|Title of Invention||
"SETTABLE BINDER COMPOSITION AND ARTICLE OF MANUFACTURE MADE THEREFROM"
|Abstract||A dry powdered flowable cement composition contains calcium carbonate and a partially decarbonated magnesium carbonate. A slurry of the composition will set hard with various organic fillers including waste products and toxic waste. The composition can be slurried with contaminated water such as sea water, mineral laden ground water and muddy water. A high percentage of filler can be added while still having an acceptable set.|
|Full Text||BACKGROUND TO THE INVENTION
A wide range of cements and other settable compositions are known, for example, inorganic cements such as Portland Cement, for binding together stones or bricks and for forming floors, walls and other structures.
The improved dolomitic cement of the present invention is like Portland Cement in terms of utility, in that it can be prepared, stored and transported as a dry flowable powder. However unlike Portland Cement, both inorganic fillers, such as sand and gravel, and organic fillers, such as straw, wood shavings, sawdust, cork, coconut fibre, paper, wood chips and shredded rubber may be added without significant loss of strength. Furthermore, when set and cured settable compositions which include the dolomitic cement can be made water and fire resistant and do not significantly expand or contract at ambient temperatures, thereby minimising the need for expansion joints in buildings, roads or footpaths. It's stable chemical and physical properties also make the dolomitic cement very suitable for encapsulating toxic waste materials, pollutants and other environmentally unfriendly or hazardous substances for stabilisation prior to disposal.
The improved dolomitic cement can be produced at substantially lower cost than Portland Cement and the manufacturing process is less energy intensive. Furthermore, because it can be combined with locally sourced organic and/or inorganic materials as fillers, the dolomitic cement is ideal as a building material for low cost housing and other infra-structure projects.
Advantageously the improved dolomitic cement can also be manufactured using similar facilities to that
employed for the manufacture of Portland Cement. It can provide a useful complement or alternative cement in situations where Portland Cement can not be used. For example, if available fillers are not free of salts, humus, clay or certain types of acids, or if clean, uncontaminated water is not available, the dolomitic cement of the present invention may be used instead of Portland Cement.
Another known type of cement is a magnesium oxychloride cement (Sorel cement) which is a cement used in interior work such as floors in hospitals and public buildings. This cement is made by adding in proper proportions a strong solution of magnesium chloride to magnesia. This cement can be used with organic fillers such as wood flour, cork, and inorganic fillers, such as stones, to provide a set mass in a short period of time which can take a high polish. These oxychloride cements can also use other types of organic fillers such as wood shavings, sawdust and straw.
Disadvantages with magnesium oxychloride cements are their brittleness, porosity and low shelf life. Another disadvantage with this type of cement is that it is not easily handled and is not like Portland Cement which as a dry flowable powder is relatively easy to handle and use. A further disadvantage is that magnesium oxychloride cements are unstable in water and lose strength on prolonged exposure to water.
Another type of known cement is a magnesium oxysulphate cement which is weaker than a magnesium chloride cement, and is obtained by the reaction of magnesium oxide with an aqueous solution of magnesium sulfate. These type of cements are unstable in water.
The improved dolomitic cement of the present invention has some of the beneficial properties of the known magnesium oxychloride and oxysulphate cements but without the disadvantages noted above.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention is directed to a settable composition which, in the dry form, can be in the form of
a powder which can be handled more or less like Portland Cement powder and which can be mixed with various fillers and water to obtain a set or hardness.
The present invention is also directed to the use of certain types of additives to the composition which can allow a set to be obtained with contaminated water, and where fillers, such as organic fillers, can be used.
The present invention is also directed to various products of the composition and various uses of the composition.
In one form the invention resides in a settable composition, the composition comprising a calcium carbonate and a caustic magnesium oxide.
The term caustic magnesium oxide includes a magnesium composition which comprises magnesium carbonate and a decarbonated magnesium. The term also covers a magnesium carbonate which has been treated, for instance, by heating, to liberate carbon dioxide, thereby forming a composition which is partially calcined. The exact structure of the composition and of the caustic magnesium oxide is not known, but the term will be used to include the structure formed by heating magnesium carbonate to partially decarbonate it, especially at the temperature ranges described.
The composition of calcium carbonate and caustic magnesium oxide can be formed by treating dolomite. Dolomite is a calcium magnesium carbonate found in nature. A true dolomite comprises about 54% calcium carbonate and 43% magnesium carbonate. Natural dolomites contain impurities of various differing types which can include alumina, iron and silica.
The percentage of the calcium and magnesium carbonate can vary in dolomites. For instance, dolomite containing 65% calcium carbonate and 30% magnesium carbonate is called a low magnesium dolomite. Conversely, a dolomite containing 60% magnesium carbonate and 30% calcium carbonate is called a high magnesium dolomite.
It is found that heating dolomite will cause
carbon dioxide to be liberated, and the rate of liberation of carbon dioxide can be controlled and varied to provide fully or partially calcined dolomites.
If the dolomite is heated at 1,500°C, all the carbonate is liberated as carbon dioxide and a mixture of calcium oxide and magnesium oxide is left. These oxides are well known as for use in refractory material, but the oxides are not suitable for a cementitious material.
If dolomite is heated at a lower temperature, not all of the carbonate decomposes to liberate carbon dioxide. Indeed, it is noted that the heating can be controlled such that the magnesium carbonate preferentially releases carbon dioxide over the calcium carbonate.
Thus, heating at a temperature range of typically between 500°C to 800°C will cause preferential decomposition of the magnesium carbonate.
By controlling the preferential decomposition, dolomite can be treated to form a settable composition by converting the dolomite into a composition comprising a calcium carbonate and a caustic magnesium oxide.
The preferential decomposition of dolomite can be enhanced by additives such as inorganic salts. A suitable salt is sodium chloride which can be added from 0.1% - 5% prior to heating. The salt appears to preferentially decrease the decarbonisation temperature of MgC03 without substantially affecting the higher decarbonisation temperature of CaC03. The salt can increase the differential temperature from 100°C to 200°C.
Suitably, the caustic magnesium oxide has between 2% - 50% of the carbon dioxide retained within the magnesium carbonate, and preferably between 23% - 28%. While the molecular structure may be difficult to envisage, the structure may comprise a mix of calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide, and magnesium carbonate. The amount of carbon dioxide retained in the composition has an effect on various parameters such as hardness, and setting rate. Between 20% - 30% retained carbon dioxide offers a suitable set rate for many applications. Increasing the amount of
carbon dioxide increases the set rate, and decreasing the amount of carbon dioxide decreases the set rate.
The composition can also be prepared synthetically by mixing or blending calcium carbonate with preformed caustic magnesium oxide. In this variation, the caustic magnesium oxide can be prepared by subjecting magnesium carbonate to heat to partially drive off carbon dioxide until the desired level of calcination is obtained.
In a further variation, a natural dolomite may be heated in the manner described above to provide a composition comprising calcium carbonate and caustic magnesium oxide, and if the natural dolomite is magnesium deficient (for instance, a low magnesium dolomite), additional caustic magnesium oxide can be added to the mixture.
For example, a low magnesium dolomite ore containing 65% calcium carbonate and 30% magnesium carbonate plus impurities can be calcined so that the magnesium converts to partially calcined caustic magnesium oxide but essentially where between 2% - 20% of the original entrained carbon dioxide within the magnesium is retrained.
By being able to add caustic magnesium oxide, and calcium carbonate, and being above to vary the blend of the two, it is possible to provide compositions for use as cement having any required predetermined weight or percentage of the blended materials.
The particle size of the composition can be varied if desired. A suitable particle size of 50 - 70 micron with 90% passing through a 60 micron sieve allows the composition to be used in a variety of applications. The composition can be ground to the particle size if required and this can be done before or after treatment. Other particle size ranges are also envisaged such as from 10 - 1000 microns.
A range of 10% - 90% caustic magnesium oxide and 90% - 10%" caTcium carbonate can be used with a preferred mix being 60% - 70% magnesium and 30% - 40% calcium.
For instance, one tonne of dolomite will contain 650 kilograms (kg) of calcium carbonate (CaC03 ) and 300kg of magnesium carbonate (MgC03) plus 5% impurities. The magnesium carbonate will contain 156:57kg of CO2. When 95% of this CO2 is removed the weight loss will be 148:74kg. The calcined weight of the dolomite will now be 851:26kg which will include 650kg of calcium carbonate plus 143:3kg of magnesia oxide and 50kg of impurities. (CaC03 650kg/MgO 143:43kg + 7:8285kg + impurities 50kg = 851:26.) Example:
Dolomite 1000kg = 650kg CaC03 before calcination
300kg MgC03 + 50kg impurities : After calcination = 650kg CaC03
151:258kg caustic (MgO+7:8C02)
: + desired weight of selected caustic magnesia oxide : + impurities 50kg
Useful compositions can be formulated where the caustic magnesium oxide is from 2% of the weight of the calcium carbonate to 300% the weight of the calcium carbonate.
The composition can be formulated as a dry fine powder (that is similar to the Portland Cement powder).
To the composition can be added various additives. The additive or additives may accelerate the formation of strong binding agents, and may assist in the recrystallisation of the composition to make it set. In the setting process, various added fillers (which can include organic fillers, inorganic fillers, solid and liquid fillers, toxic fillers, and the like) can be trapped in the set matrix. One additive can comprise a sulphate which may be added at rates of between 0.01% up to 10%. A suitable sulphate can comprise sulphuric acid, or a metal sulphate such as magnesium sulphate or aluminium sulphate.
Another desirable additive is that which acts as a source of carbonation in the composition to assist in the setting process. A carbonate which can decompose or react to liberate carbon dioxide is preferred. One suitable
additive can be a metal carbonate such as sodium carbonate. Another suitable additive can include a carboxylic or polycarboxylic acid which can react to liberate carbon dioxide. Another advantage of sodium carbonate is that it will neutralise any free lime (CaO) , this product being detrimental to the setting process, and which is found in certain types of fillers which may be used ( for instance coal ash).
Other additives may include citric acid, lemon acid, acetic acid, glycolic acid, oxalic acid, other di or poly carboxylic acids, or other acidifying agents. These additives may be added at between 0.01% -5%. If the additives (such as citric acid or lemon acid) are solids, they are suitably pre-ground and powdered to enable them to be efficiently blended with the remainder of the composition. A grind size Another acidifying agent may comprise sulphuric acid and this may be added to the water mixture in up to 5% by weight.
In a preferred feature, the additives include aluminium sulphate and a citric acid (or equivalent acid such as glycolic acid or acetic acid). Additionally, a salt such as sodium chloride can be provided.
Suitably, the additives are premixed and added to the composition. The amount of premix added can vary for instance from about 3% - 10% or more. It appears that when fillers of small size (for example below 70 micron) are used, the amount of premix added should be larger (about 10%), while fillers of larger size allow less premix to be added (e.g. 3% - 7%).
If the premix comprises (a) aluminium sulphate, (b) an organic acid and (c) a salt, it is preferred that (a) is present between 40% - 80%; (b) is present between 10% - 60% and (c) is present between 1% - 20%.
While not wishing to be bound by theory, it appears that ingredient (a) provides early strength to the set composition, and may assist in the formation of brucite (MgOH2) , and a gelatinous polymer of aluminium hydroxide, both which help with initial bonding of the composition. It also appears that (a) provides water proofing properties.
Ingredient (b) , for instance citric acid, appears to assist in the carbonisation of MgO and Mg(OH2) to recrystallise the composition into a set material. The acid may also act as a ligand to form complexes around the fillers (for instance metal ions) helping to trap them in the setting or set matrix. The carbonisation process can continue over a long period of time which can provide long lasting strength to the set material. Ingredient (c) appears to assist in achieving an early strength to the composition.
Embodiments of the invention will be described with reference to the following examples: Example 1:
A dolomitic binder composition consisting of a quantity of natural occurring dolomite ore, which before calcination, contained 54% by weight of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) , and 43% by weight of magnesium carbonate (MgC03) , and 3% by weight of entrained impurities of any type. The said dolomite ore having been partially calcined so as to remove only 95% of the weight of carbon dioxide (C02) contained within the magnesium carbonate. The quantity of ore after calcination to consist of 54% by weight of calcium carbonate (CaC03) and 20:16% of partially calcined caustic magnesia oxide (19.12%MgO + 1:04% C02) and 3% of impurities. The said quantity of partially calcined dolomite ore having been crushed and ground to a fineness of 250 mesh. The blending with the quantity of partially calcined powdered dolomite ore 5% by weight of alumina sulphate (A12(S04)3) and 1% by weight of citric acid (C6H807) both of which have been powdered to 250 mesh. The mixing
of all of the said materials with a quantity of liquid or water of any type so as to create a slurry of any predetermined viscosity. The slurry can be mixed with any required type and quantity of preselected inorganic or organic fillers or combination of fillers. The pouring, moulding, extruding, pressing, gunning of the entire admixture will create upon drying and setting a vast range of excellent and attractive building products. Example 2 :
A cementitious dolomitic binder composition consisting of a selected quantity of pre-calcined crushed and powdered 250 mesh sieve low magnesium dolomite calcined so as the caustic magnesia oxide (MgO) contained within the dolomite contains between 2% and 20% by weight of carbon dioxide (C02) as a predetermined uncalcined content, to which is added a pre-selected weight of caustic magnesia^ oxide (MgO) as a commercially available independent mineral product which has been selectively precalcined so as to contain similar quantities of carbon dioxide (C02) as the caustic magnesia oxide (MgO) contained in the dolomite. The weight of the added caustic magnesia oxide (MgO) is between 1% of and three times the weight of partially calcined caustic magnesia oxide contained within the dolomite constituent of the mixture. Selected quantities of ingredients such as alumina sulphate, citric acid water and fillers can be added in the same manner as described in Example No . 1 Example 3 :
A dolomitic binder composition was created with a predetermined quantity of commercially available and selectively pre-calcined magnesia oxide mixed with the dolomite. Example 4 :
A dolomitic binder composition is prepared in the
same manner as described in Example No. 1 except that a
measured quantity of between 1% and 20% of sulphuric acid
(H2S04) is added to the mixing water. The resultant
concrete-like slurry exhibited a good strength and attained
an initial set within two hours. Example 5 :
A further dolomitic binder composition can be prepared in the same manner as described in Example No. 2 but with the same weight of Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4) as described in Example No. 3 being added. Example 6 :
The composition of Example 1 or Example 2 was mixed with between 3% - 10% by weight of aluminium sulphate. The mixture achieved a initial set having a good strength, but it was found that the strength deteriorated after only a few months possibly due to poor crystallisation by carbonation. Example 7 :
The composition of Example 1 or Example 2 was mixed with an additive mixture consisting of aluminium sulphate and sodium chloride. The total additive mixture was between 3% - 10% and the aluminium sulphate ratio was between 60% - 99% with the sodium chloride ratio being between 1% - 40%. The composition achieved a good set but initially had a high water porosity. The set strength deteriorated after a few months, again possibly due to poor carbonation, but indications were that the water porosity of the set product decreased giving moderate water absorption. Example 8 :
The composition of Example 1 or Example 2 was mixed with two additives being aluminium sulphate and citric acid. The total additive range was between 3% - 10% and of that, aluminium sulphate was about 80% with citric acid being about 20%. The set material gave a good strength with the strength increasing after 30 days and provided excellent long term stability. The set product also had early low water porosity. Example 9 :
This example shows the suitability of the composition as an encapsulating agent for hazardous wastes. Hazardous wastes (such as toxic metals) must be stabilised
before disposal and require encapsulation in a material where leaching of the toxic material is below pre-set levels.
In this example, 100 kg of a dolomitic binder of Example 1 or Example 2 was mixed with 650g of aluminium sulphate, 250g of citric acid, and lOOg of sodium chloride. The material was mixed with water and mixed with toxic metals being arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, selenium, silver and zinc. The maximum allowable leaching of each of these toxic metals is arsenic 5mg p/litre, cadmium Img p/litre, copper lOOmg p/litre, iron lOOmg p/litre, lead 5mg p/litre, selenium Img p/litre, silver 5mg p/litre and zinc lOOmg p/litre.
The set material encapsulating the toxic metals was subject to a leach condition which consisted of a 24hr stirred leach in a buffered mild acid solution. The leach was examined and was found to contain less than 0.Img p/litre of arsenic, no cadmium, less than O.lmg p/litre copper, between 0.05 - 0.23mg p/litre iron, less than O.lmg p/litre lead, no selenium, no silver, and less than 0.2mg p/litre of zinc.
The results show that the dolomitic set composition has excellent properties in encapsulating and retaining toxic metals, with the leaching properties being a fraction of the maximum allowable concentration. Example 10:
The dolomitic binder composition of Example 1 or Example 2, 100kg was mixed with 800g of aluminium sulphate and 200g of citric acid. Water was added to the mix as was charcoal waste. The mix was hardened and was found to encapsulate and retain the charcoal without appreciable loss. Example 11:
The dolomitic binder of Example 1 or Example 2, 1,000kg was mixed with 800g of aluminium sulphate and 200g of citric acid. Water was added as was a filler.
The mixture was formed into a brick which was heated in steps up to 1,000°C to check for flammability.
The brick did not catch alight, only turning to ash in the outside 1cm of the brick. Post -v- pre-heating weight indicated a 40% loss of weight. The example shows that this type of brick is not a fuel and does not promote a fire . Example 12 :
A composition similar to that of Example 10 or 11 was formed, without the filler. The composition was formed into a roof tile and subjected to mechanical tests. The required breaking load needed to exceed 7 DON, and the actual breaking load was found to be 1,600 - 2,600N showing that the composition has excellent properties as a roof tile. Additionally, the water permeability of the formed tile was investigated by forming a projected surface on top of the tile and filling it with water to 12mm. The test was maintained for 2 hours and a visual examination of the tile showed that the tile was sufficiently water impermeable . Example 13 :
A dolomitic composition of Example 1 or Example 2 (100kg) , was mixed with aluminium sulphate 500g and citric acid 200g. Water was added to form a slurry and to one part of the slurry was added three parts of paper pulp and 50ml acrylic. The product was allowed to set, formed into a cube and subject to compressive strength analysis which showed that the cube had a compressive strength of 3lMPa, showing it to have a good load bearing strength. Example 14 :
A dolomitic composition of Example 13 was made up this time having two litres of dolocrete slurry mixed with four parts of newspaper pulp. The formed cube had a compressive strength of between 14 - IVMPa. Example 15 :
To a dolomitic composition, 11 was added 21 of volcanic ash and 10ml acrylic, the mixture was set and formed into a cube and had a compressive strength of between 11 - 20MPa. Example 16:
To a dolomitic composition, 31 was added 3.251 of shredded paper and 11 of No. 4 vermiculite. The mixture was set, formed into a cube and had a compressive strength of 11 - 12MPa. Example 17:
To 31 of dolomitic composition was added 0.51 of paper and 0.51 of vermiculite grade 4. The material was set, formed into a cube and was found to have a compressive strength of 23.5 - 24.5MPa. Example 18:
To a dolomitic composition, 21 was added 1.51 cracker dust and 0.51 blue metal. A cube formed from the set composition had a compressive strength of 19.5 - 20MPa. Example 19:
To 21 of dolomitic composition was added 21 of shredded car tyres. A formed cube had a compressive strength of 5.5 - 6.5MPa. Example 20:
To 11 of dolomitic composition was added 31 of course blue metal gravel and 11 of sand. A formed cube had a compressive strength of 26.5 - 28.5MPa. Example 21:
To 1.5 parts dolomitic composition was added 2.5 parts course sawdust, 0.5 parts paper pulp and 50ml acrylic. A formed cube was found to have a compressive strength of 27 - 29MPa. Example 22:
To 1.5 parts dolomitic binder composition was added 2.5 parts course sawdust, 1 part find sawdust, 1 part paper pulp and 50ml acrylic. A formed cube had a compressive strength of 19.5 - 22.5MPa. Example 23:
To 1.5ml dolomitic composition was added 0.5 parts power house ash, 0.5 parts paper pulp and 50ml acrylic. A formed cube had a compressive strength of between 23.5 - 24.5MPa. Example 24:
To two parts dolomitic binder composition was
added two parts coarse sawdust, two parts paper pulp and 0.5 parts acrylic. A formed cube was found to have a compressive strength of between 14 - 17.5MPa. Example 25:
To 2.5 parts dolomitic composition was added two parts paper fines No. 1, two parts paper fines No. 2, and two parts course sawdust and 0.7 parts acrylic. A cube formed has a compressive strength of between 20 - 22.6MPa. Example 26:
To a dolomitic composition, one part was added two parts of beach sand. The composition was mixed with seawater to form a settable composition and was formed into a cube. The cube was about 77mm along each edge and a compressive strength of 28.5 - 29.3MPa was found.
Further tests have shown that the composition can be admixed with various fillers and reinforcing agents to provide a number of suitable commercial products. Suitable fillers include but are not limited to power station ash, volcanic ash, alumina, red mud, crushed rock, sand, coral, pumice, glass, cenospheres, perlite, vermiculite, styrene bead, sawdust, shredded rubber, straw, rice husk, coconut fibre, wood chip, wood bark, paper, cardboard, plastic, concrete rubble, soil, lead concentrate, litharge, lead wool, boron, lithium, cadmium, L A batteries, metal dusts and chemically precipitated gypsum. Suitable reinforcing agents can include steel, glass fibre, carbon fibre, kevlar, SRImonomer, polypropylene, rock wool, cotton and straw. The following products can be made - brick, block, pavers, tile, mortars, pipe, board, panel, cladding, paving, structures, statues, monuments, sleepers, posts, poles, tanks, boats, piles, wharves and marinas.
The composition according to the invention can be prepared as a dry flowable powder which can be bagged and stored indefinitely. To the powder can be added fillers such as sand and gravel (known fillers), but unlike Portland Cement, organic fillers such as straw, cork, wood flour, sawdust, and the like, can also be added. Water can be added to the mix to form a mortar, trowelable material,
or a concrete, and unlike Portland Cement, the water can be brackish, salt water, and does not need to be perfectly clean.
It should be appreciated that various other changes and modifications can be made to the embodiment described without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
1. A settable binder composition which comprises a mixture of: calcium carbonate; caustic magnesium oxide; and as optional ingredients
between 0.01% to 10% by weight of a sulphate additive such as herein described;
between 0.1% to 5% by weight of an inorganic salt such as herein described; and
between 0.01 to 5% by weight of a carbonate additive such as herein described
the calcium carbonate and caustic magnesium oxide mixture being selected from the group consisting of:
(a) a naturally-occurring dolomite, having between 30% to 65% by weight
of a calcium carbonate and between 30% to 60% by weight of caustic
magnesium oxide, said dolomite having been pre-heated at a temperature
within the range of 500°C to 8OO° C to cause preferential decarbonisation of
the magnesium carbonate by liberation of carbon dioxide whereby between
2% to 50% of the carbon dioxide is retained within the magnesium carbonate
without substantially decarbonisation of the calcium carbonate resulting in a
mixture of magnesium oxide, magnesium carbonate and calcium carbonate
(MgO, MgCO] and CaCO3); and,
(b) a synthetic blend comprising a mixture of calcium carbonate with
preformed caustic magnesium oxide, having between 10% to 90% by weight
of calcium carbonate and between 10 to 90% by weight of caustic magnesium
oxide where the preformed caustic magnesium oxide is the product resulting
from the pre-heating of magnesium carbonate to partially drive off carbon
dioxide whereby between 2% to 50% of the carbon dioxide is retained within
the magnesium carbonate, and wherein the calcium carbonate retains
substantially all of its carbon dioxide, resulting in a mixture of magnesium
oxide, magnesium carbonate and calcium carbonate (MgO, MgCO) and
2. A composition as claimed in claim 1, wherein the dolomite is a magnesium
deficient dolomite with added additional caustic magnesium oxide.
3. A composition as claimed in claim 1, wherein the inorganic salt is added to
enhance the preferential decarbonisation of the magnesium carbonate is sodium
4. A composition as claimed in claim 1, wherein the caustic magnesium oxide
has between 2% - 20% of the carbon dioxide retained within the magnesium
5. A composition as claimed in claim 4, wherein the composition has a particle
size of 50 - 80 micron with 90% passing through a 160 micron sieve.
6. A composition as claimed in claim 1, wherein the sulphate additive is selected
from the group consisting of: (a) sulphuric acid (b) magnesium sulphate and (c)
7. A composition as claimed in claim 1, wherein the a carbonate additive is
selected from additives which produce a source of carbonation during the
carbonation process, or carbonate promoters which aid in the mechanism of
8. A composition as claimed in claim 7, wherein the carbonate additive and
carbonate promoters are selected from the group consisting of: (a) sodium
carbonate; (b) citric acid; (c) lemon acid; (d) acetic acid; (e) glycolic acid; (f) oxalic
acid; acids (b) - (f) being able to react to liberate carbon dioxide.
9. A composition as claimed in claim 1, having the following additives; (i)
aluminium sulphate and (ii) a carboxylic acid, the additives comprising from 3% to
15% of the composition.
10. A composition as claimed in claim 9 having additionally the following
additives: (i) aluminium sulphate, (ii) a carboxylic acid and (iii) a salt, wherein (i) is present between 40% - 80%; (ii) is present between 10% - 60% and (iii) is present between 1% - 20% of the additives, the additives comprising from 3% to 15% of the composition.
11. A composition as claimed in claim 1 additionally incorporating at least one
12. A composition as claimed in claim 11, wherein the filler comprises between
3% to 90% of the total composition.
13. A composition as claimed in claim 12, wherein the at least one filler is
selected from the group consisting of power station ash, volcanic ash, alumina, red
mud, crushed rock, sand coral, pumice, glass, cenospheres, perlite, vermiculate,
styrene bead, sawdust, shredded rubber, straw, rice husk, coconut fibre, wood chip,
wood bark, paper, cardboard, plastic, concrete rubble, soil, lead concentrate,
litharge, lead wood, boron, lithium, cadmium, L A batteries, metal dusts and
chemically precipitated gypsum, steel, glass fibre, straw or mixtures thereof.
14. An article prepared from a set composition as claimed in claim 1.
15. An article prepared from a set composition as claimed in claim 10.
16. An article as claimed in claim 14, wherein the article is selected from the group consisting of a brick, block, paver, tile, mortar, pipe, board, panel, cladding, paving, structure, statue, monument, sleeper, post, pole, storage tank, boat, pile, wharf and marina.
|Indian Patent Application Number||1454/DEL/1997|
|PG Journal Number||10/2008|
|Date of Filing||02-Jun-1997|
|Name of Patentee||DOLOMATRIX INTERNATIONAL LIMITED|
|Applicant Address||HALL CHADWICK SECURITIES, LEVEL 29, ST.MARTINS TOWER, 31 MARKET STREET, SYDNEY, NEW SOUTH WALES 2000, AUSTRALIA.|
|PCT International Classification Number||C04B 2/00|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|