded staircase tread pieces are cut into pieces and conveyed on a profile belt conveyor, picked up by trays and placed on specially designed trolleys.
The drying is the process where the water or moisture is removed completely before the firing. A four layer drier is used for drying of flat products. The drier has open type burner and uses natural gas for heating and operates at a minimum temperate of 110°C - 300°C. The drying Cycle is controlled automatically in the various zones of the dryer in order to maintain the pre determined parameters. After drying, the product can either pushed to the glazing line or to the kiln for unglazed tile. A chamber dryer is used for drying of shapes and profile products. The specially designed drier cars can be driven across the floor completely and independently. A number of such trolleys are kept inside the static chamber drier for drying of the staircase tread pieces resulting
in moisture FIRING
A roller kiln is used for firing the product. The kiln is designed to withstand a firing temperature up to 1350°C with slow cooling curve depending on the thickness of the product. The flexibility of firing cycles range from 30 to 360 minutes. The process parameter is performed automatically according to the type of material and firing cycle.
The special pieces are fired directly after placing on refractory setters. These setters are fed into the roller kilns for the staircase pieces to be vitrified at very high temperature to become strong, matured and highly stain resistant.
SIZING & SQUARING:
This is done because the extruded cut tiles are normally having irregular cross sectional areas. Therefore side grinding is done to increase the aesthetic value and dimensional accuracy.
The squaring and chamfering machine used mostly for the rectifying of the product. The remarkable sizing / removal of material can thus be made with a perfect squareness of the four sides with chamfering.
The automatic sorting line continues selection with an intelligent view over ceramic tile, sorting with touch screen control, high productivity, and exclusive stacking and transport system.
An automatic expeller is used to eliminate all tiles which have been rejected by the operator or parameter-monitoring equipment. The sorted tiles are stacked for different classes and different stackers.
The staircase tread pieces are then removed from the setter and fed into the sizing and squaring machine for rectifying the dimensional variation in the individual pieces.
PALLETISING AND PACKING
The tiles stacks coming from the stacking zone are automatically packed in a warp around cartoon boxes.
After the rectification is over sorting of the pieces is done scrutinizing each and every piece individually.
Assorted pieces are packed in the carton boxes with specially designed thermocole spacers at the profile nosing section.
The packed products are then palletised with shrink pack by polythene sheets with Gas operated pistols and made ready for despatch.
|Indian Patent Application Number||1033/CHENP/2006|
|PG Journal Number||02/2009|
|Date of Filing||27-Mar-2006|
|Name of Patentee||KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS ELECTRONICS N.V|
|Applicant Address||Groenewoudseweg 1, NL-5621 BA Eindhoven,|
|PCT International Classification Number||H04N7/16|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/IB2004/051435|
|PCT International Filing date||2004-08-10|