|Title of Invention||
"GENE FRAGMENT FOR PRODUCING TRANSGENIC FLOURESCENT FISH"
|Abstract||The present invention relates to novel gene fragments and a method for generating transgenic fish from said gene fragments. The present invention further relates to a novel method of generating new ornamental fish by breeding transgenic fish with fish with different phenotype or behaviour pattern. The resulting transgenic fish shows different phenotype and behaviour pattern from each of its parents.|
|Full Text||Field of the Invention
The invention relates to novel nuclei acid fragments, novel transgenic medaka and novel transgenic zebrafish. The invention also relates to a method of generating new ornamental fish from transgenic fluorescence fish and the new ornamental -fish generated therefrom.
Description of the Prior Art
Transgenic technology has become an important tool for the study of gene function. There are many ways of introducing a foreign gene into fish, including: microinjection, electroporation, sperm-mediated gene transfer, gene bombardment or gene gun, liposome-mediated gene transfer and the direct injection of DNA into muscle tissue (Xu et al., DNA Cell Biol. 1999. 18,85-95).
Transgenic fish has also been generated for entertainment. For example, transgenic fish expressing green fluorescence by introduction of a GFP gene fused with a fish-specific gene promoter into fertilized eggs, has been generated using medaka (Hamada, K. et al., Mol Marine Biol. Biotech., 1998. 7, 173-180). Tanaka et al produced a transgenic medaka with green fluorescence in only germ cells of, himedaka (Tanaka, et al, The 22nd Annual Meeting of the Molecular Biology Society of Japan, Program, Abstract, 1999. pp. 458).
Transgenic fish studies make use of genes that are driven by both heterologous and homologous sources of regulatory element, and originate from constitutive or tissue-specific expression genes. Control elements include genes from antifreeze protein, mouse metallothionein, chicken d-crystalline, carpß-actin, salmon histone H3 and carp a-globin and so on. However, there are important drawbacks to the use of these DNA elements in transgenic fish, including low expression efficiency and the mosaic expression of transgene patterns.
The microinjection into medaka eggs of lacZ reporter gene driven by the medaka ß-actin promoter results in the transient expression of the lacZ gene, even in the Fl
generation, though expression is low and highly mosaic. Hamada et al. reported a similar result in medaka embryos derived from eggs microinjected with green fluorescence protein fused with the medaka ß-actin promoter (Hamada et a/., cited supra).
Unfortunately, conventional transgenic technologies can only produce transgenic fish emitting mosaic or weak fluorescence. The fluorescence of these transgenic fish could only be seen under the fluorescent microscope with light source at a specific wavelength. Due to the impracticality and various difficulties, these fluorescent fish species were not well received by consumers and did not achieve commercial success.
Chi-Yuan Chou et al. disclosed a DNA construct flanked at both ends by inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) to increase the efficient expression of transgenic genes in medaka. A uniform transgene expression was achieved in the FO and the following two generations (Chi-Yuan Chou et al., Transgenic Research 2001. 10: 303-315). Although a transgenic green fluorescence medaka has been described, method and condition of generating other transgenic fish with other fluorescent protein genes (such as red fluorescent protein) is different and cannot be easily deduced from the prior art because of the different strategies of genetic construction, gene expression, gene inheritance and uncertainties of the transgenic technique.
Fish breeding has the objective to produce improved fish varieties based on the exploitation of genetic variation. Using transgenic technique to generate new ornamental fish that exhibits different fluorescent colors or phenotypic patterns one by one; however, it is apparently expensive, labor intensive and time exhausting.
The genotype of a progeny fish is the result of the combination of the genotypes of the male and female gamete, which through fusion resulted in a zygote, from which ultimately the progeny fish developed. The inventor has discovered that genetic breeding between transgenic fish with fish of the same or different species with different phenotypes or behavior patterns, such as fish with different spot patterns, stripe colors, or even susceptibility to the environmental changes, could provide a much greater choices of ornamental fish that could never been achieved before the
arrival of transgenic fish and these fish can be generated in a much faster and cheaper way than performing transgenic techniques each and every time.
Summary of the Invention
One object of the invention is to use recombinant DNA techniques to establish a stable supply of fluorescence fish with desired transgenes.
Another object of the invention relates to a nucleic acid fragment comprising (1) a ß-actin gene promoter of medaka; (2) a fluorescence gene and (3) inverted terminal repeats of adeno-associated virus; provided that the fluorescence gene is not from the gene coding green fluorescent protein.
Another object of the invention relates to a nucleic acid fragment comprising (1) an a-actin gene promoter of zebrafish; (2) a green fluorescence gene and (3) inverted terminal repeats of adeno-associated virus.
Another object of the invention relates to a nucleic acid fragment comprising (1) an a-actin gene promoter of golden zebrafish; (2) a red fluorescence gene and (3) inverted terminal repeats of adeno-associated virus.
Another object of the invention relates to the method of generating a novel medaka that carry the fluorescent transgene and express fluorescent protein.
Another object of the invention relates to the method of generating a novel zebrafish that carry the fluorescent transgene and express fluorescent protein.
Yet another object of the present invention relates to the method of generating new ornamental fish, comprising steps of (a) generating a transgenic fish containing one or more fused fluorescent gene; (b) breeding the transgenic fish with fish with
different phenotype or pattern; and (c) screening for new transgenic progenies showing different phenotype or pattern from their parents.
Detailed Description of the Invention
Gene fragment pfl-DsRed2-l-ITR
To overcome disadvantages of transgenic fluorescent fish in the prior art, the present invention is of thorough and careful design with conceptual breakthrough. The present invention provides a plasmid construct, pB-DsRed2-l-ITR, generated by introducing the^-actin gene promoter of medaka into expression vector pDsRed2-l-ITR.
The present invention provides a gene fragment comprising (1) a^-actin gene promoter of medaka; (2) a fluorescence gene and (3) inverted terminal repeats (ITR) of adeno-associated virus; provided that the fluorescence gene is not from the gene coding green fluorescent protein.
The preferred fragment of the invention is
(Figure Remove)The present invention also provides a plasmid comprising the gene fragment of the invention.
Method of generating new transgenic Medaka
The present invention also provides a method of generating new transgenic Medaka. The appropriate amount of the said plasmid, p^-DsRed2-l-ITR, is micromjected into the cytoplasm of fertilized eggs of medaka pnor to the first cleavage. These eggs are screened to find progeny expressing fluorescence throughout their systemic skeletal muscle. Progeny with fluorescent transgene are then used for future breeding.
The method of the invention provides five improvements over other methods currently available:
The nucleic acid fragment of the invention, such as pDsRed2-1-ITR, is made from
commercially available vector.
The nucleic acid fragment of the invention enables ,the medaka to emit
fluorescence throughout its systemic skeletal muscle.
The method of the invention, which comprises microinjecting the transgene
construct into fertilized eggs, ensures the transgenic medaka emits fluorescence at
its systemic skeletal muscle at a higher ratio with better quality.
The heterologous transgenic fish stably passes the transgene to the next
generation. Thus natural breeding could be used to maintain the transgenic
population and reduce the breeding cost.
The fluorescence of the transgenic medaka, which is emitted at its systemic
skeletal muscle, can be easily seen by naked eyes. The fluorescence is further
intensified under light source of shorter wavelength, providing a higher
entertainment value to ornamental fish.
Given above, the present invention provides a method of producing transgenic medaka comprising:
microinjecting the appropriate amount of the above plasmid of the present
invention into fertilized eggs of medaka;
selecting the eggs with fluorescence;
hatching the selected eggs to mature;
crossing the mature fish with wild-type fish; and
selecting the progeny with systemic fluorescence.
The preferred fluorescent gene used in the method of the invention is red fluorescent gene from pDsRed2-l (Clontech, USA).
In the method of producing transgenic medaka of the invention, the appropriate amount of Notl-linearized plasmid construct injected into the fertilized eggs is sufficient to introduce transgene into germ cell of medaka. The preferred amount of linearized plasmid construct injected into the fertilized eggs is 1-10 nl. The most
preferred amount of linearized plasmid construct injected into the fertilized eggs is 2-3nl.
Red fluorescence transgenic fish
The present invention also provides transgenic fish generated from the expression vector p6-DsRed2-l-ITR. More particularly the present invention provides the red fluorescence medaka "red TK-1".
Although the method of generating fluorescent Medaka expressing EGFP has been disclosed in Chi-Yuan Chou et al., cited supra, it cannot be easily deduced from the said reference to generate other transgenic Medaka expressing other fluorescent gene for reasons discussed below.
Regarding vector construction, the vector comprising EGFP coding sequence was constructed by cleaving out 6-actin promoter from pOBA-109 using restriction enzyme Sail and Nco\. The retrieved 4 kb DNA fragment was ligated to the 4.7 kb fragment of pEGFPITR vector digested with the same enzymes. The vector of the present invention, which comprises RFP coding sequence, has fewer restriction sites and is more difficult to construct. First, the 8-actin promoter was cut out from plasmid pOBA-109 by using EcoRl and Ncol The overhanging 5' ends of the digested fragments were filled in and the 4 kb fragments were collected. Plasmid pDsRedlTR was digested with restriction enzyme Sail and Kamlil and the 5' terminals were dephosphorylated. The 4.7 kb digested fragment was collected. At the end, the B-actin promoter fragment was ligated to the 4.7 kb fragment.
Regarding microinjection of fertilized eggs, the capillary needle used to generate green fluorescent fish had the diameter of 4-5 urn, and the inner wall of syringe was siliconized. 20-30 pi of DNA (10 ng/ml) was injected under 100 X magnification. The survival rate of eggs after the injection was 85%-90%. The capillary needle used in the present invention has the diametef of 1.6-2.5 jim, the smallest diameter that DNA solution does not stuck the needle, and the inner wall of the syringe was not siliconized. 20-30 pi of DNA solution was injected. The survival rate after the injection was 90-95%, 5% higher than the survival rate of green fluorescent fish.
Because RFP expresses more stably than GFP, the GFP in transgenic medaka looks yellow-green and orange-green. The RFP expressed in transgenic medaka does not show color deviation. It is possible that RFP have toxicity to the embryo, since all embryos survived were heterozygotes.
The difficulty of breeding red fluorescent Medaka compared to green fluorescent medaka is shown in Table 1 below.
Table 1. The comparison of breeding green TK-1 and red TK-1. (Table Remove)
Table 1 compares the breeding condition of green TK-1 (disclosed in Chi-Yuan Chou et al., cited supra) and red TK-2 of the present invention. As shown in Table 1, the total eggs, the average egg numbers per fish, percentage of defected eggs, percentage of hatched progenies, survival rate of progenies, number of fish grown to 30 mm, egg numbers per fish, average egg weight, total length of adult fish and average body weight of adult fish of the red TK-1 are significantly lower than that of green TK-1. These data indicated that breeding red TK-1 is significantly more difficult than breeding green TK-1 and thus the method are not identical to the method disclosed in Chi-Yuan Chou et al, cited supra.
Gene fragment p-aDsRedlTR
The present invention provides a plasmid construct, p-aDsRedlTR, generated by introducing the a^ciin gene promoter of golden zebrafish into expression vector pDsRed2-MTR.
The present invention provides a gene fragment comprising (1) a a-actin gene promoter of zebrafish; (2) a fluorescence gene and (3) inverted terminal repeats (ITR) of adeno-associated virus.
The present invention also provides a plasmid construct, p-aEGFPITR, generated by introducing the a-actin gene promoter of golden zebrafish into expression vector pDsRed2-l-ITR and swapping the EGFP gene with the DsRed gene of the vector pDsRed2-l-ITR.
Accordingly, the preferred fragment of the invention is
The present invention also provides a plasmid comprising the gene fragment of the invention.
The red fluorescent gene of the present invention can be purchased from BD Bioscience Clontech. In the embodiment of the invention, pDsRed2-l is used as the source of the red fluorescent gene. pDsRed2-l encodes DsRed2, a DsRed variant engineered for faster maturation and lower non-specific aggregation. In mammalian cell cultures when DsRed2 is expressed constitutively, red-emitting cells can be detected by fluorescence microscopy within 24 hours of transfection.
Method of generating new transgenic zebrafish
The present invention also provides a method of producing transgenic zebrafish comprising:
microinjecting the appropriate amount of the above plasmid of the present
invention into fertilized eggs of zebrafish;
selecting the eggs with fluorescence;
hatching the selected eggs to mature;
crossing the mature fish with wild-type fish; and
selecting the progeny with systemic fluorescence.
The preferred fluorescent gene used in the method of the invention is red fluorescent gene from pDsRed2-1.
The preferred zebrafish is Golden Zebra Danio (hereinafter called as golden zebrafish).
In the method of producing transgenic golden zebrafish of the invention, the appropriate amount of Ato/I-linearized plasmid construct injected into the fertilized eggs is sufficient to introduce transgene into germ cell of golden zebrafish. The preferred amount of linearized plasmid construct injected into the fertilized eggs is 1-10 nl. The most preferred amount of linearized plasmid construct injected into the fcrtili/ed eggs is 2-3 nl.
Red fluorescence transgenic fish
The present invention also provides transgenic fish generated from the expression vector, p-aDsRedITR. More particularly the present invention provides the red fluorescence golden zebrafish "red TK-2".
Green fluorescence transgenic fish
The present invention also provides transgenic fish generated from the expression vector, p-aEGFPITR. More particularly the present invention provides the green fluorescence golden zebrafish "green TK-2".
Method of generating new ornamental fish
The present invention is provided with a method for generating an ornamental fish, comprising steps of (a) generating a transgenic fish containing one or more fused fluorescent gene; (b) breeding the transgenic fish with fish with different phenotype or pattern; and (c) screening the new transgenic progenies showing different phenotype or pattern from their parents.
As used herein, ornamental fish refers to transgenic fish, or progeny of a fish, into which an exogenous construct has been introduced. A fish into which a construct has been introduced includes fish that have developed from embryonic cells into which the construct has been introduced. As used herein, an exogenous construct is a nucleic acid that is artificially introduced, or was originally artificially introduced, into a fish. The term artificial introduction is intended to exclude introduction of a construct through normal reproduction or genetic crosses. That is, the original introduction of a gene or trait into a line or strain of animal by cross breeding is intended to be excluded. However, fish produced by transfer, through normal breeding, of an exogenous construct (that is, a construct that was originally artificially introduced) from a fish containing the construct are considered to contain an exogenous construct. Such fish are progeny of fish into which the exogenous construct has been introduced. As used herein, progeny of a fish are any fish which arc descended from the fish by sexual reproduction or cloning, and from which genetic material has been inherited. In this context, cloning refers to production of a (•ynetically identical fish from DNA, a cell, or cells of the fish. The fish from which another fish is descended is referred to as a progenitor fish. As used herein, development of a fish from a cell or cells (embryonic cells, for example), or development of a cell or cells into a fish, refers to the developmental process by which fertilized egg cells or embryonic cells (and their progeny) grow, divide, and differentiate to form an adult fish.
The examples illustrate the mariner in which new transgenic fish exhibiting different phenotype or patterns from its progenitor fish can be made and used. The transgenic fish described in the examples are particularly useful to increase the commercial value of ornamental fish.
Transgene constructs are the genetic material that is introduced into fish to produce a transgenic fish. Such constructs are artificially introduced into fish. The manner of introduction, and, often, the structure of a transgene construct, renders such a transgene construct an exogenous construct. Although a transgene construct can be made up of any nucleic acid sequences, for use in the disclosed transgenic fish it is preferred that the transgene constructs combine expression sequences operably linked to a sequence encoding an expression product. The transgenic construct will also preferably include other components that aid expression, stability or integration of the construct into the genome of a fish. As used herein, components of a transgene construct referred to as being operably linked or operatively linked refer to components being so connected as to allow them to function together for their intended purpose.
The disclosed constructs and methods can be used with any type of fish. As used herein, fish refers to any member of the classes collectively referred to as pisces. It is preferred that fish belonging to species and varieties of fish of commercial or scientific interest be used. These fish include Cichlidae (such as Pseudotropheus, Cichlasoma, Apistogramma, Pterophyllum or Symohysodon), Fighting fish (such as Relta or Macropodus), Catfish (such as Corydoras, Ancistrus or Plerygoplichthys), Characidae (such as Tetras or Carnegiella), Cyprinidae (such as Cyprinus, llrachydanio(zebrdfish) , Danio or Carassius) and Killifish (such as Medaka, Rivulines or Livebearing Toothcarps).
The preferred fish for use with the disclosed constructs and methods is medaka and /.ebrafish (Rrachydanio or Danio). Medaka and zebrafish have significant advantages to use for ornamental fish that they are largely transparent (Kimmel, Trends Genet 5:283-8 (1989)). General zebrafish care and maintenance is described by Streisinger, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 65:53-58 (1984). The term "medaka'4 in the invention is not limited but to that from Adrianichthyidae (Ricefishes) such as Oryzias javamcus, Oryzias latipes, Oryzias nigrimas, Oryzias luzonensis, Oryzias profundicola, Oryzias matanensis, Oryzias mekongensis, Oryzias minntillus, Oryzias melastigma, O.curvinotus, O. celebensis, Xenopecillus oophorus, and Xcnopecillus
saracinorum. The preferred medaka is not limited but to that from Oryziinae such as Oryzias javanicus, Oryzias latipes, Oryzias nigrimas, Oryzias luzonensis, Oryzias profundicola, Oryzias matanensis, Oryzias mekongensis, Oryzias minutillus, Oryzias melastigma, O.curvinotus, O. celebensis. The most preferred medaka is Oryzias latipes.
The preferred Brachydanio is selected from the group consisting of D. acrostomus, D. aequipinnatus, D. malabaricus, D. albolineatus, D. annandalei, D. apogon, D. apopyris, D. assamensis, D. choprae, D. chrysotaeniatus, D. dangila, D. devario, D. fangfangae, D. frankei, D. fraseri, D. gibber, D. interruptus, D. kakhienensis, D. kyathit, D. laoensis, D. leptos, D. maetaengensis, D. malabaricus, D. naganensis, D. neilgherriensis, D. nigrofasciatus, D. pathirana, D. regina, D. rerio, D. roseus, D. salmonata, D. shanensis and D. spinosus. The most preferred is golden zebrafish.
Medaka and zebrafish embryos are easily accessible and nearly transparent. Given these characteristics, a transgenic medaka or zebrafish egg or embryo, carrying a construct encoding a reporter protein and systemic expression sequences, can provide a rapid real time in vivo identification of successful transgenics. Other fish with some or all of the same desirable characteristics are also preferred.
In the method of the invention, the fluorescent gene is selected from the group consisting of green fluorescent protein (GFP), modified green fluorescent protein, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), red fluorescent protein (RFP), enhanced red fluorescent protein (ERFP), blue fluorescent protein (BFP), enhanced blue fluorescent protein (EBFP), yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP), cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), and enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP). The preferred fluorescent gene is selected from the group consisting of green fluorescent protein (GFP), modified green fluorescent protein, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), red fluorescent protein (RFP) and enhanced red fluorescent protein (ERFP).
Generation of the Progenitor Transgenic Fish
The disclosed transgenic fish are produced by introducing a transgene construct into cells of a fish, preferably embryonic cells, and most preferably in a single cell embryo. Where the transgene construct is introduced into embryonic cells, the transgenic fish is obtained by allowing the embryonic cell or cells to develop into a fish. Introduction of constructs into embryonic cells of fish, and subsequent development of the fish, are simplified by the fact that embryos develop outside of the parent fish in most fish species.
The disclosed transgene constructs can be introduced into embryonic fish cells using any suitable technique. Many techniques for such introduction of exogenous genetic material have been demonstrated in fish and other animals. These include microinjection, electroporation, particle gun bombardment, and the use of liposomes. The preferred method for introduction of transgene constructs into fish embryonic cells is by microinjection.
Embryos or embryonic cells can generally be obtained by collecting eggs immediately after they are laid. Depending on the type offish, it is generally preferred that the eggs be fertilized prior to or at the time of collection. This is preferably accomplished by placing a male and female fish together in a tank that allows egg collection under conditions that stimulate mating. After collecting eggs, it is preferred that the embryo be exposed for introduction of genetic material by removing the chorion. This can be done manually or, preferably, by using a protease such as pronase. A fertili/ed egg cell prior to the first cell division is considered a one cell embryo, and the fertilized egg cell is thus considered an embryonic cell.
After introduction of the transgene construct the embryo is allowed to develop into a fish. This generally need involve no more than incubating the embryos under the same conditions used for incubation of eggs. Flowever, the embryonic cells can also be incubated briefly in an isotonic buffer. If appropriate, expression of an introduced transgene construct can be observed during development of the embryo.
Fish harboring a transgene can be identified by any suitable means. For example, the genome of potential transgenic fish can be probed for the presence of construct
sequences. To identify transgenic fish actually expressing the transgene, the presence of an expression product can be assayed. Several techniques for such identification are known and used for transgenic animals and most can be applied to transgenic fish. Probing of potential or actual transgenic fish for nucleic acid sequences present in or characteristic of a transgene construct is preferably accomplished by Southern or Northern blotting. Also preferred is detection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or other sequence-specific nucleic acid amplification techniques. Transgenic medaka and zebrafish that are fluorescence because of the transgene they carry can be directly observed with eyes and are described in the examples.
Generating the new transgenic fish
The invention relates to a process for the production of haploid cells and to the production of the new transgenic fish from these cells.
According to the invention haploid cells are preferably derived from a meiotic process. The process of meiosis forms the pivotal event in the life cycle of living organisms at which genetic variation is created. Moreover it marks the transition between the diploid and the haploid. The specialized cell in the female reproductive organ that enters meiosis, which is called oocyte cell, is embedded in the differentiated ovule inside the ovary. The oocytes go through meiosis and generate haploid eggs.
Within the male reproductive tissues, a similar process leads to the formation of haploid sperms.
Although there are significant differences in the cellular processes leading to the formation of female and male gametes, the cytological events that occur during female and male meiosis are very similar suggesting the involvement of common gene products.
The end product of meiosis is a set of four genetically distinct haploid cells, which can undergo mitosis to develop into gametes. The gamete, which upon fusion leads to the formation of a zygote, develops into an embryo that can grow out the next generation.
In order to generate the new transgenic fish, the progenitor fish carrying the transgene are bred with the other progenitor fish with different phenotype or patterns. The phenotype of the fish is selected from the group consisting of colors, fluorescent colors, body shapes, body sizes, body transparent levels, grain colors, stripe colors, fin shapes, fin sizes, tail shapes, tail sizes, eye colors, eye shapes; and any observable phenotypic differences from those of fluorescent mate. In the preferred embodiment, the phenotype of the fish is selected from the group consisting of colors, body shapes, body transparent levels, grain colors and stripe colors.
The pattern of the fish is selected from the group consisting of grain patterns, stripe patterns and swimming patterns.
Haploid gametes carrying the transgene from the progenitor fish were fertilized with haploid gametes from the other progenitor fish with different phenotypes of patterns. The fertilization can be done using any suitable breeding techniques available. Specie-specific breeding condition may be required. Example of generating new transgenic medaka and zebrafish is illustrated in the figures. For example, the preferred transgenic fish is TK.1 red x O.curvinotus, TK1 green x O.curvinotus, TK2 red x Brachydanio frankei, TK2 red x Branchydanio sp, TK2 green x Brachydanio frankei, TK2 green x Branchydanio sp or Purple Zebra Fish.
The transgenic fish and the fish with different phenotype or pattern may be of the same or different family, genus or species. In the preferred embodiment, the transgenic fish and the fish with different phenotype or pattern are genus or species.
'['hose skilled in the art will recogni/e, or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific embodiments of the invention described herein. Such equivalents are intended to be encompassed by the following claims,
The examples below are non-limiting and are merely representative of various aspects and features of the present invention.
Example 1 Generation of the plasmid pfl-EGFPITR
In order to generate the green fluorescent medaka, "green TK-1", plasmid p/3-EGFPITR was constructed according to Chou CY et al, Transgenic Res. 2001 10(4): 303-15, and are presented in Figure 1. The p/3-EGFP contained a medaka /3-actin promoter fused with hGFPl cDNA, an intron of small t antigen, SV40 polyA, and polyA from the medaka /3 -actin gene. The medaka ^-actin promoter was obtained from pOBA-hGFPl and was digested with Sail and Ncol. The 3.8 kb fragment end-product was ligated to the 4.2 kb Sall-Ncol fragment from pCMV-EGFPITR. The final result was an 8 kb p fi -EGFPITR plasmid in which EGFP cDNA was driven by the^-actin promoter and flanked at both ends by AAV-ITR.
Appropriate amount of p/3 -EGFPITR was restricted by Notl. The molecular mass for the p/?-EGFPITR DNA fragment was 7.6 kb as expected.
Example 2 Generation of the plasmid p/?-DsRed2-l-ITR
In order to generate the red fluorescent medaka, "red TK-1", plasmid pfi-DsRed2-l-ITR was constructed. As illustrated in Figure 2, the medaka y?-actin gene promoter was obtained by digesting plasmid construct pOBA-109 with restriction enzymes Ncol and EcoRl. Ncol was used first, ends were filled in, and a subsequent digestion with EcoRl provided a 4 kb fragment.
As illustrated in Figure 2, the CMV promoter was cut out by digesting the construct pDsRed2-l-ITR with restriction enzymes Bamffl and Sail. Digestion with BamHl and Sail provided a 4.7 kb fragment. Then, the j(?-actin gene promoter of medaka was inserted into the plasmid construct, pDsRed2-l-ITR, at the position where the CMV promoter was cut out. The resulting plasmid construct had two 145 bp adeno-associated virus inverted terminal repeats (ITR). One ITR was located at the y end of SV40 poly A. The other was located at the 5' end of the y?-actin gene promoter.
As illustrated in Figure 2, the resulting plasmid construct, p/?-DsRed2-l-ITR, had a total length of 8.7 kb. p/?-DsRed2-l-ITR contained (1) the medaka actin gene promoter (for ubiquitous expression of whole body); (2) sea coral red fluorescent
protein; (3) adeno-associated virus inverted terminal repeats; and (4) pUC plasmid construct basis.
Appropriate amount of p/?-DsRed2-l-ITR was digested with proportional amount of Not I restriction enzyme. A small fraction of the digested product was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis to verify its linearity. The fragment length was 8.7 kb as expected.
Example 3 Generation of plasmid p-aEGFPITR
In order to generate the green fluorescent golden zebrafish, "green TK-2", plasmid p-aEGFPITR was constructed.
The medaka ft -actin promoter of p ft -EGFPITR was cut out by digesting with restriction enzymes Sail and Ncol. Then, the a-actin gene promoter of golden zebrafish was inserted into the plasmid construct at the position where the medaka ft-actin promoter was cut out. The resulting plasmid construct had two 145 bp adeno-associated virus inverted terminal repeats (ITR). One ITR was located at the 3' end of SV40 poly A. The other was located at the 5' end of the a-actin gene promoter.
As illustrated in Figure 3(a), the resulting plasmid construct, p-aEGFPITR, had a total length of 8.1 kb. p-aEGFPITR contained (1) the golden zebrafish a-actin gene promoter (for ubiquitous expression of whole body); (2) green fluorescent protein; (3) adeno-associated virus inverted terminal repeats; and (4) pUC plasmid construct basis.
Appropriate amount of p-oEGFPITR was digested with proportional amount of Not I restriction enzyme. A small fraction of the digested product was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis to verify its linearity. The fragment length was 8.1 kb as expected.
Example 4 Generation of plasmid p-aDsRedlTR
In order to generate the red fluorescent zebrafish, "red TK-2" , plasmid p-aDsRed2-l-ITR was constructed. As illustrated in Figure 3(b), the golden zebrafish a-
actin gene promoter was obtained by digesting plasmid construct p-aEGFPITR with restriction enzymes Ncol and Sail. Ncol was used first, ends were filled in, and a subsequent digestion with Sail provided a 3.8 kb fragment.
As illustrated in Figure 3(b), the CMV promoter was cut out by digesting the construct pDsRedlTR with restriction enzymes BamHl and Sail. BamHl was used first, ends were filled in, and a subsequent digestion with Sail provided a 4.2 kb fragment. Then, the a-actin gene promoter of golden zebrafish was inserted into the plasmid construct, pDsRedlTR, at the position where the CMV promoter was cut out. The resulting plasmid construct had two 145 bp adeno-associated virus inverted terminal repeats (ITR). One ITR was located at the 3' end of SV40 poly A. The other was located at the 5' end of the a-actin gene promoter.
As illustrated in Figure 3(b), the resulting plasmid construct, p-aDsRedlTR, had a total length of 8.0 kb. The resulting construct p-aDsRedlTR contained (1) the golden zebrafish a-actin gene promoter (for systemic gene expression); (2) sea coral red fluorescent protein; (3) adeno-associated virus inverted terminal repeats; and (4) pUC plasmid construct basis.
Appropriate amount of p-aDsRedlTR was digested with proportional amount of Not I restriction eir/yme. A small fraction of the digested product was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis to verify its linearity. The fragment length was 8 kb as expected.
Example 5 Preparation of Microinjccted DNA
All DNA plasmids were prepared via ultra-centrifugation with cesium chloride and ethidium bromide gradient (Radloff et al., 1967 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 57:1514-1521). All DNA fragments used for microinjection were eluted from agarose gel following electrophoresis.
Example 6 Cytoplasmic Microinjection
The procedures followed for cytoplasmic microinjection are described in detail in Kinoshita and O/ato, 1995 Fish BiolJ MEDAKA 7:59-64 and Kinoshita et al. 1996 Aquaculture 143:267-276.
Fish were maintained under artificial conditions of 14 h light and 10 h darkness at 26°C and maintained on a diet of Tetramin (Tetra, Germany). Before the incubator entered the dark cycle, fish were collected and separated by separation net. On the next morning after the light cycle has begun, fish eggs were collected every 15-20 minutes.
Eggs were collected within 30 min of fertilization and attaching filaments removed. The linearized construct was quantified and dissolved in 5X PBS with phenol red at the desired concentration. DNA was picked up by micro-capillary of zebrafish microinjector (Drummond) wherein the injection needle width of the micro-capillary was approximately 10 urn. As micro-needle enters the cell cytoplasm, the DNA injected was approximated 2-3 nl. In each microinjection session, 30-40 eggs were injected; 250-300 eggs were injected in each experiment. Injected eggs were incubated at 26°C in distilled water.
Example 7 Hatching and Screening for Transgenic Embryos
Injected eggs were rinsed with sterilized solution, cultured in incubator wherein the temperature was 28.5 ? . The fluorescence could be observed in the developing embryo after 24 hours.
Embryos were observed under a bright field with a dissecting stereomicroscope (MZAPO, Leica, Germany). Dark field illumination for detecting green fluorescence was performed with a stereomicroscope equipped with a GFP Plus filter (480 nm). The distribution and intensity of the red fluorescence is observed under fluorescence microscope (Leica MZ-12; Fluorescence System: light source Hg 100 W; main emission wavelength 558 nm, and main absorption wavelength 583 nm, filter set RFP-Plus; photography system MPS60). Photographs were taken using an MPS60 camera loaded with ISO 400 film and equipped with a controller for film exposure time (Leica, Germany). In order to examine the distribution of GFP or RFP expression in the tissues of transgenic fish, 11 days of post-fertilization larva which having GFP or RFP expression on appearance were sectioned and observed under fluorescent microscopy. Larva were fixed for 30min in 4% paraformaldehyde at 4°C,
embedded in cryomatrix (Shandon, USA) and frozen at -20°C. Cryostat sections (Cryostat Microtome, HM500 OM, Microm, Germany) with 15 fi m thickness were mount on slides and observed the GFP or RFP fluorescence immediately.
The red fluorescence fish generated from expression vector E/?-DsRed2-l-ITR is red TK-1 (Figure 5(a)). The green fluorescence fish generated from expression vector p/?-EGFPITR is green TK-1 (Figure 6(a)). The green fluorescence fish generated from expression vector p-aEGFPITR is green TK-2. The red fluorescence fish generated from expression vector p-aDsRedlTR is red TK-2 (Figure 7(a)).
Example 8 Generation of new transgenics
As shown in Figure 4, genetic breeding was performed between red TK-1 (Fig 5(a)) with Oryzias curvinotus (Fig 5(b)), green TK-1 (Fig 6(a)) with Oryzias curvinotus (Fig 6(b)), red TK-2 (Fig 7(a)) with Brachydanio sp (Fig 7(b)), red TK-2 (Fig 8(a)) with Brachydanio frankei (Fig 8(b)), red TK-2 (Fig 9(a)) with Brachydanio rcrio (Fig 9(b)).
The resulting Fl progeny transgenics, namely red TK-1 X Oryzias curvinotus(Fig 5(c)) , green TK-1 X Oryzias curvinotus (Fig 6(c)), red TK-2 X Brachydanio sp (Fig 7(c)), red TK-2 X Brachydanio frankei (Fig 8(c)), Purple Zebra Fish (Fig 9(c)), are products of the genetic varieties of their parents. In these examples, one of the progenitor fish exhibited green or red fluorescence whereas the other showed a specific stripe or grain pattern. The new trasngenics generated from the breeding thus inherited both characteristics and showed phenotypes that are different from each of the parent fish.
These new transgenics are self-crossed to generate F2 homozygotes and hatched as described in example 7. All of the progenies of the F2 homozygotes will inherit the transgene and show the new phenotypes.
While the invention has been described and exemplified in sufficient detail for those skilled in this art to produce and use it, various alternatives, modifications, and improvements should be apparent without departing from the spirit and scope of the
One skilled in the art readily appreciates that the present invention is well adapted to carry out the objects and obtain the ends and advantages mentioned, as well as those inherent therein. The cell lines, embryos, animals, and processes and methods for producing them are representative of preferred embodiments, are exemplary, and are not intended as limitations on the scope of the invention. Modifications therein and other uses will occur to those skilled in the art. These modifications are encompassed within the spirit of the invention and are defined by the scope of the claims.
It will be readily apparent to a person skilled in the art that varying substitutions and modifications may be made to the invention disclosed herein without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention.
All patents and publications mentioned in the specification are indicative of the levels of those of ordinary skill in the art to which the invention pertains. All patents and publications are herein incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each individual publication was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated
The invention illustratively described herein suitably may be practiced in the absence of any element or elements, limitation or limitations, which are not specifically disclosed herein. The terms and expressions which have been employed are used as terms of description and not of limitation, and there is no intention that in the use of such terms and expressions of excluding any equivalents of the features shown and described or portions thereof, but it is recognized that various modifications are possible within the scope of the invention claimed. Thus, it should be understood that although the present invention has been specifically disclosed by preferred embodiments and optional features, modification and variation of the concepts herein disclosed may be resorted to by those skilled in the art, and that such modifications and variations are considered to be within the scope of this invention as defined by the appended claims.
Other embodiments are set forth within the following claims.
1. A gene fragment for producing fluorescent zebrafish, wherein the gene fragment comprising segments from 5' end to 3' end, in order, as follows: first segment of inverted terminal repeat (ITR) of adeno-associated virus, an a-actin gene promoter of golden zebrafish, a red fluorescence gene, SV40 poly A, and second segment of inverted terminal repeat (ITR) of adeno-associated virus; wherein the promoter and the fluorescent gene are operablely linked.
2. The gene fragment of Claim 1, wherein the red fluorescent gene is DsRed2-1.
3. A plasmid comprising the gene fragment of Claim 2.
4. A plasmid as claimed in claim 3 useful for producing an ornamental fish and transgenic zebrafish.
|Indian Patent Application Number||1923/DEL/2004|
|PG Journal Number||30/2008|
|Date of Filing||05-Oct-2004|
|Name of Patentee||TAIKONG CORP|
|PCT International Classification Number||C12Q 1/68|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|