|Title of Invention||
HERBAL COMPOSITION FOR ANGINA PECTORIS, METHOD TO PREPARE SAME AND USES THEREOF
|Abstract||This invention provides compositions comprising extracts of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng and Borneol. Said compositions comprise notoginsenoside Ri and ginsenoside Rgi which are active components for therapeutic applications. This invention also provides a method of preparation of the said compositions and a method of identification and determination of the amount of individual effective components of said compositions. . Finally, this invention provides various uses of the compositions.|
|Full Text||FORM - 2
THE PATENTS ACT, 1970
1. "HERBAL COMPOSITION FOR ANGINA PECTORIS,
METHOD TO PREPARE SAME AND USES THEREOF"
2. (a) TIANJIN TASLY PHARMACEUTICAL CO., LTD.,
(b) No. 1 Liaohedong Road, Xinyibai Avenue,
Beichen District, Tianjin 300402.
P. R. CHINA
(c) P. R. CHINA
The following specification particularly describes the nature of the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed.
TO PREPARE SAME AND USES THEREOF
Throughout this application, various publications are referenced and full citations for these publications may be found in the reference at the end of the specifications preceding the claims. The disclosures of these publications are hereby incorporated by reference into this application in order to more fully describe the state of the art as known to the skilled therein as of the date of the invention described and claimed herein.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Chronic stable angina pectoris is due to transit myocardial ischemia. Aspirin, nitrates, beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs, and calcium channel blocking drugs used alone or in combination with one another are the commonly used drugs for angina pectoris .
Aspirin as an antithrombotic agent is a symptomatic treatment for chronic stable angina pectoris.
Nitrates are used to treat an anginal episode and can be successfully used in prophylaxis by patients with predictable symptoms. With all nitrates, troublesome headache can prevent their use in certain susceptible individuals.
Beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs, although (established as a cornerstone in the treatment of angina, are specifically contraindicated in patients with obstructive airways diseases and severe ventricular dysfunction, and relatively contraindicated in diabetes and in those with peripheral vascular disease, bradycardia or heart block.
Calcium antagonists are certainly effective in angina, achieving their effects by smooth muscle relaxation in the coronary arteries and peripheral circulation, increasing myocardial supply and reducing myocardial work.
Although there is progress in drug combination therapy in angina, which most patients begin treatment with nitrates and a beta-adrenoceptor blocking drug or a calcium antagonist, there is a need of drug for chronic stable angina pectoris which is very effective, can be taken for a long period of time and has very low toxicity.
In view of the problems of relating to the above mentioned drugs,
notable' efforts have been made to apply herbal Medicine as an
alternative to the standard treatment of chronic stable angina
pectoris. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has contributed much
in this respect. ,
US Pat. No. 5288485 and 5433957 refer to an extract from hypericum erectum thunb for curing or preventing diseases caused by disorder in blood circulation such as angina pectoris.
US Pat. No. 5776463 refers to an oral pharmaceutical composition containing petals of borage or extract of borage petals for the prevention and treatment of stress which is associated with circulatory heart diseases-'including angina.
In addition to hypericum erectum thunb and borage petals, many other herbal plants have also been used to treat angina. One such plant is Valeriana officinalis latifolia. Yang GY et al (1994) Reported that 82 patients with angina pectoris had been treated with Valeriana officinalis latifolia, among whom ST-T ischemic changes appeared on ECG in 50 cases before treatment. Its total effective rate for simple angina (without detectable ischemic findings) was 87.80%; the angina with ischemic findings, 88.00%. In addition, it was discovered that Valeriana officinalis latifolia could lower plasma lipids as well. No toxic actions to liver, kidney, and hemopoietic tissue, have been found.(1)
Wu Y (1990) reported that in a setting of 267 patients with angina pectoris, 93 .3% of the patients treated with xintongkang capsule was effective.
Another herbal preparation called Shenshao tongguan pian was used in treating angina pectoris. In 1990, Hu JX et al. Reported that the Shenshao tongguan pian is composed chiefly of saponin from the stem and leaves of Ginseng and Radix Paeoniae Alba, etc. The total effective rate for treating angina pectoris was 94.71%. And the ECG improvement rate was 63.38%. In addition, laboratory examination also revealed that Shenshao tongguan pian could promote the left ventricular output, lower the blood viscosity and inhibit the aggregation of blood platelet. Both acute and chronic toxicity tests showed that Shenshao tongguan pian has no toxicity or side effects.
Kuo-guan granule is another herbal preparation for angina pectoris. Li Y et al. (1990) reported that the changes of the plasma zinc, copper and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry and DTNB color development in 31 patients suffering from coronary heart disease with angina pectoris before and after taking Kuo-Guan granule for one month. The results indicated that the plasma zinc and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase were lower and copper was higher in the patients than the normal control group before treatment (P Saponin of Tribulus terrestris was another herbal composition for treating angina pectoris.
Fufang Danshen Pian is a folk prescription of Dan Shen Tablet which indicate for treating chronic stable angina pectoris due to coronary artery ischemia and has been officially listed in the editions of Chinese Pharmacopoeia since 1977 and applied to clinical use for decades.
Fufang Danshen Pian contains multiple active extracts of botanical including Danshen [Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae), and Sanchi [Radix Notoginseng) . Both of the botanical were first documented in Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing [Shen-nong's Herbal Pharmacopoeia) completed in 200. Fufang Danshen Pian also contains synthetic borneol, a version of a natural borneol (Bingpian). Natural borneol was first documented in Tang Ben Cab (Herbal Pharmacopoeia of the Tang Dynasty) compiled around 659.
Li Cheng-zhu et al (1979) reported in (Acta Acad Med Prim Shanghai) on an experimental study of thrombotic inhibition effect of Radix Silviae Miltiorrhizae. Effects on in vitro thrombosis, functions of platelet and coagulation, fibrinolysis were observed in rabbits. After injection of Radix Silviae Miltiorrhizae, 3 links were found to play an important role in inhibition of in vitro thrombosis: (1) inhibition of platelet function; (2) inhibition of coagulation function; and (3) promote fibrinolysis. Of which, the former two mechanisms function more intensely. The results conform' to those in the treatment of thrombotic diseases, especially arterial thrombotic diseases.
Chiang WT et al (1982) reported in (Acta Acad Med Prim Shanghai) the effects of "Danshensu" and other two water-soluble components of salvia miltiorrhiza on dog ischemic myocardium and isolated pig coronary artery. The effect of 3 new water-soluble components i.e. Danshensu (DS-182, D(+)-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid) , protocathu-aldehyde (PCAD) and an impure diterpene acid (DS-187) isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, were compared with those of dipyridamole. Results revealed (1) in mice, DS-182 gave significant protection against hypoxia, whereas PCAD was ineffective; (2) DS-182 could nullify the pituitrin-induced electrocardiographic ischemic ST-T elevation but had no influence on the reduced heart rate. DS-187, PCAD and dipyridamole only showed incomplete protection; (3) in the acutely infarcted dog model prepared by ligation of the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery, the benefits
achieved by intravenous injection of DS-182 proved superior to
DS-187 and PCAD in respect to the left ventricular function, left
ventricular peak systolic pressure(LVPSP) and left ventricular
end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) . PCAD, on the contrary, produced
adverse effects on LVPSP and LVEDP. Intravenously administered
dipyridamole, though it did not change LVEDP, suppressed LVPSP
significantly with marked hypotensive effect. All these
components of Salvia and dipyridamole significantly reduced the
ultimate myocardial infarct size (N-BT assessment); Ds-182 was
most effective, dipyridamole and DS-187 the next, while PCAD the
least; (4) in the isolated perfused pig coronary artery
preparation, DS-182 significantly reduced the resistance of the
coronary vessel, whereas either DS-187, PCAD or sodium Tanshinone
II-A sulfonate (DS-201) , another component of Salvia, increased
it. The constrictory action of morphine and propranolol on the
isolated coronary artery preparation was antagonized by the prior
administration of DS-182. All of these suggested that Danshensu
might be the main active principle of Salvia miltiorrhiza in
treating ischemic heart disease and that its concomitant use with
propranolol or morphine would be beneficial.
Li Cheng-zhu et al (1983) reported in (Chin J Integr Med) the anti-coagulation effect of Radix SilviaeMiltiorrhizae. Danshensu is a water-soluble monomer extracted from Radix Silviae Miltiorrhizae. It is also the main ingredient of commercially sold Injection Radix Silviae Miltiorrhizae. The present study proved that Danshensu inhibits thrombosis in vitro, aggregation of platelet (induced by ADP) ,and internal and external coagulation systems; diminishes the number of platelets and promotes the degradation of fibrin or fibrinogen. The effects peaked 30 minutes after a single injection of 20 mg/kg in rabbits, lasted for 1 hour, and recovered gradually. 4.5 hours after injection, all recovered to normal but thrombosis test in vitro.
Chen Zhanghua (1987) reported in Acta Acad Med Prim Shanghai on effects of "Danshensu" on experimental microcirculatory
disturbances and plasm lactic acid concentrations. Natural Danshensu is a water soluble monomer extracted from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae(RSM). Microcirculatory disturbances in rabbits were induced by intravenous injection of high molecular weight dextran. Natural Danshensu (dosage 4-6 mg/kg) markedly increased the number of capillary vessels in the bulbar conjunctiva, and also decreased the concentration of plasm lactic acid in the rabbits. Mesenteric microcirculatory disorders were produced by local noradrenaline (4 g) drip in mice. Natural Danshensu dilated the arteries and accelerated the speed of blood flow, thus eliminating microcirculatory blood stasis. In our experiments, effects of synthetic Danshensu were observed concomitantly. The results showed that there was no significant difference between natural and synthetic Danshensu in relieving microcirculatory disturbances.
Sun Xi-ming et al (1991) reported a new pharmacological action of an extract of Danshen (Salvia mil tiorrhiza) . The paper reports that an extract of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) which contains the sodium salts of D(+) - (3y4-dihydroxy phenyl) lactic acid was found to possess a new pharmacological action of decreasing the biosynthesis of cholesterol in cells and anti-lipoprotein oxidation, by cell cultural studies. When compared with the control, its electrophoretic migration rate was markedly lowered and MDA content and cytotoxicity decreased obviously. These results indicated that salts of D(+)-(3,4-dihydroxy phenyl) lactic acid may be effective in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.
Zheng Ruo-xuan et al (1992) reported in (Chin J Integr Med) the preservation effect of Radix Silviae Miltiorrhizae on myocardial ischemia induced by coronary ligation in mice. Obvious preservation effect on acute myocardial ischemia in mice by coronary ligation could be obtained after i.p. water-extract of Radix Silviae Miltiorrhizae (5 g crude drug/kg) . S-T segment elevation on ECG due to myocardial ischemia in the treatment group
was much lower, ischemic size of the left ventricle was smaller and the survival rate was higher when compared with the control.
Wu Yao-zhong et al (1995) reported in (Acta Nanjing Univ Trad Chin Mater Med) on effects of Radix Silviae Miltiorrhizae in promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis. Pharmacological research of Radix Silviae Miltiorrhizae is common. However, rheological studies on Radix Silviae Miltiorrhizae by assessing PGI2, ET, and TXA2 produced by platelet are seldom. Influence of Radix Silviae Miltiorrhizae on thrombosis, changes of PT, KPTT, FG, ESR and HCT, and aggregation of platelet in rabbits are evaluated in the present study. Conclusions are that Radix Silviae Miltiorrhizae reduces the synthesis of TXA2 and decreases the effects of enhancement of platelet aggregation and thrombosis.
Shi Lin et al (1990) reported in (Acta Pharmcol Sin) on the effects of total saponins of Panax Notoginseng on increasing PGI2 in carotid artery and decreasing TXA2 in blood platelet. Total saponins of Panax notoginseng (PNS) were given orally 100 mg/(kg'day) to rabbit for 8 wk. Aortic atherosclerotic plaque formation was restrained as compared that of to the control group. Radioimmunoassay was used to investigate the effects of PNS on the contents of prostacyclin in carotid artery and thromboxane A2 in rats' blood platelet. Oral administration of PNS 25, 50, 100 mg/ (kg'day) for 10 days caused an increase of prostacyclin in carotid artery and a decrease of thromboxane A2 in blood platelet as compared with the control group. These results showed that the anti-atherosclerotic action of PNS maybe a result of the correction of the imbalance between prostacyclin and thromboxane A2.
Li Xing et al (1990) reported in (Acta Pharmacol Sin) the Protective effects of Panax Notoginseng saponin on experimental myocardial injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion in rats. Effects of total saponin of Panax Notoginseng (PNS) and purified
ginsenoids Rbi and Rgi from PNS on myocardial injury induced by cardiac ischemia and reperfusion were studied using rat hearts in situ and in vitro. In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, PNS pretreatment (100 and 200 mg/kg) provided significant reduction in myocardial infarcted size after left descending coronary artery ligation (40 min) and reperfusion (120 min) in comparison with the control. PNS 12 .5 and 25 mg/L, Rbi 10 mg/L and Rgl 10 mg/L significantly decreased cardiac CPK release, attenuated myocardial Ca++ accumulation, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) production and prevented reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in comparison with the control in perfused isolated rat hearts with global ischemia (40 min) and reperfusion (15 min) . The results showed that PNS, Rbi and Rgi prevented cardiac ischemia and the action was considered to be related to the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
Huang Cong et al (1991) reported in (Chin Bull Pharmacol) the effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponin on myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury in conscious rabbits. The effects of Panax Notoginseng saponin (PNGS) on myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury in conscious rabbits were studied with observation of changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) , the activities of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and the size of ischemic area. PNGS at the dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the size of myocardial ischemic area. These results suggested that PNGS have the protective effects on myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury.
Mo Qi-xian et al (1987) reported in (Propriet Trad Chin Med Res) the dynamics of 3H-Borneol. In order to highlight the mechanism of inducing resuscitation of Boraeol aromaticity, dynamics of 3H-Borneol were conducted by intraveneous injection and oral administration. The results revealed that the half-life time was 2.8 min after a single intraveneous injection of 3H-Borneol. It suggested that the drug distributed rapidly to the relevent
organs and tissues after administration and produced prompt effect. In vivo distribution concentrated on organs and tissues which are abundant in blood flow, such as heart, lung, liver, kidney and brain, etc. This provided clinical application certain theoratical basis. Since the diminishing half-life time was 5.3 hours after oral administration of the drug, this suggested that oral Borneol could not lead to accumulation, but poor bioavailability. Further studies should be taken to discusse the relationship with drug dose and dosage form.
Chen Tie-feng et al (1990) reported in (Acta Pharmacol Sin) the enhancement of absorption of tetramethylpyrazine by synthetic borneol. Sprague-Dawley rats were given ig tetramethylpyrazine phosphate (TMP) 5 mg/kg with or without previous borneol 5 mg/kg. The plasm TMP concentrations were analysed by GC method, and the data were treated by NONLIN program. The Cmax were 931 and 562 ng/ml, respectively, (p Xu Wei et al (1995) reported in (Pharmacol Chin Med Clin) the effect of menthol and borneol on the distribution of sulfadiazine sodium and Evan's blue in the rat and mouse brain. Menthol (1.5 g/kg, ig) and Borneol (1.5 g/kg) prolonged the sulfadiazine sodium distribution half-life ti/2 in rats. The above dosage of menthol and borneol given orally also increased the concentration of sulfadiazine sodium in the rat brain. Menthol (ig 0.5g/kg for 3 days) and borneol (ig 0.5 g/kg for 3 days) promoted the concentration of Evan's blue in the mouse brain, but the value of concentration was significantly lower than that of the mice suffering from the ischemia-reperfusion injury. The results suggested that the menthol and borneol could enhanced the sulfadiazine sodium transfer in brain-blood barrier with no damage to brain-blood barier.
In the United States, coronary atherosclerotic heart disease is
the commonest cause of cardiovascular disability and death.
Atherosclerosis is an arterial disorder characterized by yellowish plaques of cholesterol, lipids, and cellular debris in the inner layers of the walls of large and medium-size arteries . The condition begins as a fatty streak and gradually builds to a fibrous plaque or atheromatous lesion. The blood vessel walls become thick, fibrotic, and calcified. The artery lumen narrows.
Many atherosclerotic plaques remain stable or progress gradually. Others may rupture resulting in hemorrhage, platelet activation, and thus intravascular thrombosis. Coronary thrombosis causes partial or complete vessel occlusion, impairs blood flow, thus leads to unstable angina or myocardial infarction. Alternately, the ruptured plaques may become restabilized, often more severe stenosis.
Exercise and mental stresses increase myocardial oxygen demand. Under normal physiological condition, increased myocardial oxygen demand is met by the arterioles dilating thus increasing blood flow. In the presence of atherosclerosis, the arterioles may dilate maximally to meet basic demand. Such dilated arterioles may be unable to meet the increased myocardial oxygen demand. When oxygen demand exceeds oxygen supply, the ischemia of myocardium occurs. Alternately, severe vessel occlusions may limit blood flow thus cause myocardial ischemia. Clinical manifestations of transient myocardial ischemia is angina pectoris which is a paroxysmal thoracic pain, frequently spread to the arms, particularly to the left arm, with or without accompanied by a feeling of suffocating and impending death.
Angina pectoris is subdivided in to two: stable and unstable. Stable angina pectoris is caused by the increased myocardial oxygen demand in most cases. Stable angina thus attacks in the predictable frequency and duration upon provocation which increases myocardial oxygen requirements such as exercise, mental stress, etc. In contrast, unstable angina pectoris attacks
without provocation and usually caused by decreased oxygen supply to myocardium. Plaque disruption, platelet plugging, and coronary thrombosis decrease oxygen supply to myocardium.
Angina pectoris is treated with various drugs, surgical procedure, coronary artery bypass graft, balloon-angioplasty, stent placement, etc. Therapy for stable angina pectoris is primarily to minimize myocardial oxygen demand as well as a preventive measure. Therapy for the acute syndrome unstable angina pectoris is primarily to inhibit platelet activation and thrombolysis.
Current therapeutic agents for chronic stable angina pectoris are nitroglycerine, other nitrates, calcium channel blockers, and beta-adrenergic receptor blockers. These drugs, administered alone or in combination with other drugs, alleviate or prevent rather than cure angina.
When angina attacks, nitroglycerine is administered sublingually to alleviate symptoms. Nitroglycerine is also applied to prevent anginal attacks caused by exertion and stress. Nitrates are applied to prevent angina attacks. Nitroglycerine and nitrates mediate their effect primarily by relaxing vascular smooth muscle, reducing myocardial activity, and thus reducing myocardial oxygen demand. The side effects are throbbing headache, dizziness, weakness, orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia, etc.
Beta-adrenergic receptor blockers such as propranolol are applied to prevent angina pectoris by reducing myocardial oxygen requirements during exertion and stress. The major contraindications are bronchospastic disease, bradyarrhythmias, and overt heart failure. In individuals with asthma and other forms of airway obstruction, beta-blockers may worsen their condition.
Calcium antagonists are applied to prevent angina pectoris by reducing the oxygen demand of myocardium. Myocardium is dependent on calcium influx for normal functions. By inhibiting calcium
influx, calcium antagonists may relax smooth muscle of the blood vessel, decrease myocardium activity, reduce oxygen demand by myocardium, and thus prevent angina pectoris. Calcium antagonists have adverse side effects. The mild side effects are flushing, edema, dizziness, nausea, etc. Excessive inhibition of calcium influx to myocardium may cause severe side effects such as cardiac arrest, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, congestive heart failure, etc. Combined with beta-adrenergic drugs, the side effects of calcium antagonists are often augmented.
In China, Panax Notoginseng and Radix Salviae Miltorrhizae have been used for treating cardiovascular disease since 200 AD (Shen-nong's Herbal Pharmacopoeia) . Panax Notoginseng has been used for treating angina pectoris. Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae has been used for promoting blood circulation and dispersing blood stasis. Numerous preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate the efficacy and safety of Panax Notoginseng and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae.
Traditional Chinese medicine is the mixture of several herbs requiring decoction. A modified form of Chinese medicine for . treating coronary heart disease is Dan Shen tablet. Dan Shen tablet is a large unctuous ball, often as large as 1 cM in diameter. Dan Shen tablets are made of the extract of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, powder of Panax Notoginseng and synthetic borneol, have been listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia since 1977, and have been used to treat cardiovascular disease for decades.
The disclosed Danshen pill (DSP) or called cardiotonic pill is a new generation Chinese medicine for coronary heart diseases. Chinese medicine consists of various herbs which vary from prescription to prescription in regard to the type of herbs as well as the proportion of herbs. To control the quality, DSP is manufactured with . the standarized formula. The therapeutic components of DSP are the water-soluble extracts of Radix Salviae
Miltiorrhizae 10-30 % and sometimes, approximately 20 %, the water-soluble extracts of Panax Notoginseng (2-6 %), and borneol (1-3 %). Furthermore, to alleviate angina quickly, DSP been manufactured as a small pill which can be dissolved immediately upon sublingual administration, delivered to myocardium quickly, and thus alleviate angina fast.
DSP has been proven to be nontoxic and effective for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease caused by coronary artery ischemia in preclinical and clinical studies. Furthermore, the superior efficacy of DSP to Dan Shen tablets for treating coronary arterial disease has been demonstrated in preclinical as well as in clinical studies.
DSP has been listed in the Supplement Edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia since 1998, approved by the Chinese Ministry of Health, marketed as a drug in China since 1993, and used by more than five million people.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The disclosed Dan Shen Pill (DSP) is a new generation of Chinese medicine for treating coronary heart disease manufactured with the standarized formula. DSP comprises the standarized amount of the extracts of Panax Notoginseng, the extracts of Radix Salviae Miltorrhizae, and Borneol.
Panax Notoginseng is included to alleviate and to prevent angina. Radix Salviae Miltorrhizae is included to inhibit platelet activation, to prevent coronary thrombosis, and thus to promote blood circulation. Borneol is included for the effective delivery of therapeutic components to myocardium.
DSP is manufactured as a small pill, approximately 25 mg, which can be dissolved immediately upon sublingual administration and thus to mediate its therapeutic effects quickly. The efficacy of DSP alleviating and preventing angina has been proven in preclinical and clinical studies.
This invention discloses a dropping machine by which DSP or other small size pills can be manufactured.
This invention discloses a method of controlling the quality of medicaments.by identifying and quantitating the therapeutic components in medicaments applying analytical techniques, such as thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, etc.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
Figure 1. Batch No.: 19990806 Figure 2. Batch No.: 19990815 Figure 3. Batch No.: 19990823
The position of fingerprint peaks: Group I consisting of peak 1 and 2 (retention time ranging from 7 to 15min) ; Group IIconsisting of peak 3 and 4 (retention time ranging from 15 to 20min) ; Group III consisting of peak 5> 6% 7 and 8 (retention time ranging from 20 to 40min). From whole sight, the abundance of peaks in the group I is largest, and that the height of peak 1 is close to the peak 2. The peaks in the group IIstand side by side, posses same heights almost and the abundance is very small. The group III is composed of 4 peaks, and their height increase step by step. These three groups compose the representative fingerprint of Compound Danshen Dripping pills.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
This invention discloses a composition of the medicament Dan Shen Pill (DSP) comprising:
(a) [water-soluble] extracts of Radix Salviae Miltorrhizae, [water-soluble] extracts of Panax Notoginseng, and [synthetic] Borneol;
(b) Radix Salviae Miltorrhizae, Notoginseng, borneol, and carriers; and
(c) Radix Salviae Miltorrhizae, Panax Notoginseng, borneol, and pharmaceutical carriers.
In an embodiment of the above medicament, Radix Salviae Miltorrhizae and Panax Notoginseng are employed as they are used in China for treating coronary heart disease since 200 AD. Panax Notoginseng has been used to treat angina and Radix Salviae Miltorrhizae has been used to promote blood circulation. Borneol is employed to facilitate the fast delivery of therapeutic components to target organs. Natunal Borneol has been used in China since 600 AD. As Borneol is almost extinct, DSP comprises synthetic borneol.
This invention provides the use of DSP for:
(a) treating coronary heart disease;
(b) treating coronary heart disease in conjunction with other drugs;
(c) primary prevention of coronary heart disease;
(d) primary prevention of coronary heart disease in conjunction with
(e) secondary prevention of coronary heart disease,-
(f' secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in
conjunction with other drugs; and (g) reducing nitrates intake by angina patients; and (h) reducing serum cholesterol level.
In an embodiment of DSP, the indication is for coronary
artherosclerotic disease such as, but not limited, to alleviate angina pectoris, to prevent angina pectoris caused by exertion and stress, and to promote blood circulation by inhibiting platelet aggregation thus to preventing coronary thrombus formation. DSP can be applied to reduce nitroglycerine intake which is frequently used to alleviate and to prevent angina. DSP can be also applied to reduce plasma cholesterol level thus to prevent the formation of new atherosclerosis lesions. Atherosclerosis is often initiated by cholesterol streak deposited on vessel walls.
This inventions discloses a method for controlling the quality of medicaments by standarizing the composition and the concentration of therapeutic substances in a medicament by analyzing and identifying therapeutic components using analytical techniques comprising the steps of:
(a) fractionating a medicament using analytical techniques; and
(b) identifying and quantitating therapeutic substances contained in a medicament by comparing with the analytical profile of the relevant purified substances as standard.
In an embodiment of the above invention, examples of analytical techniques are thin-layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, and others. The purified standard of therapeutic components are the major identified active components in medicaments. For example, the purified standards of active components for DSP are, but not limited to, saponins, phenolic acid such as Danshensu, borneol, etc. Active components in DSP are identified by comparing the position of DSP fractions such as retention time in high performance liquid chromatography or the position and the color of DSP fractions in thin-layer chromatography, etc. with the characteristic of purified standards. Active components of DSP is quantitated by comparing the size of active fractions of DSP with the size of the known
amount of standards. For example, the amount of saponin contained in DSP is determined by comparing with the standard curve of the known amount of purified saponin.
In another embodiment, DSP comprises 5-40% water-soluble phenolic acid of Radix Salviae Miltorrhizae, 1-10 % water soluble saponin of Panax Notoginseng, and 1-5% borneol.
In another embodiment, DSP comprises 10-30 % water-soluble phenolic acid of Radix Salviae Miltorrhizae, 2-6 % water soluble saponin of Panax Notoginseng, and 1-3 % borneol.
This invention discloses a dropping machine for manufacturing a small-sized medicament, which can be readily dissolved thus readily delivered to organs, comprising the parts of:
(a) [a dropping pot] [dropping pots] of which temperature ranges [60-100] [more preferably 89-93 °C] ;
(b) liquid paraffin cooling solution of which temperature is lower than 8°C;
(c) a dropping head with 1.8mm inner diameter and 2.35 outer diameter; .
(d) [a dropping head] distanced from the surface of cooling solution by approximately [15 m]; and
In an embodiment of the use of the above machine is to manufacture small-sized pills which can be dissolved immediately upon administration.
In another embodiment, the size of small pills are:
(a) 0.33-0.34 cm in diameter;
(b) 21.25-28.75 mg in weight; and
(c) 1.13-1.40 mg/mm3 in density.
Manufacturing of Dan Shen Pill (DSP)
DSP is a small pill, approximately 25 mg, of which therapeutic
components comprise water-soluble extracts of Notoginseng, water soluble extracts of Salviae, and synthetic borneol.
For manufacturing DSP, Notoginseng and Salviae are extracted separately with hot water in circulating systems and filtered. The filtrates are condensed under decompressed conditions, filtered and precipitated. The concentrates are refined using resin columns and concentrated under decompressed conditions. The refined water-soluble extracts thus obtained were mixed with synthetic Borneol and pharmaceutical carriers. The mixture is made to a small pill using a special dropping machine. The quality of DSP is controlled by standarizing the quantity as well as the proportion of its major therapeutic components Saponon, phenolic acid such as Danshensu and Borneol. Thin-layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, fingerprinting and other analytical techniques are used to identify and quantitate therapeutic components in DSP.
Manufacturing of DSP
1. Extraction of water-soluble components of Panax Notoginseng
(a) Dilution of herbs with 5-7 times of water.
(b) Extraction of water-soluble components of Panax Notoginseng by boiling in a tank with the air pressure between 0.04-0.06 mPa for 2 hours.
(c) Repeat extraction under the same condition for 1.5 hours.
(d) Filtration of the extraction with 100-mesh net.
(e) Refine the filtrate using macroporous adsorption resin eluting with ethanol.
(g) Concentration of the eluted extracts under decompressed condition with the air input to 0.04-0.06 mPa and the vacuum to -0.076—0.088 mPa until the density is 1.33-1.35.
2. Extraction of water-soluble components of Radix Salviae
(a) Dilution of herbs with 5-7 times of water.
(b) Extraction cf water-soluble components of Radix Salviae Miltorrhizae by boiling in a tank with the air pressure between 0.04-0.06 mPa for 2 hours.
(c) Repeat extraction under the same condition for 1.5 hours.
(d) Filtration of the extraction with 100-mesh net.
(e) Concentration of the filtrates under decompressed conditions with the vacuum pressure is-0.076--0.088 mPa until one Kg initial herb becomes one liter.]
(f) Precipitation of the concentrates with ethanol.
(g) Filtration of the ethanol precipitates solution through 100-mesh net.
(h) Concentration of the filtrates under decompressed conditions with input air pressure is 0.04-0.06 mPa and the vacuum pressure is 0.076--0.088 mPa.
(i) Refine the concentrates by polyamide chromatography eluting with ethanol.
(j) Concentrate the refined extracts to the density of 1.33-1.35.
3. DSP production
(a) Mix the extracts of Panax Notoginseng, the extracts of Radix Salviae Miltorrhizae, synthetic boneol and polyethylene glycol 6000 at the ratio of 4.0:20.6:1.9:79.5.
(b) Melting the mixture.
(c) Manufacturing the melted mixture to DSP using the dropping machine with the following characteristics: the temperature of dropping pot is constantly 89-93°C, the cooling solution is liquid paraffin of which the temperature is lower than 8 °C, the inner diameter of the dropping head is 1.8mm, the outer diameter of the dropping head is 2.4mm, the distance between the dropping head and the surface of, cooling solution is 15 cm.
(d) Centrifugation of the pills at 800-1100 rpm for 15 minutes to remove oils.
Quality control of DSP
DSP contains the identified therapeutic components protocatechuic aldehyde and saponin as well as various other components. The contents of these compounds in herbs vary from lot to lot of herbs. To standarize the contents of therapeutic components in DSP and thus to control the quality of DSP, a method to identify and to quantitate therapeutic agents in medicaments has been developed. An example of the procedures comprises:
(a) Dissolve 30 DSPs in 3 ml methanol and ultrasonicate for 10 minutes.
(b) Centrifugation for 5 minutes.
(c) Fractionate the supernatant using standard analytical techniques using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, etc.
(d) Identification of the therapeutic components of DSP such as Sodium Danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, saponin, etc. by comparing DSP fractions with the relevant purified standards in regard to the position, size and color.
(e) Identifying and quantitating therapeutic components in DSP by comparing the position, size, and color of DSP fractions with the position, size and color of the relevant purified standards.
(f) Identifying therapeutic components in DSP by comparing
the relative retention time and relative area of peaks
in fingerprints with the relative retention time and
relative area of peaks in standard fingerprint.
TLC identification of DSP
A method for identifying Sodium Danshensu and protocatechuic aldehyde of a herbal composition capable of treating chronic stable angina pectoris by thin layer chromatography comprising the steps of:
a) preparing the assay comprising the steps of:
i. putting 30 pellets of the said composition in 3
ml methanol and dissolve by ultrasonation for 10
minutes to form a solution;
ii. centrifuging the solution for 5 minutes and
collect the supernatant;
iii. contacting 10 ul the solution onto a silicon G
gel plate containing 0.5% CMC-Na;
iv. developing the plate with a developing solution
comsisting of Chloroform, acetone and methane
acid in the ratio of 10:4:1.6;
v. drying and fumigating the plate with ammonia and
laying the plate up for 15 minutes;
vi. checking the plate under ultraviolet light, the
spot representing the said composition should be
at the corresponding position of the standards
and show the same color.
b) . using Sodium Danshensu and protocatechuic aldehyde as
A method for identifying gypenoside of a herbal composition capable of treating chronic stable angina pectoris by thin layer chromatography comprising the steps of:
a) preparing the assay comprising the steps of:
i. Put 30 pellets of the said composition in 5 ml ammonia solvent and dissolve by ultrasonation to form a solution;
ii Put the said solution into the macroporous adsorption resin column; the speed is 0.5/minute ;
ii. After washing the macroporous adsorption resin column with 20 ml distilled water, the macroporous adsorption resin column is eluted with 2 ml methanol solution;
iii. collecting the eluant;
v. contacting 10 ul said eluant onto a silicon G gel
plate containing 0.5% CMC-Na;
vi. developing the plate with 10 ml developing solution which is a lower layer clarificant of the solution of Chloroform, acetone and water in the ratio of 6:3:1 after 2 hours at 10DC;
vii. After being dried and sprayed with 10% ethanol sulfate, the plate is baked at 105DC for several minutes;
viii. Check the plate under normal light, the spot
representing the said composition should be at
the corresponding position of the standards and
show the same color.
b) . using total gypenoside, Saponin Rl and ginsenoside Rgl
as the standards.
Fingerprints of Cardiotonic Pill
1. Preparation of fingerprints
(1) Chromatographic system and system suitability Alkyl silan-linking silico-18 was used as the stationary phase, and the mixture of A and B as mobile phase. A was methanol and B was the mixture of water- wN,N-dimethyl-formamide" -glacial acetic acid (100: 45: 4). The concentration of A changes from 5% to 3 0% when time of gradient elution elapses from 0 to 25 minutes. The detective wavelength was set at 281nm. The number of theoretical plates of the column was not less than 2000 when calculated with the peak of Danshensu.
(2) Apparatus and reagents
Chromatograph: HP 1100 Liquid Chromatograph Detector: HP VWD-stile ultraviolet detector Column: Alltech Company 5u, 250X4.6mm, ODS column Pre-column: Alltech Company, Alltima Cis 5u pre-column Temperature of the column: 30°C
(3) Preparation of the control sample Salvianic acid B, Danshensu and protocatechuic aldehyde were dissolved respectively in methanol to produce three control
solutions each ml containing 50 m g, 40 m g and 10 m g correspondingly.
(4) Preparation of the test sample
Put 10 pills of Cardiotonic Pill into a 25 ml measuring flask, add 20ml of methanol, ultrasonicate for 20 minutes, allow to cool, dilute the solution to the scale-line with methanol, centrif ugate and take the supernate as the test solution.
Accurately inject 10 m1 each of the control solutions and the test solution, respectively, into the column, record the chromatograph chart and calculate the content.
2. Fingerprints of different batches of Cardiotonic Pill Twenty batches of Cardiotonic Pill samples were tested with the above-described method, and statistical data is shown as Table 1, Table 2 and Table 3. These data revealed that Cardiotonic Pill had specific fingerprint of its own and the fingerprints contained eight common peaks, that is, these peaks should exist simultaneously in each batch of DSP. Taking protocatechuic aldehyde peak as reference-peak, whose relative retention time was 1, the average value of relative retention time of the eight peaks was 0.672, 1.000, 1.417, 1.512, 2.016, 2.235, 2.407, 2.757. The values of relative retention time and relative area of the eight peaks were very stable, and among the eight common peaks, peak No.l was Danshensu, peak No.2 protocatechuic aldehyde and peak No.7 Salvianic acid B, and the ratio of relative area value was 0.476-0.668: i: 0.391-0.641. respectively.
Fingerprints of three batches of Cardiotonic Pill are also provided as Figures 1 through 3.
Table 1. The peak retention time & relative retention time of 20 batches of DSP
^s. Common Peak No. 1 Peak No. 2 Peak No. 3 Peak No. 4 Peak ; No. 5 Peak : No. 6 Peak No. 7 Peak No. 8
^vPeaks Batch No.^\ Retention Relative Retention Relative ret-ition .. _ retention s. time time time time Retention Relative i .. retentionnme ■- time Retention Relative i .- retentior time time Retention Relative Retention Relative l .. retention .. ^ retentior time time time time Retention Relative i . .. retentior hme time Retention Relative i .. retention time time
19990806 8.347 0.676 12.341 1.000 17.662 1.431 18.802 1.524 25.090 2.033 27. 805 2.253 30. 047 2.435 34.146 2.767
19990815 8.313 0.676 12. 305 1.000 17.631 1.433 18.769 1.525 25. 072 2.038 27. 793 2.259 30. 046 2.442 34.092 2.771
19990823 8.285 0.672 12. 338 1.000 17.498 1.418 18. 673 1.513 25. 034 2.029 27. 742 2.249 29.897 2.423 34. 186 2.771
19990921 8.302 0.672 12.350 1.000 17.553 1.421 18. 739 1.517 25.005 2.025 27.715 2.244 29. 875 2.419 34. 155 2. 766
19990928 8.299 0.672 12.352 1.000 17.549 1.421 18. 727 1.516 24. 968 2.021 27.661 2.239 29. 804 2.413 34.070 2.758
19991014 8.290 0.672 12. 344 1.000 17. 496 1.417 18. 677 1.513 24.903 2.017 27. 604 2.236 29. 743 2.410 34.019 2.756
19991026 8.295 0.672 12.337 1.000 17.513 1. 420 18.673 1.514 24.889 2.017 27.600 2.237 29. 747 2.411 34.017 2.757
19991109 8.286 0.672 12.329 1.000 17.477 1.418 18.642 1.512 24.852 2.016 27.571 2.236 29.722 2.411 34.014 2.759
19991127 8.291 0.672 12.341 1.000 17.502 1.418 18.660 1.512 24.882 2.016 27.594 2.236 29. 737 2.410 34.026 2.757
19991205 8.291 0.672 12.340 1.000 17.500 1.418 • 18.659 1.512 24.862 2.015 27. 569 2.234 29.708 2.407 34.007 2.756
20000106 8.287 0.672 12.338 1.000 17.503 1.419 18.664 1.513 24.867 2.015 27.576 2.235 29.721 2.409 34.026 2. 758
20000216 8.294 0,671 12.352 1.000 17.536 1.420 18.687 1.513 24.887 2.015 27.590 2.234 29. 730 2.407 34.066 2.758
20000323 8.256 0.670 12.329 1.000 17.402 1.411 18.606 1.509 24.869 2.017 27.561 2.235 29.644 2.404 34.067 2. 763
20000406 8.272 0.670 12.349 1.000 17.428 1.411 18.628 1.508 24.843 2.012 27.534 2.230 29.613 2.398 34.012 2.754
20000422 8.274 0.670 12.348 1.000 17.425 1.411 18.609 1.507 24.799 2.008 27.493 2.227 29.572 2.395 33.975 2.751
20000513 8.276 0.670 12.350 1.000 17.439 1.412 18.611 1.507 24.791 2.007 27.479 2.225 29.553 2.393 33.944 2.749
20000606 8.273 0.670 12.347 1.000 17.421 1.411 18.597 1.506 24.755 2.005 27.451 2.223 29.524 2.391 33.918 2.747
20000726 8.283 0.670 12.356 1.000 17.413 1.409 18.598 1.505 24. 744 2.003 27. 440 2.221 29.513 2.389 33.925 2.746
20000728 8.287 0.670 12.368 1.000 17.487 1.414 18.653 1.508 24.807 2.006 27.500 2.223 29.573 2.391 34.001 2.749
20000804 8.274 0.670 12.351 1.000 17.434 1.412 18.597 1.506 24.746 2.004 27.441 2.222 29. 515 2.390 33.941 2.748
Average value 8.289 0.672 12.343 1.000 17.493 1.417 18.664 1.512 24. 883 2.016 27. 586 2.235 29. 714 2.407 34.030 2.757
RSD% 0.225 0.266 0.104 0.000 0.398 0.447 0.313 0.362 0.416 0.476 0.399 0.463 0.540 0.606 0.219 0.273
Table 2. The peak area value & area ratio of 20 batches of DSP
^s. Common Peak No. 1 Peak No. 2 Peak No. 3 Peak No. 4 Peak No. 5 Peak No. 6 Peak No. 7 Peak No. 8
Batch No>\ Area Area ratio Area Area ratio Area Area ratio Area Area ratio Area Area ratio Area Area ratio Area Area ratio Area Area ratio
19990806 1044.800 0.668 1563.800 1.000 269. 790 0.173 240.540 0.154 266.040 0.170 583.830 0.373 1001.800 0.641 1568.000 1.003
19990815 834. 300 0.576 1448.900 1.000 359. 860 0.248 347. 080 0.240 340. 390 0.235 348. 490 0.241 600. 210 0.414 994. 740 0.687
19990823 1036.100 0.576 1800.300 1.000 409. 060 0.227 334. 160 0.186 486. 430 0.270 495. 600 0.275 823. 430 0.457 1632.800 0.907
19990921 980.840 0.568 1726. 000 1.000 379. 050 0.220 317.920 0.184 498. 570 0.289 479. 530 0.278 875. 440 0. 507 1518.700 0.880
19990928 1068.000 0.549 1943. 800 1.000 397. 230 0.204 329. 450 0.169 514.290 0.265 595. 650 0.306 1092. 700 0.562 1828. 100 0.940
19991014 984. 660 0.589 1670. 700 1.000 353. 250 0.211 297. 610 0.178 504. 860 0.302 504. 900 0.302 879. 420 0.526 1378.000 0.825
19991026 978.100 0.556 1758. 900 1.000 348. 520 0.198 282. 550 0.161 451. 380 0.257 416.600 0.237 800. 660 0.455 1303. 700 0.741
19991109 974.320 0.603 1617.100 1.000 334.350 0.207 275.060 0.170 477. 390 0.295 491.810 0.304 836.830 0.517 1302.800 0.806
19991127 1053.800 0.565 1865.300 1.000 413.960 0.222 327.640 0.176 499. 750 0.268 521.160 0.279 1047. 200 0.561 1643.800 0.881
19991205 1089.600 0.564 1931.200 1.000 391.970 0.203 3.34. 240 0.173 468. 210 0.242 521.600 0.270 890.080 0.461 1659.100 0.859
20000106 1130.800 0.571 1979.800 1.000 408. 490 0.206 347.890 0.176 512.040 0.259 519.150 0.262 891.890 0.450 1747.000 0.882
20000216 1114.900 0.548 2034.600 1.000 419.800 0.206 426.030 0.209 570. 720 0.281 521.100 0.256 1232.200 0.606 1767.500 0.869
20000323 1080.000 0.599 1801.900 1.000 323.240 0.179 294.760 0.164 562.520 0.312 602.060 0.334 1041.600 0.578 1544.700 0.857
20000406 1132.600 0.583 1943.200 1.000 431.080 0.222 374.840 0.193 609.180 0.313 655.030 0.337 1166.600 0.600 1642.400 0.845
20000422 1124.400 0.508 2212.300 1.000 378.160 0.171 356.690 0.161 574.650 0.260 692.970 0.313 1189.700 0.538 1758.300 0.795
20000513 1088.200 0.564 1928.200 1.000 390.250 0.202 331.510 0.172 466.050 0.242 518.200 0.269 886.300 0.460 1750.200 0.908
20000606 1033.200 0.575 1796.300 1.000 408.200 0.227 333. 210 0.185 485. 200 0.270 492.920 0.274 821.520 0.457 1613.200 0.898
20000726 985.250 0.569 1730.200 1.000 382. 510 0.221 322. 210 0.186 502.350 0.290 483.060 0.279 880. 210 0.509 1523.200 0.880
20000728 1120.320 0.521 2148. 500 1.000 410.920 0.191 385.540 0.179 621.250 0.289 672.250 0.313 1178.200 0.548 1692. 300 0.788
20000804 831.320 0.577 1440.300 1.000 321. 250 0.223 301. 280 0.209 321. 240 0.223 392. 720 0.273 683. 270 0.474 1081. 360 0.751
Average value !1034. 276 0.572 1817.065 1.000 376. 547 0.208 328.011 0.181 486.626 0.267 525.432 0.289 940. 963 0.516 1547.495 0.850
RSD% 8. 486 5.612 11.452 0.000 10.914 9.354 12. 553 11.003 18. 592 12. 698 16.851 11.766 18. 292 12.061 14. 739 8.647
Table 3. The statistical data of eight peaks derived from fingerprints
of 20 batches of DSP
Retention Relative , Area
n , „ „,. ■ Retention Appearance . . _ . _
Peak No. Time Time Probability Area Ratio Area Ratio Range
1 8.289 0.672 100% 1034.276 0.572 0.572 ±0.096
2 12.343 1.000 100% 1817. 065 1.000 1.000 ±0.000
3 17.493 1.417 100% 376. 547 0.208 0.208 ±0.040
4 18.664 1.512 100% 328.011 0.181 0. 181 ±0.059
5 24. 883 2.016 100% 486.626 0.267 0. 267±0.097
6 27. 586 2.235 100% 525.432 0.289 0.289±0.052
7 29.714 2.407 100% 940.963 0.516 0. 516+0.125
8 34. 030 2.757 100% 1547.495 0.850 0.850±0.163
Quantitative analysis of Danshensu in DSP
Chromatography and systemic adaptive conditions, apparatus and reagents:
1. Preparation of fingerprints
(1) The parameters of Chromatogram & system adjustment. Alkyl silan-linking silico-18 was used as filling material, and water-acetonitrile-glacial acetic acid (87: 12: 1) as mobile phase. Detective wave length was set at 281 nm. The number of theoretical plate should not be less than 2500 when calculated with the peak of Danshensu, and the degree of separation should meet the requirements.
(2) Apparatus & reagents
Chromatograph: HP 1100 Liquid Chromatograph Detector: HP VWD-stile ultraviolet detector Column: Alltech Company 5u, 250 x 4.6 mm, ODS column Pre-column: Alltech Company, Alltima C18 5u pre-column Temperature of the column: 30°C
Acetonitrile: chromatographically pure, Tianjin Siyou Biomedical & Technical Co. Ltd.
Glacial acetic acid: analytically pure, Tianjin Tianhe Reagent Company.
(3) Preparation of the control sample.
Use 25.0 mg of sodium salvianic acid and 5.0mg of protocatechuic
aldehyde as the control samples: Weigh both of the samples accurately and put them into the 50 ml measuring flasks. Add mobile phase to dissolve them and dilute the solutions up to the scale-line of the flasks, shake them'thoroughly and save them as the stock solutions. Weigh a little amount of paraaminobenzoic acid accurately, dissolve it as a solution of 0.2 mg/ml with the mobile phase and take it as the internal standard stock solution. Pipit proper amounts of sodium salvianic acid A, protocatechuic aldehyde and internal standard solutions whit their volumes accurately read, dilute them with the mobile phase to prepare a solution that contained 50 ug of sodium salvianic acid A, 10 ug of protocatechuic aldehyde and 80 ug of paraaminobenzoic acid. The prepared solution was taken as the control solution.
(4) Preparation of the test sample.
Take 10 pills of Cardiotonic Pill and 1 ml of internal standard stock solution, put them into a 25 ml measuring flask, dissolve them with mobile phase, and dilute the solution to the scale-line.
Take 10 ml of the control and the test sample solutions, respectively, make the injection and record the chromatograph chart.
Preparation of the control solution: Take and weigh accurately 25.0mg of sodium tanshinol, and put it into a measuring flask. Add the mobile phase, and dissolve and dilute it to the scale. Shake the solution up, and keep it as the control stock solution. Weigh para-aminobenzoic acid accurately and dilute it into a 0.2mg/ml solution with the mobile phase. Keep the solution as the internal standard stock solution. Take appropriate doses of the control stock solution and the internal standard stock solution, and make them into the control solution comprising 50 u g of sodium tanshinol and 80mg of para-aminobenzoic acid per milliliter.
Preparation of the test solution: Take 10 pills of this article
and 1ml of the internal stock solution. Put them in a 25ml measuring flask, dissolve them to the scale and make them into the test solution.
Take 101 of the control solution and 101 of the test solution respectively, take down the fingerprints and calculate the results.
The herbal composition comprising DSP should contains 0.14-0.18mg Danshensu per pill.
Quantitative analysis of Ginsenoside Rgl and Sanchinoside Rl in DSP
(1) Chromatographic system and system suitability
Alkyl silan-linking silico-18 was used as the stationary phase, and the mixture of water and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The concentration of acetonitrile was 25% from 0 to 15 minutes, and 35% after 15th minute. Nebulizer gas flowrate was 2.5 liter per minute and drift tube temperature was set at 93.8°C. The number of theoretical plates of the column was not less than 5000 when calculated with the peak of Ginsenoside Rgl.
(2) Apparatus and reagents
Chromatograph: Agilent 1100 Liquid Chromatograph
Detector: Alltech ELSD 2000 detector (evaporative light
Column: Alltech Company 5u, 250X4.6mm, ODS-C18 column
Pre-column: Alltech Company, Alltima C18 5u pre-column
Temperature of the column: 30°C
(3) Preparation of the control sample
Ginsenoside Rgl and Sanchinoside Rl were dissolved respectively in methanol to produce two control solutions each ml containing 0.98mg and 0.25mg correspondingly.
(4) Preparation of the test sample
Put 50 pills of Cardiotonic Pill into a 5 ml measuring flask,
add 4% ammonia to the scale-line, ultrasonicate for 20 minutes, and apply the solution to a previously prepared small C18 column (STRATA C18-E column of Phenomenex Company, 500mg and 3cc tube) , elute 10ml of water, discard the eluate, then elute 2ml of methanol, collect the eluate in a measuring flask and dilute it to the scale-line with methanol, take the solution as the test solution.
Accurately inject 10 U 1 each of the control solutions and the test solution, respectively, into the column, record the chromatograph chart and calculate the content.
Twenty batches of Cardiotonic Pill samples were tested with the above-described method, and statistical data is shown as Table 4. Drawn on above table, the herbal composition comprising DSP contains 0.401%-0.712%, average 0.550% Sanchinoside Rl and 2.069%-4.044%, average 2.847% Ginsenoside Rgl.
Table 4. Quantities of Ginsenoside Rgl and Sanchinoside Rl in DSP
Sanchinoside Rl (U Ginsenoside Rgl (u
Batch No. g/pill) g/pill)
20000106 17.22 80.93
• 20000216 16.92 80.78
20000323 15.16 70.76
20000406 13.65 62.51
20000422 14.24 68.72
20000513 15.27 71.16
20000606 14.86 68.21
20000726 14.59 72.35
20000728 14.25 57.37
20000804 15.30 70.55
Average value 15.15 70.33
RSD% 7.53 9.67
not less than 12.12 56.26
The characteristics of DSP thus manufactured are as follows:
(a) DSP contain b-3#4-dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid, sodium danshensu, saponin, and borneol,
(b) negative for bacteria: contains less than 1,000 bacteria,
(c) negative for fungi: contains less than 100 fungi,
(d) • negative for heavy metal: contains less than the safety
amount defined by the Chinese government.
(e) The shelf-life of DSP is four years at room
CLINICAL STUDIES OF DSP
Angina pectoris is evaluated by the history of angina, serum lipid level, electrocardiography (ECG), exercise ECG, scintiographic assessment of ischemia, coronary angiography, etc. Assessing therapeutic efficacy using these end points, DSP has been shown to be effective for treating angina pectoris.
DSP is effective for angina pectoris.
157 patients with coronary heart disease were treated with 10 DSPs per t.i.d., oral administration for 4 weeks. Assessing the frequency, intensity and duration of angina, oppressed feeling in chest and palpitation, the symptoms were disappeared or remitted in 95.3% patients.
DSP is more efficient than Dan Shen tablets in alleviating angina. Dan Shen tablet is another Chinese medicament for treating angina pectoris currently used in China. The efficacy of DSP and Dan Shen tablet was compared. Coronary heart disease patients were randomly divided into two groups. 107 patients were treated with DSP and 50 patients were treated with Dan Shen Tablet. Comparing the frequency of angina attacks and the consumption of nitrates, DSP was more effective than Dan Shen Tablets for treating angina pectoris. See Table 5 below.
Table 5. Comparison of DSP and Dan Shen tablet
Number of patients
DEP 107 102 (95.3%)
Dan Shen tablet 50 38 (76%)
Having proven that DSP is more effective than Dan Shen tablets, the efficacy of DSP was compared with various drugs which are currently used for treating chronic stable angina pectoris in the US.
Comparison of DSP and nitroglycerine
Nitroglycerine is the frequently used to relieve angina. The efficacy of DSP and nitroglycerine relieving angina was compared. At the onset of angina, patients were treated with either DSP or nitroglycerine, and the time required to alleviate angina was compared. Both DSP and nitroglycerine alleviate angina in all patients within 15 minutes. The efficacy of DSP was slightly lower than nitroglycerine. See Table 6 below.
Table 6. Comparison of DSP and nitroglycerine
within 1-5 minutes 6-10 minutes 11-15 minutes
DSP 11 14 5
Nitroglycerine 17 12 1
Total: 30 patients per group
DSP does not change heart rate
The date demonstrate that DSP effectively alleviate angina. It was examined whether DSP relieves anginal by increasing heart rate. The heart rate after DSP treatment was equivalent to the pretreatment rate, which indicates that DSP relieves angina without affecting heart rate (Table 7).
Table 7. DSP does not affect heart rate
DSP 84.3+23.1 82.8+22.8
Comparison of the efficacy of DSP with the nitrate isosorbide dinitrate
Having proven that DSP alleviate angina as efficiently as nitroglycerin, it was examined whether DSP can prevent angina. The efficacy of DSP and the nitrate isosorbide dinitrate was compared. Isosorbide dinitrate is a long-acting nitrate frequently used for preventing chronic stable angina pectoris in the US. Patients were treated with either DSP three times per day orally 10 pills per treatment or Isosorbide dinitrate three times per day orally 10 mg per treatment. Cardiac function and Electrocardiogram was examined.
The efficacy of DSP and nitrates on cardiac function was evaluated by measuring cardiac output per stroke (CO), stroke volume per minute (SV) , eject blood fraction (EF), fraction of shortened rate of left ventricular short axis (FS). DSP improves cardiac function more efficiently than nitrates. See Table 8 below.
Table 8. The effect of DSP and nitrates on cardiac function
DSP Isosorbide initrate
Pre- Post- Pre- Post
~SV 75.38 + 8.32 83.45 + 9.11 74.96 + 8.44 79.47 + 8.72
CO 5.61 + 1.34 6.94 + 1.36 6.54 + 1.36 6.12 + 1.41
EF 0.57 + 0.02 0.79 + 0.02 0.59 + 0.03 0.70 + 0.03
FS 17.14 + 3.4 16.69 + 3.6 17.32 + 3.1 18.46 + 4.2
Pre- : preteatment
DSP improves ECG
The ST-T effective rate was evaluated by recording the frequency of change in the ST-T segment. Both DSP and isosorbide dinitrates decreased the frequency of change in ST-T significantly. DSP, however, was more efficient. See Table 9 below.
Table 9. Comparison of the effect of DSP and nitrate on ECG
The frequency of ST-T change
DSP 131 35
isosorbide dinitrate 129 42
Comparison of DSP and aspirin in reducing blood stasis Hemorrhage at the atherosclerotic lesions induces platelet activation, coronary thrombosis and blood stasis resulting in impaired blood flow. Thus to improve blood flow, chronic administration of the platelet-activation inhibitor aspirin is recommended for patients with angina. The efficacy of DSP and aspirin improving blood flow was compared by evaluating [Hb, Lb, P and air flow] . DSP improves blood flow as efficiently as aspirin. DSP improves blood flow as efficiently as aspirin. See Table 10 below.
Table 10. DSP and aspirin improve blood flow
Pre- Post- Pre- Post-
Hb 6.23 + 1.67 4.35 + 1.02 6.12 + 1.56 4.28 + 1.07
LB 10.92 + 2.21 8.30 + 1.14 10.38 + 1.96 8.21 + 0.3
P 1.95 + 0.08 1.77 + 0.08 1.89 + 0.12 1.67 + 0.7
flow 1.79 + 0.13 1.39 + 0.11 1.82 + 0.17 1.40 + 0.10
Total number of patients: 25 for DSP and 28 for aspirin
DSP reduces blood stasis by inhibiting platelet activation Thromboxane B2 activates platelet. Activated platelets release various substances including (S platelet microglobulin, which
causes blood stasis, thus impairing blood flow. The efficacy of DSP inhibiting platelet activation was examined. DSP lowers thromboxane B2 concentration and inhibits platelet aggregation efficiently. Isosorbide dinitrate, which is known to be unable to inhibit platelet activation thus used as control, did not reduce thromboxane B2 or inhibit platelet activation. See Table 11 below.
Table 11. DSP inhibits platelet activation
j8 PM DSP 62.44 +_ 14.37 45.65 + 12.25
nitrates 59.89 +_ 15.42 54.36 + 13.18
Tx/32 DSP 1312 +_ 535 738 + 384
nitrates 1315 + 507 1218 + 445
DSP lowers plasma cholesterol level
Increased plasma cholesterol has been implicated in the initiation of atherosclerosis. To prevent the formation of new atherosclerotic lesions, the decrease of plasma cholesterol either by modifying diets:or drugs was recommended. It was examined whether DSP decreases plasma cholesterol. DSP lowered the cholesterol level by 0.3 mmol/L, which is statistically significant at the P value 0.05. See Table 12 below.
Table 12. DSP decreases plasma cholesterol
Plasma cholesterol (mmol/L)
DSP 5.15+0.16 4.84+0.2
Number of patients: 80
Cardiotonic Pill's Effect on LPO and SOD in the Blood Serum of Patients Suffering from Coronary Heart Disease
The method: In the treatment group, 24 patients, in accordance with China Reference Diagnosis Standards for Coronary Heart Disease amended in 1979, are administered with Cardiotonic Pill, 10 pills/time, and 3 times/day. In the normal group, 20 healthy
people do not receive any medical treatment.
The results: The level of LPO of the patients suffering from coronary heart disease is clearly higher than that of the healthy people, while the content of SOD is clearly lower (p Table 13 . A Comparison of the Contents of SOD and LPO in the Normal and the Treatment Groups (x±s)
Groups Patients SOD (ng/ml) LPO (nmol/ml)
Normal group 20 348±106 4.64±1.52
Treatment group 24 Before treatment 267176* 7.1611.48*
After treatment 309±87#. 4.68il.72##
Note: In comparison with the normal group, *p The conclusion: Chronic ischemia of cardiac muscles of patients suffering from coronary heart disease and tissue anoxia lead to the reduction of the activity of SOD, especially that of extra cellular SOD, and the increase of oxygen free radicals, which causes the elevation of LPO and consumption of SOD further. After the patients are treated with Cardiotonic Pill, the level of LPO decreases evidently, while the content of the SOD increases obviously. This proves that Cardiotonic Pill has a strong action of clearance on oxygen free radicals, which is also one of the mechanisms to treat coronary heart disease.
The Effect of Cardiotonic Pill on the Activities of LPO and Antioxidases in Treatment of Pulmonary Heart Disease
The method: The subjects: 48 patients suffering from pulmonary heart disease are randomly divided into 3 groups. In the normal group, 16 patients are treated with a complex of therapies, such as anti-inf lamatory therapy, antiasthma, oxygen inhalation, and so on. In the Cardiotonic Pill group, 14 patients are treated with Cardiotonic Pill, 10 pills/time, and 3 times/day. In the
Gantangzhi group , 18 patients are treated with the intravenous
drip 200mg of Gantangzhi dissolved in 250ml of 5% glucose
injection, 1 time/day, and 10 days/period.
The results: After treatment with Cardiotonic Pill, the value of GSH-Px goes up, the value of LPO goes down, and, therefore, GSH-Px/LPO goes up. In comparison with the normal treatment group, there is a significant difference. See Table 14 below.
Table 14. Indices before and after Treatments
GSH-P, (U/mgHb) CAT (U/gHb) SOD (U/gHb) LPO(nmol/ml) GSH-Px/LPO
Healthy people group 140.6+35.2 312.7+ 58.1 5799.8+948 4.2 ±1.2 34.2 + 8.7
Normal group Before treatment 101.3+23.6 300.4+ 107.7 5740.5+ 939.0 5.6±1.9 20.4 + 8.8
After treatment 120.6 + 20.6* 390+ 184.3* 6076.8+ 1091 4.3 + 1.2** 31.3 + 15.1**
Cardiotonic Pill group Before treatment 108.8+28.3 233.1 + 70.2 5863.3 + 1072.7 5.9+2.0 18.5 + 7.6
After treatment 158.2 + 40.7**" 328.4 + 78.5*** 5582.8+ 1094.7*' 4.1 + 1.6**" 36.4 + 6.7**"
Note: Comparing those before treatment with those after treatment, #p>0.05, ##p0.05, **p The conclusion: Cardiotonic Pill has the function of antioxidation, and can lighten the lipid peroxidation reaction and raise the ability of antioxidation of human body.
Treatment with Cardiotonic Pill for Essential Hypertension The method: (1) The choice of patients: Select those patients suffering from Phase I or II essential hypertension, but without secondary hypertension or cardiac, hepatic and renal insufficiencies.
(2) The administration: Stop the patients from taking any western and traditional Chinese medicines (except for hypotensors) for two weeks, and then, in the third week, measure their blood pressures and blood rheologyical indices and take down their clinical manifestations. The double blind method is adopted. In the Cardiotonic Pill group, the subjects take orally Cardiotonic Pill, 10 pi lis/time, and 3 times/day. In Compound Danshen Tablet
group, the subjects take orally Compound Danshen Tablet, 5 tablets/time, and 3 times/day. The subjects in the control group take placebos, and the period of treatment is six weeks.
The results: (1) Effect on the viscosity of whole blood. After treatment, the viscosities of whole blood of patients in both the Cardiotonic Pill group and the Compound Danshen Tablet group drop remarkably, but the curves of the viscosities of whole blood in the Cardiotonic Pill group at any shear rates go down more sharply than those in the Compound Danshen Tablet group. See Table 15.
Table 15. Effect of Cardiotonic Pill on the Viscosity of Whole Blood (mPas, x±s)
Groups 3.83s" 28.3 s"1 192 s'1
Cardiotonicgroup(30 subjects) Before treatment 18.27+2.85 5.82±0.93 4.54 ±0.78
After treatment 11.79+ 3.75"**** 4.78 ± 3.98 + 0.65******
Compound Danshen Tablet group (30 subjects) Before treatment 17.69+1.96 5.86±0.79 4.69±0.54
After treatment 14.68+ 3.41"** 5.69±0.81*& 4.42±0.59"&&
Control group (15 subjects) Before treatment 17.65+2.07 5.69±0.79 4.75±0.58
After treatment 18.02 ±2.32 5.71 ±2.76 4.86±0.65
Note: In comparison with those of the same group before treatment, *p (2) Effect on the deformation and the aggregation of erythrocytes. After treatment, the deformation of erythrocytes in Cardiotonic Pill group is markedly greater than that before treatment, and the area and the index of aggregation are observably smaller than those before treatment. And comparing with the Compound Danshen Tablet group, the Cardiotonic Pill group declines much faster (p 39
Table 16. Effect of Cardiotonic Pill on the Deformation and the Aggregation of Erythrocytes (x±s)
Groups Index of Deformation Index of Aggregation Area of Aggregation(integral)
Cardiotonicgroup(30 subjects') Before treatment 0.4115 ± 0.0360 4.06 ±0.39 841.12 + 67.68
After treatment 0.4274 ± 0.034'& 3.41 ± 0.36"*** 683.52+69.09**#&&
Compound Danshen Tablet group (30 subjects) Before treatment 0.4066 + 0.0290 3.98+0.34 806.90+66.30
After treatment 0.4180± 0.0281** 3.64± 0.39*,&& 716.12+84.29*'*
Control group (15 subjects) Before treatment 0.4091 + 0.0376 4.02 ±0.41 812.52+65.64
After treatment 0.4001 + 0.0381 4.01 ±0.39 804.44 ±68.06
Note: In comparison with those of the same group before treatment, *p (3) Effect on Blood Pressure. After treatment, the systolic
pressures and the diastolic pressures of patients in both the
Cardiotonic Pill group and the Compound Danshen Tablet group drop
markedly (p the two groups. See Table 17.
(4) Effect on symptoms of hypertension. The patients in both the
Cardiotonic Pill group and the Compound Danshen Tablet group
improve a lot in terms of such symptoms as headache, dizziness,
and numb extremities (p See Table 18.
Table 17. Effect of Cardiotonic Pill on Blood Pressure (xnmHg, x±s)
Groups Systolic pressure Diastolic pressure
Cardiotonic group (30 subjects) Before treatment 155.00±8.08 90.70±7.93 .
After treatment 149.20±8.89**&& 86.59±8.30**&&
Compound Danshen Tablet group (30 subjects) Before treatment 152.93±9.59 92.59±8.30
After treatment 146.02±10.20**&& 88.55±7.22**&&
Control group (15 subjects) Before treatment 154.06±7.05 90.90±9.10
After treatment 152.08±9.25 91.10±8.70
Note: In comparison with those of the same group before treatment, **P 40
Table 18. Effect of Cardiotonic Pill on Clinical Symptoms of
Groups Headache Dizziness Numb extremities Insomnia
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
Cardiotonic group (30 subjects) Before treatment 20 10 16 14 12 18 8 22
After treatment 7 23' 2 28' 3 27' 4 26
CompoundDanshenTabletgroup(30subjects) Before treatment 22 8 17 13 10 20 6 24
After treatment 15 15' 8 22* 3 27' 6 248
Control group (15 subjects) Before treatment 8 7 6 9 4 11 4 11
After treatment 7 8 5 10 3 12 2 13
Note: In comparison with those of the same group before treatment, *P The conclusion: The rheological property of erythrocytes of patients suffering from essential hypertension is clearly abnormal. The deformation of erythrocytes debases clearly, while the aggregation rises distinctly. The experiment shows that Cardiotonic Pill has the functions of markedly reducing the viscosity of whole blood 'and the index of and the area of aggregation of erythrocytes, and greatly raising the ability of deformation of erythrocytes. Cardiotonic Pill can also lower the blood pressure and improve clinical symptoms of the patients. And thus, Cardiotonic Pill is of great benefit to preventing or postponing the occurrence of essential hypertension and cardio-cerebral syndrome.
DSP is safe and nontoxic. In China, over 5 million patients have been treated with DSP without severe side effects. Mild side effects, headache or dizziness, have been reported in a minor portion of patients.
Summary of clinical studies
DSP is a new generation Chinese medicine for treating coronary
heart disease. Clinical studies demonstrate that DSP alleviates
as well as prevent angina by improving cardiac function, reducing myocardial ischemia, inhibiting platelet activation thus reducing blood stasis, and decreasing plasma cholesterol. The therapeutic efficacy of DSP was superior to another form of Chinese medicament Dan Shen tablets. DSP is as efficient as drugs used in the USA. DSP is aleviate angina as efficiently as nitroglycerine, prevents angina as efficiently as the long-acting nitrate isosorbid dinitrate, and inhibits platelet aggregation as effectively as aspirin. DSP is nontoxic: over 5 million people have been treated without noticeable side effects in most cases.
Preclinical studies reveal the mechanism by which DSP prevent
as well as alleviate angina.
DSP alleviate angina by increasing blood flow. Wistar rats, approximately 260 g, were anesthetized by urethane, opened the chest, excise the heart, perfused in the Langendorff mode at 37°C. And constant coronary perfusion pressure of 65 cm H20.
After stabilized the heart rate, various amounts of DSP or Danshen tablet were applied each time through lateral branch of aorta cannula. Subsequently, the coronary flow and the heart rate were measured. DSP increased coronary flow in a wide dosage. Danshen tablet, on the other hand, increased coronary flow at a narrow dosage. See Table 19 below.
Table 19. DSP increases coronary flow
Coronary flow Dose (mg/ml) Pretreatment post-treatment
7.1 + 0.97
7.0 + 1.4 8.7 + 1.4 9.3 + 2.9
7.1 + 1.5 9.1 + 2.1 7.1 + 1.5
7.0 + 1.1
7.2 + 1.1
6.7 + 1.6
6.7 + 1.5
6.7 + 1.4
7.3 + 1.7
6.8 + 1.4
None DSP 5.8
580 DS Tablet 5.8
The effect of DSP and Danshen tablets on heart rate was examined. Neither DSP nor Danshen tablet changes heart rate. See Table 20 below.
Table 20. DSP does not increase heart rate
Heart rate Dose (mg/ml) Pretreatment post-treatment
194 + 17 1:80 + 11
188 + 7 173 + 14 180 + 11
189 + 16 186 + 23
193 + 12 189 + 9 184 + 8 167 + 13 5.8 189 + 9 183 + 14 171 + 8
None DSP 5.8
580 DS tablet 5.8
DSP increases coronary flow by relaxing vascular smooth muscle thus dilating vessels.
The effect of DSP on potassium- induced vasocontraction of rabbit aortic strip was examined. DSP relaxed smooth muscle thus dilating vessels significantly. Similar effects were observed in the experiments using pig coronary artery rings.
DSP inhibits platelet aggregation
The effect of DSP on platelet aggregation was examined. Rabbit
platelets were treated with DSP and aggregation was examined. DSP
inhibited platelet aggregation significantly. See Table 21 below.
Table 21. DSP inhibits platelet aggregation
DSP(mg/ml) #animals Aggregation ratio(%) inhibition(%)
0 6 6.7±4.4
1.8 6 42.7±2.5
.5 6 33.4±3.4
7 6 25.3±2.1
14 6 15.8±3.0
Table 22 shows micronucleus rates in mice at Different Time After treatment with the herbal composition of this invention (8400 mg/kg) .
Time(h) Polychromatic R3Cs Micronucleus Cells Micro-rates(%) (x±SD)
12 6,000 9 1.5±0.8
24 6,000 11 1.8±0.7
36 6,000 11 1.8±1.2
48 6,000 11 1.8±1.5
72 6,000 13 2.2+0.7
Solvent 24 6,000 9 1.5+1.4
Table 23 shows the micronuleus rates in Mice at 24 hrs after DSP &. CP Administration.
Dose(mg/kg) Polychromatic RBCs Micronucleus Cells Micro-rates(%) (x±SD)
8,400 6,000 12 2.0±0.6
840 6,000 9 1.5±1.0
84 6,000 11 1.8±1.0
Solvent 6,000 9 1.5±1.4
CP (80mg/kg) 6,000 138 23.0±4.0*
· Compare with solvent P
Table 24 shows assessment criteria for graded effectiveness of tested drugs.
Parameters\ Effects Very high effect High Effect Effect No effect
RBCaggregationstatus No A little Marked Severe
onset Time 300
Micro-blood flow status Betterthan normal Turn to normal Improved Deteriorated
Duration(min) >15 15-10 10-5 DSP improves microcirculation
The effect of DSP on microcirculation in Chinese hamsters was examined. DSP improved microcirculation for 23 minutes within 111 minutes of buccal administration in all animals. See Table 25 below.
.Table 25. DSP improves microcirculation
onset Time (min) Duration (min) Effect rate (%)
DSP 111 . 23 100
Table 26 shows the protective effect of DSP on the myocardium induced by pituitrin in rats (second period).
Table 26. (n=8)
Group Dosage (g/kg) Before medication After medication
Before pituitrin After pituitrin(40s-15minutes) Number of ratswith abnormal ECG
Control Normal Normal 7
DSP 0.4 Normal Normal 3*
0.8 Normal Normal ]_**
1.2 Normal Normal ]_**
DST 0.4 Normal Normal 4
0.8 1 Normal Normal ]_**
Compared with the control. *p
Table 27 shows the inhibitory effect of DSP on myocardial ischemia induced by pituitrin in rat.
Group Dosage(g/kg) Inhibition(%)
DSP 0.4 71.4*
DST 0.4 42.8*
As compared with the control. *p Table 28 shows the protective effect of DSP on the myocardial ischemia induced by pituitrin in rats (first period).
Table 28 (n=8)
Group Dosage (q/kg) Changes in T-ST of ECG- (lead II) in the first period
Before medication After medication
Before pituitrin After pituitrin (0-40s.)Number of rats withabnormal ECG
elevated T inverte d T Total
Control - Normal Normal 4 3 7
DSP 0.4 Normal ; Normal 3 0 3*
0.8 Normal Normal 1 1 2*
1.2 Normal Normal 2 1 3*
DST 0.4 Normal Normal 3 2 5
0.8 Normal Normal 1 1 2*
As compared with control. *p Cardiotonic Pill's Action of Clearance on Oxygen Free Radicals The study of Cardiotonic Pill's action of clearance on oxygen free radicals is carried out by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and spin trapping, with superoxide anions and hydroxy radicals produced by using the xanthine- xanthine oxidase system and the H202-Fe2* system respectively.
The method: (1) Production of hydroxy radicals. Set up a test model according to the Fenton Principle. Mix up H202, ferrisulphas and DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline-l-oxide), and then carry out the EPR testing. The resulting signals serve as the control. Add
Cardiotonic Pill in the treatment group.
(2) Production of superoxide anions. Set up a test model based on the xanthine- xanthine oxidase reaction. Mix up xanthine, Dietrylene triamine Pentacetic acid, DMPO and xanthine oxidase, and then carry out the EPR testing. The resulting signals serve as the control. Add Cardiotonic Pill in the treatment group.
Ten samples for each of the four groups are tested, and the results are expressed in terms of the average. T-test is applied in the statistical analysis.
The Results: (1) Cardiotonic Pill's action of clearance on hydroxy radicals produced by the H202-Fe2+ system. An adduct DMPO-OH will be generated when a hydroxy radical is captured by a DMPO. The peak value of the adducts in the control group is
11.8±0.6 relative units, while that in the Cardiotonic Pill
group is 4.1+0.5 relative units. There is a significant
difference between them (p (2) Cardiotonic Pill's action of clearance on superoxide anions produced by the xanthine- xanthine oxidase system. An adduct DMPO-OOH will be generated when a superoxide anion is captured by a DMPO. The peak value of the adducts in the control group
is 10.6±0.67 relative units , while the spectral signals in the
Cardiotonic Pill group disappear completely. In comparison with the control group, there is a significant difference (p The above experiments show that Cardiotonic Pill has an effective action of clearance on superoxide anions produced by the xanthine- xanthine oxidase system and hydroxy radicals produced by the L202-Fe2+ system.
Cardiotonic Pill's Effect on Free Radicals of Cerebral Ischemia Reinfusion Injury Tissue of Rats
The method: Take 30 SD rats, and randomly divide them into 3 groups, which are the feigned operation group (An operation is performed, but the blood vessels and nerves are not ligated), the cerebral ischemia reinfusion model group and the Cardiotonic Pill group (4g/kg). After the 3-day continuous intraperitoneal (Ip) administration, and two hours after the administration on the third day, the rats are anaesthetized with the 20% Ethylurethanm and their conducting arteries in both sides of their necks and vagus nerves are separated and ligated. After a 30-minute reinfusion, cut off their heads and get their brains. Take about 500mg of cortical tissues of their left-brains and hippocampus tissues in both sides, and put them into the liquid nitrogen for homogenization. After they are made into a homogenate with freezing physiological saline, centrifugate the homogenate. Take the supernatant and determine the activities of CAT and SOD and the contents of MAD and GSH.
The results: See Table 29. ,(1) Cardiotonic Pill's effect on the activity of CAT and the content GSH of brain tissues. The activities of CAT of brain cortex and hippocampus tissues and the content of GSH of the brain cortex in the cerebral ischemia reinfusion model group are much lower than those in the feigned operation group. Both the activity of CAT of hippocampus tissues and the content of GSH of the brain cortex in the Cardiotonic Pill group are significantly greater than those in the model group.
Table 29. The Activities of CAT and SOD and the Contents of MDA and GSH of Brain Tissues of the Rats (mPas, x+s) (n=10)
Groups CAT Activity (U/mg Protein) GSH(vmol/mg Protein) SOD Activity '(U/mg Protein) MDA(nmol/mg Protein)
Brain Cortex Hippocampus Brain Cortex Hippocampus Brain Cortex Hippocampus Brain Cortex Hippocampus
FeignedOperationGroup 2.94± 0.17 2.78±0.14 18.49 ±0.70 16.87±0.92 14.24 ±0.90 20.34±0.74 0.502+0.054 1.084± 0.117
Model Group 2.17 + 0.248 1.97±0.238 14.76± 1.128 13.80±0.74 10.44±0.798 18.18± 0.628 0.718+0.0708 1.449 + 0.1408
Cardiotonic Pill Group 2.55± 0.35 2.79±0.213 17.14 ±0.76 15.76± 1.18* 13.31±0.775 20.59± 0.593 0.483+0.0653 1.069 + 0.1313
Note: In comparison with the feigned operation group, *p (2) Cardiotonic Pill's effect on the activity of SOD and the content MDA of brain tissues. The activity of SOD of brain tissues in the model group is significantly lower than that in the feigned operation group, while the content of MDA is significantly higher. The activities of SOD of brain cortex and hippocampus tissues in the Cardiotonic Pill group increase significantly, while the content of MDA decreases significantly.
The conclusion: After cerebral ischemia reinfusion, the content of MDA in the brain tissues increases, while the content of GSH decreases. The activities of CAT and SOD, two important enzymes for clearing oxygen free radicals in the tissues, decrease significantly, which shows that during the course of cerebral ischemia reinfusion, a great lot of oxygen free radicals occur due to the failure of the function of the free radical clearance system. This leads to the lipid peroxidation, and then leads to the brain injury. Cardiotonic Pill can decrease the contents of MDA in the brain cortex and hippocampus tissues of reinfused rats and increase the content of GSH and the activities of CAT and SOD greatly, which shows that Cardiotonic Pill has the functions of markedly restraining the reactions of oxygen free radicals, controlling the lipid peroxidation and protecting damaged brain cells caused by ischemia reinfusion.
The Antioxidation of Cardiotonic Pill in Chronic Hepatic Injury The method: The CCL4-high-fat-low-protein induced mild chronic
hepatic injury model of the Wister rat is adopted. In the Cardiotonic Pill group, perfuse Cardiotonic Pill into the rats' stomachs at the dose of 4g/kg, while in the normal and the model groups, perfuse the same amount of physiological saline. The activity of SOD is determined by using the xanthine oxidase method, while the content of the MDA is determined by using the improved thiobarbituric acid method.
The results: See Table 30. Comparing the model group with the normal group, the activity of SOD degrades, while that of MDA increases. In the Cardiotonic Pill group, however, the activity of SOD increases, while that of MDA degrades, making the Cardiotonic Pill group go back to the normal.
Table 30 . The Activities of SOD and the Contents of MDA in Chronic
Groups Rats SOD (NU/mg.pr) MDA (nM/mg.pr)
Normal group 12 1.717±0.521 15.21±4.35
Model group 12 1.326±0.3218 19.39±4.62*
Cardiotonic Pill group 11 1.710±0.415# 15.16±4.29#
Note: In comparison with the normal group, *p The conclusion: MDA is a major degradation product of the lipid peroxidation. MDA can badly damage the structure of the cell membrane, and then hepatic cells. SOD is a scavenger of super-oxide anion free radicals, and it can restrain the lipid peroxidation caused by free radicals. Cardiotonic Pill can significantly increase the activity of SOD and decrease the content of MDA, which will degrade the level of the lipid peroxidation and lighten the hepatic injury.
DSP is not mutagenic
It was examined whether DSP is mutagenic in the Ames assay. DSP
was not mutagenic. See Table 31 below.
Table 31. The mutagenicity of DSP (Ames test)
colony number per dish
S9 TA97 Ta98 TA100 TA102
0.0 - 1.41 + 13 36±3 161±21 303 ±44
0.5 - 140 + 17 35±2 148±21 288±15
5 - 136 + 14 34±4 154±26 280 ±16
50 - 133 ±20 33±5 142 ±25 292 ±37
500 - 109±15 34±3 154±16 311±32
5000 -• 67+8* 30±4 149±27 298 ±32
0.0 + 141±13 44±6 176±19 296 ±39
0.5 '+ 148 + 13 42±9 161±27 296 ±37
5.0 + 152+11 44±7 161±16 292 ±38
50.0 + 140 ±18 37±6 166±9 307 ±55
500.0 + 135±21 42±7 152±22 287+16
5000. 0 + 119±17 38±7 162±17 363±57
50 - 2155+814 952±187 831 ±114 1510±211
40 - .J 125±18 38 ±3* 161±16
+ 1404 ±644* 1598 ± 124 1222 ± 309
100 - 364 ±50
+ 943 ±102* :
Production of crude drugs
1. Dan shen
(1) Quality control
Crude drug Dan Shen was sampled from production arias throughout China. Chemical analysis was conducted on those samples from different bases for their chief components. The results showed that the quality of Dan Shen from an aria named Shangluo was the best of all and it proved that the climate of Shangluo is most suitable for the growth of Dan Shen. The active ingredients of Dan Shen such as tanshinone and salvianic acid A. were approved the best in quantity.
Shangluo is geographically located at the East Longitude 108°34'20"~111°1'25" and North Altitude 33°2' 30 "- 34°24 ' 40' '
with an average sea level of 900 meters. The region is an area with low and median high mountains and is free of pollutions. The unpolluted clean air circumstance makes it ideal for the growth of drug plants.
It is warm and semi-humid in climate, typical for the mountainous areas of transitional zone from the subtropics to the temperate. Affected by the South-eastern monsoons, it has obvious divisions for seasons and a great amount of rain. The precipitation of rainfall of the year in this area is estimated at 733.9-899 mm. The sunshine period is around 1874.1-2185 hours a year, with an annual sun irridiance of 119.57-124.36 kilocalories/cm2. The temperature varies from 18 °C - 40.8 °C. A frost-free period lasts 198-218 days of the year.
80% of the soil in Shangluo is arenaceous, most of the arable land comprises of neutral and alkalescent soil with a pH value of 6.5-8. Within 0-20 cm of the tillage layer, the soil nutrients consist of the following: 1.36% organic matter; 0.085% nitrogen; 18 ppm fast-effective phosphor; 136 ppm fast-effective potassium; and 60 ppm alkaline-hydrolyzed nitrogen. Heavy metals and other toxic matters contained in the soil do not exceed the agricultural standards set by the country. The region is rich in plants and animals. Local farmers use organic fertilizers.
(5) Heavy Metals:
The eight metals, including Lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, etc., the pesticide residues, air and water all meet the country environment standards.
The planting and plowing of Dan Shen follow the standard of Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) . Technological know-how relevant to the growing of Dan Shen is compiled into a booklets and distributed among the Dan Shen growers in the base. During the planting
seasons, technicians are sent to the fields to give growers training on the spot and offer technical support, so as to standardize the planting of Dan Shen on a large plantation-like scale.
(7) The Shangluo production base had bred and cultivated 20 different breeds of Dan Shen. Different Dan Shens were observed and compared in their growth situations, yield, appearance and chemical components for three years. The best breeds in quality chosen for large-scale plantation.
(8) Tissue cultivation and clone technology are adopted in the Dan Shen cultivation to accelerate the procedure and shorten the circle of growth.
(9) After a 30-day period of test-tube planting, an enlarged reproduction procedure is taken. It lasts 40 days before the root period. The root period will takes another 10 days that is for the plants to generate and enrich their roots. The rate of rooting usually reaches 90% or above. The plant can then be transferred to the nursery, where advanced spray irrigation device and conditions are controlled by computer technology. The plants can be transplanted to the outside field after a month cultivation in the nursery.
(10) According to the experts, the cultivated Dan Shen from our
product base are not only in high quality but also productive
for their productive roots (50% more in root weight than those
from other areas) , and high chemical composition (70% higher in
active drug ingredients than samples from other places).
2. Natural Borneol
(1) Growth Conditions
The growth areas of natural Borneol are Xinhuang county of Hunan
province, China, a region with mid-height hills at a sea level
of 300-600m. 60% of the area is covered by forest. The land
consists of yellow and red sand soil with pH 5-6. No air or water
pollutions are found within the region.
(2) Biological Characteristics of the tree
Extremely strong growth capability, it grows in brushwood field, 300-400 trees per mu (equal to 666.7m2); Parts above branch leaves are collected; net gain is 1000 kg per mu.
(3) Reproduction and transplant
Use grafting and cuttage technology for reproduction. The Plant grows in the nursery garden during the first year and is transplanted to the filed in the spring of the second year. The filed need to be fertilized and scarified periodically.
(4) The plant may grow up to 30 cm in height and 80-100 cm for the largest diameter. It contains natural Camphor in different parts of the plant: leafs, branches, trunk and roots. Among all, the leaves contain the most of Camphor content.
(5) The Borneol-type Camphor from Xinghuang is one of the natural variation of Cirnamonium glandullferm (wall) Noes. The Camphors trees vary in contents of Camphor and Borneol, Some are low in Borneol, high in Camphor while others high in Borneol and low in Camphor. Through an assay with large amount of samples and many HPLC analyses, we finally choose a kind of Camphor trees that contains over 80% Borneol with less impurity.
3. Radix Notoginseng a. Seeds of the plant
(1) Determination of Radix Notoginseng
With the PCR reaction for molecular mass marking, Radix Notoginseng can be stained observed, Radix Notoginseng has its characteristic DNA fingerprinting.
(2) Shape and properties
The Radix Notoginseng seed has around, circular body. For seeds of different growth period, Radix Notoginseng has 2-year or 3-year seeds. The 2-year seed is 0.45-0.55 cm in diameter and
95-103 grams in weight for its dried grain. The 3-year seeds is 0 . 54-0 .65 cm in diameter and 98-109 grams in weight for its dried grain.
(3) Suitable Temperature for seed sprouting
The appropriate temperature for seed sprouting is 10-30 °C, the ideal temperature is 15-20 °C.
(4) Water Content
The amount of water contained should be 60-70%, if water content is below 20% for a long period of. time, the seeds will lose vivacity.
The seeds have a tendency to go through dormancy for 45-60 days after collection.
(6) Life Span
The seeds have a life span of 15 days in natural state after they are collected.
(7) Requirements for storage of Seed
Seeds for storage should be- collected from the plants that grow more than two years and the tree should be growing prosperously for parts above the earth and pest-free. It is recommended that seeds be collected from three-year plants.
(8) Management for the seed reservation field
Seed reservation field should be better managed than the regular production fields, contaminated plants should be disposed of at all times, pests should not come in contact with the buds under any circumstances. During period of sprouting of buds and leafs, 3000 ppm of YunDa-120 and 400 times solution of Yang Kang biological fertilizer should be sprayed twice. And, during florescence and fruit period, Phytokinin is sprayed.
(9) Harvest Period of the seed
The harvest period of Radix Notoginseng seed is from the end of
October to the beginning of December.
(10) Methods for Collection of Seeds
The collection of the seeds is decided dependant upon the levels of maturity of the seeds. The seeds from trees that grow stronger will be collected and stored separately. The base strictly prohibits collection of immature plants.
Plants are washed immediately after collection while pulps and blighted seeds are picked out. Dry the plants in the sun after washing.
Use 300 times solution of 58% metalaxyl manganous zinc dissolvable liquid to treat Radix Notoginseng seeds for 3 0 minutes, let the surface of the seeds become dry, and store the seeds with wet sand containing 20% water. It is a crucial step for the process.
Final products are packaged in uncontaminated containers, There should be signs that indicate the date of collection, processing, and the. product batch number.
Clean, waterproof and ventilated transportation vehicles instruments should be used for transportation in order to prevent the product being contaminated with toxic matters. If it takes more than 8 hours for transportation, the product seed should be with the wet sand.
(15) Test for vitality of the seeds
Use the TTC methods: weigh accurately 1 g of tetrazolium powder and dissolve it in 1000 mL of distilled water to make up the solution of 0.1% TTC. Immerse the sample into the solution and keep it for 24 hours, take it out and cut it into half and place
- 56 -
one-half into a culture disk. Use the prepared 0.1% TTC to dye the sample for 30 minutes. The vitality of the seeds can be determined by the color of the seeds
(16) Inspection of Pests
i. Observe the seed with human eyes while placing 500-1000 sample pellets on a white sheet of paper or glass. If unusual spots or pests appear on the surface of the sample, the contamination can be decided. Contaminated samples should be taken apart and be identified for its level of contamination.
ii. Cutting and Inspect: use a scalpel to cut and open 2 sample sets each contain 100 seeds. Calculate the number of contaminated seeds to determine the level of contamination..
iii. Smell to inspect samples: place them in hand and detect them by nose for any moldy odor. Or simply leave sample in a cup containing heated water (60-70 °C), and covered for 2-3 minutes, pour out the water and smell the seeds. The seeds should send forth a delicate fragrance, if not, it is probably contaminated.
(17) Color Inspection
An uncontaminated seed should have light yellow and white color.
(18) Microscopic Inspection
Pick out 5 test sample sets by random (each sample contains no less than 50 ceeds), place the samples in a culture disk for 24 hours. Observe them under a microscope to detect them for any pathogenic bacteria, if so, calculate the level of contamination.
b. Seedling of the plant (1) Temperature for sprouting The temperature for Radix Notoginseng's sprouting is 1-20 °C, the
ideal temperature is 15°C.
(2) Water Content
The water content of the soil used for seedling plant is 20-25%.
The development of Radix Notoginseng from resting bud to sprouting requires 90 days of dormancy period. 100 ppm of gibberellin can help shorten the Radix Notoginseng's dormancy period.
Radix Notoginseng's refinery period is from the beginning of December to the end of January. While refining, the roots should be handled with care. Plant immediately after refinery.
Radix Notoginseng cannot be transported over long distance, otherwise it will be damaged. If unavoidable, Radix Notoginseng should be placed in a ventilated container with soil, without direct exposure to sunlight.
(6) Quality Inspection
i. For weight of each unit, choose 300-500 seedling plant as samples, put each 100 seedling plants in a group, weigh them on the balance and calculate the unit weight.
ii. For pesticide inspection: set up four groups of samples each contains 100 seedling plants. Place samples on a glass disk and observe the samples with human eyes or 5-10 times magnifying lens to check for their pesticide.
iii. Set up four groups of sample each contains 100 plants, slice the samples for an observation under the microscope.
c. Culture of the seedling
(1) Field condition
Radix Notoginseng seedling plants are cultured in the best-conditioned areas. The base uses centered culture and large-scaled cultural method.
The area is totally free of pollutions. The air quality is above level 2 of GB 3059-96 standard.
(3) Water Resources
The water resources consist of rainwater, underground water, and natural running water. Water quality in the area is monitored with the GB 5084-92 standard.
Radix Notoginseng cannot be planted in oozy soil, the amount of heavy metals in the soil chosen for Radix Notoginseng must be within relevant country standard.
(5) Ideal Soil
For a good result expected, we choose acidic soil (pH 5.5-7.0) with a slope no more than 15°. A level no more than 1600 m above the sea should be with 8-12% of sunshine, and level more than 1600 m above sea level should be 10-20% of sunshine.
During sprout period the atmospheric temperature should be at 20-25°C, and the earth temperature is at 10-15°C. During bearing period is the best atmospheric temperature that is 20-25°C, and the best soil temperature that is 15-20°C.
(7) Water Content
Water content of soil should be at 25-30%.
(8) Soi". Preparation
Soil plotting should be repeated for 3 times before planting,
and soil be exposed under sunlight, it helps to exterminate bacteria substance in the soil.
(9) Handle with Soil
For prevention of root damage, 75-100g of lime is used each square meter before transplanting.
(10) Construction and management of Shade
The shade is 1.8m above ground with a 2m deep trench below the ground. Sunlight penetration is best at 8-10% if in area of no more than 1600 m above sea level, or 10-15% if it is more than 1600 m. The ground should be flat; deep layer of the earth should be lose; while the surface level of the earth should be rigid. Planting season is best at the end of December to the end of January. Before planting, the seeds should be immersed in 58% metalaxylic zinc (500-800x) or 1.5% antimycin (200ppm) for 30-50 minutes and dip out to let dry. This is to protect the plant from diseases (Coated seeds do not have to undergo the above procedures). Density of planting is to be 4 x 5 cm or 5 x 5 cm, with 100-200 thousand seeds per mu of land. Use special tools to create a shallow gutter and use machine or hands to seed and plant. Seeds are covered with fine soil completely.
After all, fertilizing, watering and weeding tasks are performed. Weeds should be eliminated all the time. If the shade is broken, it should be repaired immediately and ensured the correct penetration of sunlight. Natural fertilizers including poultry waste, stove dust, and bone dust (human waste should not apply) .
d. Radix Notoginseng Cultivation
The ground is best be with a moderate slope under 15° and a good exposure to sunshine.
(2) Soil Texture
It is the best if the ground is deeply seated with loose and sand soil.
(3) Soil pH should be at 5.5-7.
(4) Pre-planted Crops
Corns, wheat, and beans are pre-planted in new fields in avoid of soil destruction.
(5) Sea Level
1400-1800m above sea level near an altitude of 23.5° is the location of the most suitable Radix Notoginseng area for cultivation.
Radix Notoginseng is a kind of plant that requires only 8-20% of sunshine. The amount of sunshine should be varied increased in respect to different period of its growth. However, too much sunshine exposure will result in stagnant plants.
(7) Water Content
The water content within the soil should be at 25-30%.
Organic fertilizers are used along with compound fertilizers, micronutrient fertilizers, or trace-element fertilizers.
The average temperature is estimated at 15-18 °C during the year in the Radix Notoginseng area. During sprout period, atmospheric temperature should be, the most suitable, at 20-25°C, and soil temperature 15 °C. During nutrient development and blooming period, temperature is better be kept at 25°C. If the temperature is below 15 °C, florescence will be affected.
(10) Filed Division
Before cultivation, the field should be ploughed and loosened 3 times until its structure becomes powderized.
Before sowing and transplanting, apply 75-100g of quick lime to soil for sterilization purposes.
(12) Standards of the bed
Flat ground soil bed of 20-25 cm in height, at slope area it should be 15-20 cm. The width of the bed is between 120 and 140 cm in a shape of a tile. The soil at the bottom of the base should be loose and that on the top should be solid, that is for better penetration.
(13) Seed Soaking
During transplanting, soak seed for 30-50 minutes in 58% metalaxyl (500-800x) and then let dry, this will prevent plant from diseases and eliminate pests.
(14) Density of planting
Keep a distance of 10 x 12.5 cm - 10 x 15 cm in plant density. That is 26-32 thousand plants every mu.
(15) Methods for Transplanting
Seedlings are planted facing the same direction for management purposes. In case of slope grounds, seedlings are planted from low end to the high ground. ' The first row of seedlings is facing up while the second row faces down. Buds are also to face upward, and the bottom is to face inward.
(16) Covering of Soil
Use powdered, loose, and moistures soil to cover the seedlings completely, without exposing the roots or the buds.
Use poultry waste, stove ash, bone ash, Calcium Magnesium Phosphate, etc as specialized fertilizer.
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1. A method for producing a composition capable of treating
chronic stable angina pectoris comprising steps of:
a) extracting Radix Salviae Miltorrhizae,. Panax Notoginsen separately in hot aqueous reflux and filtering separately to produce a filtrate of Radix Salviae Miltorrhizae and a filtrate of Panax Notoginsen;
b) concentrating filtrates separately into concentrates;
c) refining the concentrates separately using resin columns and concentrating to obtain refined water-SQiuble extract of Radix Salviae Miltorrhizae and refined water-soluble extract of Panax Notoginsen
d) mixing the refined water-soluble extracts from step (c)
with appropriate amount of borneol, thereby producing a composition capable of treating chronic stable angina pectoris.
2. A method for producing a composition capable of treating
chronic stable angina pectoris produced by the steps of:
(1) Extracting water-soluble components of Panax Notoginseng
(a) Diluting herbal Panax Notoginseng with 5-7 times of water;
(b) Extracting water-soluble components of Panax Notoginseng by boiling it at air pressure between 0.04-0.06 mPa for 2 hours;
(c) Repeating extraction under of step (b) for 1.5 hours to obtain the extract;
(d) Filtrating of the extract of step (c) with 100-mesh net to obtain a filtrate;
(e) Refining the filtrate of step (d)'.' using macroporous adsorption resin eluting with ethanol;
(f) Concentrating of the eluted extract under decompressed condition with the air input to 0.04-0.06 ,mPa and the vacuum to -0.076~-0.088 mPa until its density is 1.33-1.35;
(2) Extraction of water-soluble components of Radix Salviae
(a) Diluting one Kg (kilogram) of herbal Radix Salviae
with 5-7 times of water;
(b) Extracting water-soluble components of Radix Salviae Miltorrhizae by boiling at air pressure between 0.04-0.06 mPa for 2 hours;
(c) Repeating extraction of step (b) for 1.5 hours to obtain an extract;
(d) Filtrating of the extract of step';' (c) with 100-mesh net to obtain a filtrate;
(e) Concentrating of the filtrate of step (d) . under decompressed conditions with the vacuum pressure -0.076---0.088 mPa to produce one liter of concentrate;
(f) Precipitating the concentrate of step (e) with ethanol;
(g) Filtrating of the ethanol precipitate solution through 100-mesh net to obtain a filtrate;
(h) Concentrating of the filtrate of step (g) under decompressed conditions with input air pressure 0.04-0.06 mPa and the vacuum pressure 0.076--0.08:8 mPa to produce a concentrate;
(i) Refining the concentrate of step (h) by polyamide chromatography eluting with ethanol to produce a refined extract;
(j) Concentrating the refined extract of step (i) to the density of 1.33-1.35; (3) producing the pill
(a) Mixing extracts of Panax Notoginseng, extracts of
Radix Salviae Miltorrhizae, borneol and polyethylene
glycol 6000 at the ratio of 4 . 0 : 20 . 6:1 .:9: 79 . 5;
(b) Melting the mixture of step (a) to produce a melted
(c) Making the melted mixture of step (b) into pills by using a dropping machine with the following characteristics: the temperature of dropping pot is constantly 89-93°C, the cooling solution is liquid paraffin with the temperature is lower than 8 degrees Celsius, the inner diameter of the dropping head is 1.8mm, the outer diameter of the dropping head is 2.4mm, the distance between the dropping head and the surface of cooling solution is 15 cm.
(d) Centrifuging the pills of step (c) at 800-1100 rpm for 15 minutes.
3. The method of claim 2, wherein borneol is synthetic.
4. The method of any of claims 1-3 further comprising packing a composition capable of treating chronic stable angina pectoris into the form of a powder, syrup, tea, tincture, injection, topical solution, capsule, pill, granule, tablet, nebula, suppository microcapsule or other pharmaceutically acceptable forms.
5. The method of claim 4 whereby the pill comprises about 0.14 to about 0.18 mg Danshensu per pill, more than 12.12ug sanchinoside Rl per pill and more than 56.26ug ginsenoside Rgl per pill.
6. The method of claim 5 whereby the pill is
a) 0.33 -0.34 cm in diameter
b) 21.25-28.75 mg in weight; and
c) 1.13-1.40 mg/mm3 in density.
7. A dropping machine for manufacturing a composition capable of treating chronic stable angina pectoris comprising the parts of:
(a) a dropping pot with a liquid of temperature 60-100
(b) a apparatus with liquid paraffin as a cooling
solution with temperature of lower than 8 degrees Celsius;
(c) a dropping head with 1.8 mm inner diameter and 2.35
mm outer diameter distanced from the surface of cooling
solution by approximately 15 centimeters(cm), thereby
allowing the dropping speed of over 30 pellets per
8. The dropping machine of claim 8, wherein the liquid
temperature of the dropping pot is 89-93 degrees Celsius.
9. A method for determining the active fractions of a
composition capable of treating and preventing cardiovascular
disease comprising the steps of:
(a) fractionating pharmaceutical composition of any of claims 1-7 by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
(b) comparing the retention time of the fractions of pharmaceutical composition of any of claims 1-7 with the retention time of saponin Rl, saponin Rgl, and saponin Re; and
(c) determining if the pharmaceutical composition of any of
claims 1-7 contains fractions of which retention time is
equivalent to the retention time of saponin Rl, saponin Rgl,
and saponin Re.
10. A method for determining the active fractions of a composition capable of treating chronic stable angina pectoris comprising the steps of:
(a) fractionating a pharmaceutical composition of any of claims 1-7 by thin layer chromatography (TLC)
(b) comparing the position and color of the fractions of pharmaceutical composition of any of claims 1-7 with the position and color of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid and protocatechuic aldehyde; and
(c) determining if pharmaceutical composition of any of claims 1-7 contains the fractions of which position and color are equivalent to the position and the color of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid and protocatechuic aldehyde.
11. A method for determining the active fractions of a composition capable of treating and preventing cardiovascular disease and producing eight .peaks as shown in figure 1, when subjected to steps of:
a) dissolving a suitable amount of said composition in internal standard para-aminobenzonic acid solvent;
b) using Danshensu and protocatechuic aldehyde as the standards;
c) performing the HPLC assay; and
d) calculating the relative retention time and area ratio of peaks according to the internal standard method.
Dated this 4th Day of July 2003.
This invention provides compositions comprising extracts of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng and Borneol. Said compositions comprise notoginsenoside Ri and ginsenoside Rgi which are active components for therapeutic applications. This invention also provides a method of preparation of the said compositions and a method of identification and determination of the amount of individual effective components of said compositions. . Finally, this invention provides various uses of the compositions.
|Indian Patent Application Number||680/MUMNP/2003|
|PG Journal Number||13/2008|
|Date of Filing||07-Jul-2003|
|Name of Patentee||TIANJIN TASLY PHARMACEUTICAL CO., LTD.|
|Applicant Address||N0.1 LIAOHEDONG ROAD, XINYIBAI AVENUE, BEICHEN DISTRICT, TIANJIN 300402|
|PCT International Classification Number||A61K|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/US2001/049396|
|PCT International Filing date||2001-12-18|