Title of Invention  METHOD AND ARRANGEMENT FOR ESTIMATION OF LINE PROPERTIES 

Abstract  The length and attenuation of a signal line between a transmitter and a customer premises equipment is to be estimated. A frequency dependent line input impedance (Zin,(f)), as seen from the transmitter, is measured and an absolute impedance value (æ Zin,(f) æ) is generated. The latter is shown as a curve (Al) in the diagram with the frequency (f) on the abscissa and the impedance (æ Zin,(f) æ) on the ordinate. Extreme values (Max.l, Max2, Max3; Minl, Min2, Min3) are denoted and a frequency distance (FD1 FD4) between two consecutive of the extreme values is generated. The line length (L) is generated as L=1/2 • vop/FD1, in which vop is the velocity of propagation of a signal on the line. The attenuation is estimated by multiplying the line length with an average attenuation value for the actual line type. The advantages are that the line length can be estimated with good accuracy in a simple manner for short lines and that the line attenuation is estimated in a simple manner. 
Full Text  FORM 2 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 (39 of 1970) & THE PATENTS RULES, 2003 COMPLETE SPECIFICATION (See section 10, rule 13) ""METHOD AND ARRANGEMENT FOR ESTIMATION OF LINE PROPERTIES"" TELEFONAKTIEBOLAGET LM ERICSSON (PUBL), of S164 83 Stockholm, Sweden The following specification particularly describes the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed. WO 2004/099711 2 PCT/SE2004/000718 METHOD AND ARRANGEMENT FOR ESTIMATION OF LINE PROPERTIES TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to a method and an arrangement in the area of estimation of line properties of a signal 5 line, such as the line length and line attenuation. DESCRIPTION OF RELATED ART In today's telecommunication it is essential from an economical point of view to use existing copper wires for broadband transmission. These copper wires, often called 10 twistedpair copper loops or copper access lines, have among themselves very different properties from a broadband point of view. Telecom operators therefore have a great interest in testing the properties of the lines to be able to fully utilize their transmission capacity. The abovementioned is 15 discussed in an article by Walter Goralski: "xDSL Loop Qualification and Testing", IEEE Communications Magazine, May 1999, pages 7983. The article also discusses testing possibilities and test equipment. The transmission properties of copper lines are more closely 20 discussed in an article by Jose E. SchuttAine: "HighFrequency Characterization of TwistedPair Cables", IEEE Transactions on Communications,Vol. 49, No. 4, April 2001. Propagation parameters of high bit rate digital subscriber twistedpair cables are extracted by a wave propagation 25 method model. The frequency dependence in the properties of the transmission line and the influence of the skin effect on these are studied. Testing the transmission properties of a line can be performed by sending a test signal from one end of the line 30 and measure it at the other end, so called double end test. That method is labour intensive and expensive. A more frequently used method is to send a test signal from one end WO2004/099711 3 PCT/SE2004/000718 of the line and measure on the reflected signal from the line, so called SingleEnded Loop Testing, SELT. In an article by Stefano Galli and David L Waring: "Loop Makeup Identification Via Single Ended Testing: Beyond Mere Loop 5 Qualification", IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 20, No. 5, June 2002 is discussed the influence of different types of line discontinuities and generated echoes in connection with singleended testing. Especially timedomain reflectometry, TDR, is discussed for 10 measuring the length of a line. An outgoing pulse is sent to the line and a reflected pulse is detected. Assuming that the velocity of the pulse is known, then by measuring the time between the two pulses the line length can be estimated. One difficulty with the traditional TDR method is 15 that the reflected pulse can be heavily attenuated and be difficult to detect, as it is hidden by the rather broad outgoing pulse. To avoid this problem the pulses can be filtered, but the Galli and Waring article suggests to instead subtract the outgoing pulse to get a distinct 20 reflected pulse. A mathematical method for handling the echoes is presented and also ah experimental validation of the method. Another problem with the traditional TDR method is that for short lines the outgoing and reflected pulses are close to 25 each other and are difficult to separate of that reason. For a very long line, on the other hand, the reflected pulse is heavily attenuated and can be hidden in the noise. Therefore, in traditional TDR, for some measurements only one pulse is observable and it is impossible to know if it 30 depends on that the line is very short or very long. In singleended testing it is advantageous to use the transceiver as a part of a mesurement device for the loop under test. The broadband communication transceiver is no perfect voltage generator but introduces distortion in the 35 measurement. How to remove this distortion is discussed in a WO 2004/099711 4 PCT/SE 2O04/000718 standardization paper by Thierry Pollet :"How is G.selt to specify Su (calibrated measurements)?", ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector, Temporary Document OJ091; Osaka, Japan 2125 October, 2002. A calibration 5 method is presented, based on a one port scattering parameter Su, that includes transceiver parameters which are generated during a calibration. Also in a standardization paper by Thierry Pollet : "Minimal information to be passed between measurement and interpretation unit", ITU 10 Telecommunication Standardization Sector, Temporary Document OC049; Ottawa, Canada 59 August, 2002, the one port scattering parameter Su is discussed. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention is concerned with a main problem how 15 to estimate the length of a signal line. Another problem is how to classify the line as being a long or a short line, prior to the length estimation. Still a problem is how to perform the length estimation in a single ended loop test, utilizing a transceiver intended for 20 communication purposes. A further problem is to estimate a line attenuation. The problems are solved by generation of an absolute value of a frequency dependent line input impedance and utilizing the waveform and periodicity of the absolute value of the 25 line input impedance. More closely the problems are solved by selecting consecutive maxima or consecutive minima of the absolute value of the line input impedance. A frequency distance between two of the consecutive extreme values is determined. 30 With the aid of the signal velocity of propagation on the line and the frequency distance the line length is WO 2004/099711 5 PCT/SE2004/000718 estimated. An attenuation value is in one embodiment generated based on the length and an attenuation per length unit for the line. In an alternative embodiment extreme values of the absolute impedance value curve are used to 5 estimate the line attenuation. A purpose with the invention is to estimate the length d of the signal line in a simple manner. Another purpose is to classify the line as long or short before the length estimation. 10 Still a purpose is to facilitate the use of a transceiver for communication purposes in the line length estimation. Still another purpose is to make the" length estimation independent of the hardware in the transceiver. A further purpose is to estimate a line attenuation. 15 An advantage with the invention is that the line can be decided as short before the length estimation. Another advantage is that a reliable length value can be estimated for short lines. Still an advantage is that a transceiver for communication 20 purposes can be calibrated and used for the estimation. Still another advantage is to make the length estimation independent of the hardware in the transceiver. A further advantage is that the line attenuation can be generated in a simple manner. 25 The invention " will now be more closely described with the aid of embodiments and with refernce to the enclosed drawings. WO 2004/099711 6 PCT/SE2004/000718 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Figur 1 shows a block schematic over measurement device connected to a line; Figure 2 shows a diagram with line impedance for different 5 lines; Figure 3 shows a diagram with line impedance for one line; Figure 4 shows a flow chart over a method of line length 10 estimation; Figure 5 shows a block schematic over a transceiver connected to a line; 15 Figure 6 shows a somewhat more detailed block schematic over a transceiver; Figure 7 shows a block schematic over a test transceiver connected to a test impedance; 20 Figure 8 shows a flow chart over a method of generating transceiver model values; Figure 9 shows a flow chart over a method of generating a 25 line impedance value; and Figure 10 shows a flow chart over a method of generating a • line attenuation value. 30 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS In figure 1 is shown a front end device, a measurement device MD1, connected to a customer's remote device 3 via a signal line 2 having a length L. This signal line is a WO 2004/099711 7 PCT/SE2004/000718 copper wire initially used for narrowband signal transmission. A signal on the line 2 propagates with a velocity vop ■ m/s. As mentioned above it is of great interest for telecommunication operators to use such lines 5 for brodband transmission and therefore the properties of the line 2 must be known, such as the line length L. The properties of the line are therefore to be measured, which can be performed by different methods. 10 One such method is shown in figure 1. The measurement device MD1 has a line unit LUl and a calculation unit CUl connected to each other. The measuring device MD1 has a control input/output IU1. The line unit has a frequency broadband voltage source VS1 with a voltage E and an impedance Zs and 15 also a voltage measurement device VMl measuring a line input voltage Vi. A frequency dependent line input impedance (Zin(f)) for a loop including the line 2 and, the remote device 3 can be calculated by an equation 20 The calculation is performed in the calculation unit CUl. In the present invention the frequency dependent line input impedance Zin(f) is used to generate an estimated value of 25 the line length L. It is observed that the impedance Z!n(f) is a function that has a part that is periodic with the frequency as is shown in figure 2. This figure is a diagram with the frequency / on the abscissa and an absolute value  Zjn(f)  of the line input impedance on the ordinate. 30 The diagram shows curves over measurements of the absolute value  Zln(f)  of the input impedance Zln(f) for different lengths of the signal line 2. The signal line is a cable of certain type and the remote device 3 is in the embodiment a telephone set in the onhook state. The cable lengths, WO 2004/099711 8 PCT/SE2004/00071h denoted in kilometers the diagram, are 0.5 km, 1.0 km and 1.5 km. It appears from the diagram that the period for the respective curve is different for the different cable lengths. 5 In figure 3 is shown an impedance diagram for only one signal line having the length L. The diagram has the frequency /on the abscissa and the absolute value  Z(. (/) I of the line input impedance on the ordinate. In this diagram 10 is shown an impedance curve Al which is essentially periodic and is generated by a number of samples A2 at mutual frequency distance of A/ . The curve Al has a number of extreme values of which maximums Maxl, Max2, Max3 and minimums Mini, Min2 , Min3 are shown. The frequency 15 distance between two consecutive of the extreme values of the same type is denoted by FD1, FD2, FD3 and FD4 respectively. The line length L can now be estimated by using the distance FD1 and with the aid of the velocity of propagation vop by an equation: 20 L= H vop/FDl (2) This equation can alternatively be expressed as In the equation (3) the expression cycle is the "cycle 25 time", i.e. the periodicity, of the input impedance \Zin(f)\ expressed in number of the samples A2 between two consecutive maximums or minimums of the curve Al. The velocity of propagation vop is about 0.7 of the 30 velocity of light in vaccum, i.e vop * 2108 m/s. In the example in figure 3 the frequency, distance is FD1*200 kHz. The line length can be estimated by the equation 2 to about L=500 m. WO 2004/099711 9 PCT/SE2004/000718 The length estimation of the line 2 can be improved by using more than one of the frequency distances. As mentioned above the curve Al is essentially periodic. It has however been observed that, in some cases depending on 5 the type of termination, the frequency distance FD2 is slightly longer than the distance FD1 and correspondingly the distance FD4 is slightly longer than the distance FD3. For higher frequencies the frequency distances successively grows still a little bit. This fact depends on that, in the 10 actual cases, the velocity of propagation vop increases with increasing frequency. Mean values MV1 and MV2 can be generated for the frequency distance by e.g. the equations MV1 = (FDl+FD2)/2 (4) 15 MV2 = (FD3+FD4)/2 (5) The line length L is estimated as L = H vop/MVl (6) L = *i vop/MV2 (7) 20 Still an improvement is to use both the maximums and the minimums e.g. by generating a mean frequency distance MV3 = (MVl+MV2)/2 (8) 25 and estimate the line length as L = % vqp/MV3 (9) In the above examples the frequency distances between three 30 maximums or minimums have been used. In an obvious way it is possible to use still further of the extreme values of the curve Al to generate the length estimate L of the line 2. The type of averaging depends on the type of termination of the line, i.e. the type of the remote device 3. If the 35 termination is known in a certain case it is possible to choose the most appropriate averaging. WO 2004/099711 PCT/SE2004/000718 10 As appears from figure 2 the amplitude oscillation in the signal Z^,(/) is larger for a short than for a long loop. This means that the estimated length value L will be less 5 exact for a long loop. It is therefore of interest to estimate if a loop can be regarded as short. Below is disclosed how the input impedance, Zin(f), can be used for this purpose, short loop detection. The basic principle is to calculate a decision value dValue and compare it with a 10 threshold value thValue, which threshold value should cover realistic telecommunication cables. The threshold value depends on the different attenuation for the different types of cables. A decision value can be calculated as follows: 15 where /,and /2 are design parameters that represent the lowest and highest frequency to consider. The mValue is a mean value of the curve Al in the actual frequency range. 20 The dValue corresponds to an energy value for the fluctuations of the curve Al in the actual frequency range. If the dValue ^.thValue the loop should be considered as short. The value thValae is a design parameter that sets the limit for when a loop shall be considered short. 25 30 The decision of short loop length and generation of the length for the signal line 2 as described above will be described in concentrate in connection with a flow chart in figure 4. In a first step 401 the line input impedance 2T,„(/) is generated. The absolute value of the line input WO 2004/099711 PCT/SE2004/000718 11 impedance is generated in a step 402. In a step 403 the mean value mValue according to equation (10) is generated and in a step 404 the decision value dValue according to equation (11) is generated. The threshold value thValue is 5 decided in a step 405 for the actual telecommunication cable type in the line 2. The decision is based on the attenuation for the cable type. In a step 406 it is investigated if the decision value is bigger than the threshold value. In an alternative NO the procedure is 10 stopped in a step 407. In an opposite alternative YES the procedure goes on in a step 408 with the selection of extreme values of the curve Al for the absolute values of the line input impedance. The frequency distance is generated, alternatively as a mean value of a number of 15 frequency distance values, see equations (4), (5) or (8). In a step 410 the line length value L is generated, see equations (6), (7) or (9). In the description above the line input impedance Z!n(f) for 20 the line 2 is measured via the measurement device MD1. It is an advantage for a telecom operator if a conventional transceiver for communication purposes can be used instead of a special measurement device such as the device MDl. Below will be described how such a transceiver can be 25 calibrated and used for the measurement of the line input impedance Z!n(f) in a singleended loop test SELT. In figure 5 is shown a front end device, in this case a transceiver 1, connected to the remote device 3 via the 30 signal line 2. The transceiver is suitable for communication purposes and is described such that the SELT measurement can be explained. The transceiver 1 includes a digital part 41, a codec 42 and an analog part 43, the so called Analog Front End AFE. The digital part includes in 35 turn a digital signal generator 13 and a computational WO 2004/099711 PCT/SE2004/000718 device 11 interconnected with a memory device 12. The transceiver 1 also has an input 63 and an output 64. The generator, which is connected to the computational device 11, sends a broadband input loop test signal vin to the 5 remote device 3 via the codec 42, the analog part 43 and the line 2. A reflected broadband loop test signal vout is received in the computational device from the line 2 via the analog part and the codec. The broadband loop test signal vin, sent for such measuring 10 purposes, is reflected back over the line 2 and is noted as the loop test signal vout As will be described below, the signals Vin and vout are used in the determining of the properties of the line 2. What the operator in fact needs to know is the input 15 impedance Z!n(f) of the line 2 including the remote device 3, measured from a transceiver interface 5 and being independent of the transceiver 1 itself. A first step in getting the required line properties is to generate an echo transfer function Heell0(f) for the actual line 2. This is 20 calculated by performing a frequency translation of the broadband signals vin and vout, resulting in signals Vin{/) and Vout (j0 in the frequency domain. The transfer function is generated by the relationship Hech0(f)= Vout(/)/Vin(/) (12) 25 in which the frequency is denoted by /. Naturally, the function Heclm{f) includes properties of the transceiver 1. Below it will be described by an example how the required line properties of the line 2 can be obtained with the aid of the frequency dependent echo transfer 30 function Hecho(f) . First, the transceiver analog part 43 will be described somewhat more in detail in connection with WO 2004/099711 13 PCT/SE2004/000718 figure 6. This is to throw light upon the difficulties in characterizing the transceiver 1 in a simple manner. Figure 6 is a simplified block diagram over the analog 5 transceiver part 43 and the line 2 of figure 5, yet somewhat more detailed than in that figure. The analog part 43 includes an amplifier block 6, a hybrid block 7, a sense resistor RS and a line transformer 8. The amplifier block 6 has a driver 61 with its input connected to the digital 10 generator 13 via the codec 42, not shown. I also has a receiver 62 receiving signals from the line 2 and having its output connected to the transceiver digital part 41, not shown. The driver output is connected to the sense resistor RS, the terminals of which are connected to the 15 hybrid block 7. The latter has four resistors Rl, R2, R3 and R4 and is connected to inputs of the receiver 62. The line transformer 8 has a primary winding LI and two secondary windings L2 and L3 interconnected by a capacitor CI. The primary winding LI is connected to the sense 20 resistor RS and the secondary windings L2 and L3 are connected to the line 2. The frequency dependent line input impedance at the interface 5 is demoted Zin(f) and the input impedance at the primary side of the transformer is denoted ZL. The termination of the farend of the line 2, the 25 remote device 3, is represented by an impedance ZA. The signal Vin, now in analog form from the codec 42, is amplified in the driver block 61. The output impedance of the driver is synthezised by the feedback loop from the 30 sense resistor RS. The line transformer 8 has a voltage stepup from the driver to the loop. The capacitor CI has. a DCblocking function. The transformer and the capacitor act as a high pass filter between the driver 61/receiver 62 and the loop 2, 3 with a cutoff .frequency around 30 kHz. No 35 galvanic access to the loop is possible in this case. WO 2004/099711 14 PCT/SE2004/000718 In the present description a frequencydomain model of the echo transfer function #„,,„(/) is used to calculate the frequency dependent input impedance Zln(f) of the loop 2 and 3, as seen by the transceiver 1 at the interface 5. The 5 input impedance can then be used for calculating several loop qualification parameters. This frequencydomain model of the echo transfer function Hecho(f) includes three parameters ZhQ(f), Z^f) anc* •#»(/) which relate to the transceiver 1. The parameters, transceiver model values, 10 fully describe the transceiver from this point of view. The parameters Zh0(f), Z/#(/) and H(f) are originally deduced analytically from the circuits of the transceiver. Some minor simplifications have been made in the analysis, 15 but the model has proved to be very accurate. The values of the parameters are normally not calculated directly from the component values of the transceiver, but are generated from measurements in a calibration process, 20 as will be described below. In the earlier mentioned standardization paper "How is G.selt to specify Sn (calibrated measurements)?" the scattering parameter Sn is expressed with three parameters 25 CI, C2 and C3 for the transceiver., These parameters should not be confused with the transceiver model values Zh0(f), Z,vb(f) and H„(f) of the present description. The parameters CI, C2 and C3 are dimensionless quantities and are not given any concrete meaning, although they are successfully 30 used to model the transceiver. The transceiver model values of the present description are recognized in the analysis and can be interpreted directly: WO 2004/099711 15 PCT/SE2004/000718 The value Ha(f) is the frequency dependent echo transfer function for the transceiver 1 with open connection to the line 2, i.e. when the line impedance is of unlimited magnitude. 5 The value Zhyb{f) is the transceiver impedance as measured at the connections to the line 2, i.e. the transceiver impedance at the interface 5 as seen from the line side. The value Zh0(f) can be expressed as Zh0(f) = H0(f) Z^if), 10 in which the value Ho(f) is the frequency dependent echo transfer function for the transceiver 1 with the connections to the line 2 shortcut and the value Zhb(f) is defined above. 15 It is to observe that the transceiver model values are not measured directly, but are generated in a process as will be described below. The echo transfer function Hech0(f) of equation (1) can be 20 expressed as: "')~ z„(/)+zw(/) ,13) in which Zrn(f) is tne earlier mentioned input impedance of the line 2 as a function of the frequency / / and 25 Zh0(f), Zhyb(f) and Hn(f) are complex vectors and are the transceiver model values mentioned above. After a calibration measurement of a certain transceiver version its vectors can be determined. These vectors, the 30 transceiver model values, are then prestored in for example the software of the transceivers of the measured version, e.g. in the memory 12 of the transceiver 1. The WO 2004/099711 16 PCT/SE2004/000718 model values are then used for the loop test of the line 2 with its initially unknown properties. In connection with figure 7 will be mentioned how the 5 calibration measurement is performed. The figure shows a test transceiver 31, to which test impedances 9 of different predetermined values are connected at the interface 5 for the line 2. A measurement device 32 with a memory 33 is connected to the input 63 and the otput 64 of 10 the test transceiver. The measurement device 32 sends a control signal VC1 to the test transceiver 31 and initiates it to generate a broadband transceiver test signal vtin , one for each value of the test impedance 9. A reflected output transceiver test signal vtout is received in the test 15 tranceiver, which sends a corresponding control signal VC2 to the measurement device. A complete measurement requires the measurement of three selected impedance values. The echo transfer function Hech0(f) is then generated in accordance with the relationship (12). 20 Using three impedance values for the calibration is sufficient to generate the transceiver values. To get more precise values, more than the three impedances can be used. This gives rise to an overdetermined equation system. An 25 example on a set of standard values of the test impedance 9 for the calibration is an open circuit, a shortcut circuit and an impedance value corresponding to an expected value for the loop, e.g. 100 ohms. It should be noted that a value for a purely resistive component is normally valid 30 only up to a limited frequency, e.g. 1 MHz. For higher frequencies it is recommended to measure the impedance value of the "resistive" component. The generation of the three complex vectors Z/l0(/), Zhyb(f) 35 and Ha(f) for the measured transceiver 31 is performed in WO 2004/099711 17 PCT/SE2004/000718 the following manner. The model of the echo transfer function in the relationship (13) can be expressed as: The general solution to the system Ax=b is x = (ATA)ATb By using the values of the transfer function HechB(f), 10 measured as described above with, different types of the input terminations 9, the vector x can be solved. The thus generated calibration values of the vector x are stored for example in the memory 33 of the measurement device 32 or in the memory 12 of the transceivers of the measured version. 15 Note that A, x and b normally are complex valued and frequency dependent. 20 25 After a measurement of the echo transfer function Hecho(f) for the actual unknown line 2, its input impedance as seen by the transceiver 1 at the interface 5 can be generated as: To summarize, a certain hardware for transceivers like the transceiver 1 is first calibrated. This is performed for the test transceiver 31 with the aid of the impedances 9 and the transceiver test signals vtin and vtout. The vector x is calculated and the values of the vector x are stored and can be used for any transceiver with the same hardware. The echo transfer function Hecll0(f) is then measured by the W0 2f)(M/()99711 18 PCT/SE2004/000718 transceiver 1 for the line 2 having unknown properties with the aid of the loop test signals vin and vout. The frequency dependent input impedance Zin(f) of the line 2, as seen from the transceiver interface 5, is then generated. 5 In the embodiment described above, both the transceiver test signals vtin,vtout and the loop test signals vin,vout have been broadband signals. It is possible to use signals of any desired frequency width both for the calibration and 10 the measurement of the line. The calibration and the loop test will of course be valid only for the selected frequency range. It has been mentioned that the transceiver model values are stored in the memory 12 of the transceiver 1. An obvious alternative is to store the values in the 15 memory 33 or in a memory in some central computer and transmit them to the transceiver 1 when they are required for the generation of e.g. the input impedance Zin(f) of the line 2. Also, in the description has been mentioned the test transceiver 31 and the transceiver 1 for communication 20 purposes. The test transceiver 31 can be any of a set of transceivers which are based on one and the same hardware. The test transceiver can in an obvious way be used for the communication purposes. 25 The above generation of transceiver model values and the generation of the impedance value for the line 2 will be shortly described in connection with flowcharts in figures 8 and 9. 30 In figure 8 is shown the generation and storage of the transceiver model values. The method begins in a step 601 with the selection of the transceiver 31 for test purposes. In a step 602 an impedance 9 with a predetermined value is selected and in a step 603 the impedance is connected to 35 the line connection of the test transceiver 31. In a step WO 2004/099711 19 PCT/SE2004/000718 604 the transceiver test signal vtin is sent through the transceiver 31 to the line 2. To get transceiver model values that can be used for a wide range of applications the test signal is a broadband signal. The signal is 5 reflected by the remote device 3 and after passage of the transceiver 31 it is received as the transceiver test signal vtout in a step 605. In a step 606 the echo transfer function Hccho(f) is generated in the computational device 32 for the actual impedance 9, after first having transformed 10 the signals vtin and vtout into the frequency domain. In a step 607 it is investigated whether measurements for a sufficient number of the impedances 9 have been made, so that the transceiver model values ZM(f), Z^f) and Hm(f) can be generated. In an alternative NOl a further impedance 15 9 is selected in the step 602. For an alternative YES1 the transceiver model values Z/)0(/), Zhyb(f) and Hn(f) are generated in a step 608. In a step 609 the vector x, i.e. the transceiver model values, are stored in the memory 33. Next, the transceiver 1 for communication purposes is 20 selected in a step 610. In a step 611 the transceiver model values Zh0(f), Zhvb(f) and Hn(f) are transmitted to the selected transceiver 1 and are stored in the memory 12. Figure 9 shows the generation of the frequency dependent 25 line input impedance Z/n(/) at the transceiver interface 5 to the line 2. In a step 701 the transceiver 1 for communication purposes is connected to the line 2 with the remote device 3. The loop test signal vin is sent in a step 702. The loop test signal vout as reflected by the line 2 is 30 received by the transceiver and is measured in a step 703. In a step 704 the frequency dependent echo transfer function HedlB{f) is generated in the computational device 11. The frequency dependent impedance value Zin(f) for the line 2 is generated in the device 11 with the aid of the WO 2004/099711 PCT/SE2004/000718 20 stored transceiver model values and the echo transfer function, step 705. This generating is performed in accordance with the relationship (15). 5 An essential property of the signal line 2 is its signal attenuation. For lines that can be regarded as short this attenuation can be estimated in a simple manner with sufficient accuracy. A requirement for this is that the length L of the line is estimated with good accuracy, e.g. 10 as described above. The method will be described in connection with a flow chart in figure 10. In a first step 101 an average attenuation value AAl is calculated for a selected set of normally used telecommunication cables. An example on such an average value is AA1=11 dB per 15 kilometer. The line length L of the actual short line is estimated with good accuracy in a step 102. In a step 103 a line attenuation value LAI is generated by multiplying the line length L with the average attenuation value AAl. In an embodiment, with reference to figure 1, the method is 20 performed by writing the average attenuation value AAl via the control input/output IUl and storing it in the calculation unit CUl. The line input impedance Zjn(f) is calculated in accordance with equation (1) and the line length is estimated by calculations in the calculating unit 25 CUl. In the same unit the line attenuation LAI is generated. Another possibility to estimate a value on the line attenuation would be to use the ratio between a minimum and 30 an adjacent maximum value of the magnitude of the absolute impedance value Z,„(/), the curve Al in figure 3. The estimation is performed using an equation: WO 2004/099711 21 PCT/SE2004/000718 As an example the minimum value Mini and the adjacent maximum value Maxl are used, which gives: 5 10 The value loss is the insertion loss value that the line 2 gives rise to when inserted between the transceiver 1 and the remote device 3 in figure 5. WO2004/099711 22 PCT/SE2004/0/00718 CLAIMS 1. Method of generating line properties of a signal line including generating (401) a frequency dependent line input impedance (Z/fl(/)) for a loop, the loop including the signal 5 line (2) and a remote device (3), the method being characterized by:  Generating (402) an absolute value function (\Zln(f)\, Al) from the frequency dependent line input impedance (Zin(f)), the function being essentially periodic; 10  Selecting (408) at least two consecutive extreme values (Maxl;Max2) of the same type of the absolute value function (Zto(/));  Generating (409) a frequency distance (FD1) based on said at least two extreme values; 15  Generating (410) a line length value (L) based on the frequency distance (FDl) and a velocity of propagation (vop) for a signal on the signal line (2). 2. Method of generating line properties of a signal line according to claim 1, wherein the frequency distance is a 20 mean value (MV1,MV2,MV3) between at least two different frequency distances (FD1FD4), each of which reaches between two consecutive ones of the extreme values (Maxl,Max2,Max3; Minl,Min2,Min3) of the same type. 3. Method of generating line properties of a signal line 25 according to claim 1 or 2, the method being performed as a single ended loop test and including: selecting a test transceiver (31) suitable for communication purposes; WO 2004/099711 2 3 PCT/SE2004/000718  connecting (603), in a calibration process, at least three impedances (9) of each a predetermined value to a signal line connection (5) of the test tranceiver (31);  generating (606) frequency dependent echo transfer 5 functions (Hecho(f)) utilizing test signals (vtin , vtout) and said at least three impedances (9); and  generating (608) transceiver model values (Z,,0(/), Zliyb(f), Hm(f)) with the aid of said echo transfer functions (Htdm(f)) and the corresponding impedance values 10 (9), said model values including an echo transfer function (#„,(/)) for the test transceiver (31) with open line connection (5), a transceiver impedance value (Zhyb(f)) as seen from the line (2) side and a product (Zh0(f)) of said transceiver impedance value (Zhyb(f)) and an echo transfer 15 function (H0(f)) for the transceiver (31) with shortcut line connection (5). 4. Method of generating line properties of a signal line according to claim 3 including storing (609) the transceiver model values (Zh0(f), Z^f), Hm(f)) obtained in the 20 calibration process. 5. Method of generating line properties of a signal line according to claim 4 including:  selecting (610) a transceiver (1) for communication purposes of the same type of hardware as said test 25 transceiver (31) in the calibration process;  connecting (701) the loop to the transceiver (1);  sending (702), via the connected transceiver (1), a loop test signal (vin) to the line (2); WO 2004/099711 24 PCT/SE2004/000718  measuring (703), via said transceiver (1), the loop test signal (vout) as reflected;  generating (704) a loop echo transfer function (Htdm(f)) for the loop (2,3); 5  generating (705) the frequency dependent line input impedance value (Z,„(/)) for the loop (2,3) with the aid of the stored transceiver model values ( Zh0(f), Zliyb(f), Hm(f)) and the generated echo transfer function (Hecho(/)) . 6. Method of generating line properties of a signal line 10 according to claim 1, 2 or 5, wherein a short loop length decision value (dValue) is estimated, the method including:  generating, in a predetermined loop length frequency range (/j/2), an impedance mean value (mValue) of the absolute value ( Zin(f) ) of the line input impedance (Zin(f)); 15  generating, in the loop length frequency range, the short loop length decision value (dValue) based on the line input impedance (Z/n(/)) and said impedance mean value (mValue);  comparing the short loop length decision value {dValue ) 20 with a predetermined threshold value {thVolue);  deciding the loop to be a short loop based on said comparison. 7. Method of generating line properties of a signal line according to claim 1, 2, 5 or 6 including: 25  calculate an average attenuation value (AA1) for a selected set of telecommunication cables;  estimate the length (L) of the short signal line (2); WO 2004/099711 25 PCT/SE2004/000718  generate an attenuation value (LAI) for the line (2) by multiplying the average attenuation value (AAl) with the line length (L). 8. Method of generating line properties of a signal line 5 according to claim 1, 2, 5 or 6 including:  selecting one of the minimum values (Mini) of the absolute value function (Z/n(/), Al) and an adjacent of the maximum values;  generating an insertion loss (loss) value for the line (2) 10 based on said minimum and maximum values. 9. An arrangement for generating line properties of a signal line, the arrangement including a front end device (MD1;1) having connections (5) for a loop including the signal line (2) and a remote device (3), the arrangement including 15 circuits (LU1;42,42,43) in the front end device (MD1;1) for generating a frequency dependent line input impedance (Zin(f)) for the loop, the arrangement being characterized by: a calculation unit(CUl;ll) for generating an absolute 20 value function ( Zln(f) \) from the frequency dependent line input impedance (Zhl(f)), the function being essentially periodic;  circuits in the calculation unit (CU1;11) suitable for: a). selecting at least two consecutive extreme values 25 (Maxl,Max2) of the same type of the absolute value function b) . generating a frequency distance (FD1) based on said at least two extreme values; WO 2004/099711 26 PCT/SE2004/000718 c) . generating a line length value (L) based on the frequency distance (FD1) and a velocity of propagation (vop) for a signal on the signal line (2). 10. An arrangement for generating line properties of a 5 signal line according to claim 9, wherein the calculation unit (CU1;11) is arranged for calculating a mean value (MV1,MV2,MV3) between at least two different ones of the frequency distances (FD1FD4), each of which reaches between two consecutive ones of the extreme values (Maxl,Max2,Max3; 10 Minl,Min2,Min3) of the same type. 11. An arrangement for generating line properties of a signal line (2) according to claim 9 or 10, wherein the front end device is a transceiver (1,31) for communication 15 purposes, the arrangement in a calibration mode including:  a test transceiver (31) connected to a measurement device (32);  the measurement device (32) being arranged to generate/ in a calibration process, calibration values for the 20 transceiver (1,31) for communication purposes with the aid of at least three impedances (9) and test signals (vtin vtout), the impedances (9) having each a predetermined value and being connected to the line connection (5) of the test tranceiver (1, 31); 25 the measurement device (32) being arranged to generate a frequency dependent echo transfer function (Heclw(f)) for the test transceiver (1,31) connected to the respective one of the impedances (9);  the measurement device (32) being arranged to generate 30 transceiver model values (Z,l0(/) , Zhb(f), Hx{f)) with the aid WO 2004/099711 27 PCT/SE2004/000718 of said echo transfer function (HKho(f)) and the corresponding impedance values (9), said model values including an echo transfer function (#„(/)) for the transceiver (1, 31) with open line connection (5), a 5 transceiver impedance value (Z^if)) as seen from the line (2) side and a product of said transceiver impedance value (Zll}lb(f)) and an echo transfer function (H0(f)) for the transceiver (1, ,31) with shortcut line connection (5); and 10  the transceiver for. communication purposes (1,31) being arranged to generate the frequency dependent line input, impedance (Z!n(f)) with the aid of the transceiver model values (Zh0(f),Zhyb(f)tH (f) 12. An arrangement for generating properties of a signal 15 line (2) according to claim 11, the arrangement including a memory (12, 33) for storing the transceiver model values 13. Method of generating line properties of a signal line and an arrangement thereof, as herein described and' illustrated with reference to the accompanying drawings. Dated, this 28th day of October, 2005. 28 Abstract The length and attenuation of a signal line between a transmitter and a customer premises equipment is to be estimated. A frequency dependent line input impedance (Zin,(f) ), as seen from the transmitter, is measured and an absolute impedance value (a Zin,(0 a) is generated. The latter is shown as a curve (Al) in the diagram with the frequency (/) on the abscissa and the impedance (a Zjn,(/) a) on the ordinate. Extreme values (Max.l, Max2, Max3; Mini, Min2, Min3) are denoted and a frequency distance (FD1FD4) between two consecutive of the extreme values is generated. The line length (L) is generated as L=l/2*vop/FDl, in which vop is the velocity of propagation of a signal on the line. The attenuation is estimated by multiplying the line length with an average attenuation value for the actual line type. The advantages are that the line length can be estimated with good accuracy in a simple manner for short lines and that the line attenuation is estimated in a simple manner. 

1240MUMNP2005ABSTRACT 2662008.pdf
1240mumnp2005abstract(26062008).pdf
1240MUMNP2005CANCELLED PAGES 2662008.pdf
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1240MUMNP2005CLAIMS 2662008.pdf
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1240MUMNP2005CORRESPONDENCE 2662008.pdf
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1240MUMNP2005DESCRIPTION(COMPLETE) 2662008.pdf
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1240MUMNP2005PETITION UNDER RULE 137 2662008.pdf
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Patent Number  222116  

Indian Patent Application Number  1240/MUMNP/2005  
PG Journal Number  39/2008  
Publication Date  26Sep2008  
Grant Date  22Jul2008  
Date of Filing  07Nov2005  
Name of Patentee  TELEFONAKTIEBOLAGET LM ERICSSON (PUBL)  
Applicant Address  S164 83 STOCKHOLM  
Inventors:


PCT International Classification Number  G01B7/02, G01R31/08  
PCT International Application Number  PCT/SE2004/000718  
PCT International Filing date  20040511  
PCT Conventions:
