|Title of Invention
A SAFE AND SIMPLE TOOL FOR DISINTEGRATING COKE.
|The invention relates to a tool for breaking up coke, comprising a housing which is fixed to a drilling rod in the operating state and in or on which at least one jet for cutting and one jet for drilling of coke is arranged and at least one valve for opening and closing the jets. The tool is embodied for two different operating states. The at least one valve closes the cutting nozzle in the drilling operating state, whilst in the cutting operating state the drilling nozzles are closed by the at least one valve. The housing, valve and nozzles are embodied such that an unhindered flow of water from the drilling rod through the housing and the valve and the nozzles which are not sealed by the valve is guaranteed, characterised in that the nozzles for sealing, depending on the selected operating condition, are sealed by the balls of a ball valve. The invention further relates to a tool in which the arrangement for operating the valve is arranged above the nozzles. . (FIG.1).
|FIELD OF INVENTION
The present invention relates to a tool for disintegrating coke.
BACKGROUND OF INVENTION
In oil refineries, the last, otherwise unusable fraction of the crude oil is
transformed into coke. This transformation is performed by feeding this fraction
into drums which are filled with coke as the operation proceeds. Once the
maximum filling level of the drums has been reached, the coke is cut out from
This so-called "de-coking" is usually carried out using high-pressure water jets
which disintegrate the coke and wash it out of the drums. The tool for
generating these high-pressure water jets is inserted into the drums from the top
using a drilling rig. The de-coking is carried out in two stages. First, an opening
in the drum is cut from the top to the bottom, then the tool is raised back to the
top of the drum, and the coke is then disintegrated by the high-pressure water
jets generated by cutting nozzles at about right angles to the axis of the bore.
The tool is adapted to assume two operating states, one for drilling an opening
needed for moving the tool and then letting the disintegrated coke exit, and one
for cutting the coke across the cross-section of the drum. The drilling nozzles
accordingly send high-pressure water jets essentially parallel, or at an oblique
angle, to an axis formed by the drill stem and the opening arising from the
drilling. The cutting nozzles, on the other hand, generate high-pressure water
jets aligned essentially at right or obtuse angles to the axis formed by the drill
stem and the opening in the drum.
The switch-over between the operating states of drilling and cutting has to be
quick and simple. The nozzles used in the tool are subject to wear and tear due
to the high water pressure and thus have to be replaced frequently. Therefore,
the tool must be adapted in such a way that the replacement of the nozzles can
be carried out in a quick and safe manner.
OBJECTS OF INVENTION
The object of the present invention is to provide a tool for disintegrating coke
which is particularly simple and safe to use and maintain.
SUMMARY OF INVENTION
The above object is achieved by a tool having the features of the invention.
Tools for disintegrating coke with a housing, which is attached to a drill stem in
operation and having at least one nozzle for cutting and drilling coke and at least
one valve for closing and opening the nozzles arranged on it, are known from the
state of the art. These tools are adapted to have two different operating states.
The at least one valve closes off the cutting nozzles in the "drilling" operating
state, while in the "cutting" operating state, the drilling nozzles are closed off by
the at least one valve. The housing, the valve and the nozzles in these tools are
formed in such a way that unhindered passage of water from the drill stem
through the housing and the valve and through the nozzles not closed off by the
valve is ensured.
The design of such a tool is greatly simplified when the nozzles to be closed off,
depending on each chosen operating state, are closed off by a ball valve.
Combinations comprising a ball valve for opening and closing drilling nozzles and
other means for opening and closing cutting nozzles are well known, but they
need a multitude of parts and result in a tool with a complex structure.
The present invention is advantageous in that the number of parts is reduced
and that it is completely ensured that there is only ever one nozzle or group of
nozzles that is closed off and the other nozzle or group of nozzles is open.
The tool comprises a valve which has a valve carrier in engagement with the
balls for closing off the nozzles. The valve further includes associated means for
guiding the ball and positioning aids, as necessary, by means of which the balls
are held in predetermined positions. An apparatus for operating the valve is also
associated with the valve. The valve is arranged in the housing of the tool and
when operated is flown through or around by the water used to remove the
The balls of the ball valve are guided in the valve carrier by suitable means for
guiding balls. One possibility would be to provide means for guiding at the valve
carrier. These could be, for example, concave shells or guiding grooves or
guiding protrusions in engagement with the balls. Alternatively, an arrangement
is possible where the balls associated with the valve carrier are positioned by
springs in the positions suitable for each operating state. The means for guiding
could therefore either be formed integral with the valve carrier or formed
independent of it. The latter embodiment then cooperates with the ball and the
valve carrier for guiding the ball. The means for guiding may also be comprised
of a plurality of parts, for example a recess or groove in the valve carrier
cooperating with a spring arrangement in order to guide the balls.
The balls may be completely spherical. It is, of course, entirely possible for the
balls to be spherical only in segments where in an operating state they close off
the entry to a nozzle. The spherical form of this surface area ensures that the
entry to each nozzle to be closed off is securely sealed against the passage of
liquid. A circular disk, one side of which is spherically domed would, for example,
be quite sufficient for the purpose of closing the nozzle. This is why bodies that
are not entirely spherical in shape will also be referred to as "balls" in the sense
of the invention.
Preferably the balls are symmetrical bodies having at least two spherical surface
sections. Usually, these spherical surface sections are opposite to each other,
e.g. as calottes, whose maximum circumference are adjacent to each other.
These symmetrical balls have the advantage that on the one hand, because of
the symmetry, they are easily guided by the means for guiding. On the other
hand, they are advantageous in that, should the first spherical surface section
show signs of being worn out, the symmetrical ball could simply be flipped over.
Thus, a different calotte with a second spherical surface section could be used
for sealing off the nozzle. The symmetrical ball is usually preferred over the
completely spherical ball since, if tools are to be designed with a reduced
diameter, the symmetrical balls have a smaller thickness, with reference to the
diameter of the tool, than completely spherical balls.
According to a first embodiment, the valve carrier is integrated in the housing in
such a way that it is a part of the exterior wall of the tool. According to a second
embodiment, the valve carrier is mounted within the housing. The means for
guiding the ball and the valve carrier, if necessary, are arranged in the housing
of the tool, although they usually do not quite fill it. There are thus gaps
between the means for guiding the balls and the valve carrier and the housing.
According to an advantageous further development of the invention, these gaps
are in communication with the interior cavity of the tool so that in operation the
liquid flowing through the tool can also flow through these gaps. The advantage
of this arrangement is that there are no pressure differentials within the tool
between the housing and the valve carrier. Material savings may thus be realized
when designing the valve carrier because no pressure differentials, with their
associated pressure and pulling forces, must be absorbed. Additionally, the
avoidance of pressure differentials ensures smooth operation of the ball valves.
A particularly preferred embodiment of the tool according to the present
invention, comprises a valve carrier, in which the nozzles for cutting are arranged
in two or more levels one on top of the other. This greatly enhances the power
of the tool. Preferably, the nozzles are offset from each other in the several
The switch-over from the "drilling" operating state to the "cutting" operating
state is carried out manually in most of the prior art tools. The tool is retracted
from the drum after the first processing step and a device within the tool is
operated, which after completion of the drilling closes off the drilling nozzles to
the bottom and opens the cutting nozzles.
The device for closing individual, or a plurality of, nozzles is operated by means
which on the one hand engage the apparatus for closing and on the other hand
involve an operating member operable from the outside of the tool. This
operating member is always positioned below the tool with prior art de-coking
tools. Arrangements for switching over a de-coking tool according to this design
may be robust and well proven. However, they have a particularly serious
drawback in that the tool must be completely retracted from the drum, and that
for switching over from "drilling" to "cutting", the cutting nozzles must be at the
body height of the operating personnel. In some cases, this can result in
heightened risks for the operating personnel, such as when, as has been known
to happen, the controlling mechanism fails.
The first approach to avoid this drawback has been to develop automatic
arrangements for switching over de-coking tools. This has been problematic,
however, since it is difficult to attach the relatively sensitive control mechanisms
to the tool which is used in a very harsh environment subject to extreme
mechanical and thermal stresses and strains.
The arrangement of the means for operating the apparatus within the de-coking
tool for closing off individual, or a plurality of, nozzles, so that the operating
member is arranged between the nozzles and the top end of the tool, already
ensures that accidents with a manually operable arrangement for switching over
may be avoided. This arrangement is considered independent, novel and
inventive and suggests a simple and safe tool for disintegrating coke.
With the preferred arrangement, the tool can remain within the drum to be
emptied, when the operating state is to be changed from the first to the second,
or vice-versa, to such an extent that the cutting nozzles from which high-
pressure water jets exit remain covered by the drum. Even for the case where
the control devices of the de-coking plant fail, or if it (erroneously) signalled that
the tool can be switched over although high pressure remains applied to it, the
operating personnel may approach the tool without the risk of getting hurt by
high-pressure water jets.
The apparatus for closing individual, or a plurality of, nozzles have different
forms. Some tools are provided with ball valves, other tools have hollow cylinders
provided with cut-outs for opening the nozzles. Depending on the position of the
cylinder, also connected to a bottom plate provided with cut-outs, as necessary,
a high-pressure water jet exits, or the respective nozzle is closed off by the
hollow cylinder or the bottom plate. Herein the hollow cylinder covers the cutting
nozzles or exposes them, while the bottom plate exposes or closes the drilling
For virtually all of the prior art apparatuses it is possible to provide an
arrangement for switching-over the de-coking tool wherein the operating
member is upstream of the nozzles and therefore at the top end of the de-coking
It is considered particularly advantageous that existing and, as far as the
apparatus for closing off individual, or a plurality of, nozzles is concerned, well
proven facilities may be equipped with the arrangement according to the
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE ACCOMPANYING DRAWINGS
A preferred embodiment of the present invention will now be described in detail
in the following with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Figure 1 shows a longitudinal sectional view of an embodiment of the tool of the
present invention in the "drilling" operating state;
Figure 2 shows a second longitudinal sectional view of an identical embodiment
of the tool according to the present invention in the "drilling" operating state, at
an angle to the sectional view of Figure 1;
Figure 3 shows a longitudinal sectional view of an embodiment of the tool of the
present invention in the "cutting" operating state;
Figure 4 shows a second longitudinal sectional view of an identical embodiment
of the tool according to the invention in the "cutting" operating state, at an angle
to the sectional view of Figure 3; and
Figure 5 shows a sectional view of a tool according to a second embodiment.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT OF
Figure 1 shows a tool 2 with a housing 4, two nozzles for cutting coke 6 and two
more nozzles (schematically shown) for drilling coke 8 and a valve 10 for opening
and closing nozzles 6, 8.
In operation, tool 2 is attached to drill stem (not shown) and is inserted in a
drum filled with coke. Indications such as "top" and "bottom" refer to axis A of
the tool shown in Figures 1 to 4 aligned with the drill stem (top) and a hole to be
made by the tool (bottom; not shown).
Housing 4 is made if two parts. Valve 10 is arranged between the top housing
half 4a arranged at the drill stem (not shown) and the bottom housing half 4b.
Top housing half 4a is attached to the drill stem via a flange 12 from where it
extends as an essentially hollow body to bottom housing half 4b. At the end of
top housing part 4a associated with valve 10, a circular support 14 is integrally
formed. At this support 14 a valve carrier 16 is disposed on the bottom.
For simple and precise alignment of valve carrier 16 at support 14, corresponding
contacting surfaces 18a and 18b, and 20a and 20b are provided at support 14
and valve carrier 16. In the area of contacting surfaces 20, 20b, a circular sealing
ring 22 is provided.
Valve carrier 16 is bolted to support 14 using bolts engaged threaded bores (not
shown) in support 14 and in valve carrier 16.
Valve carrier 16 is a cylindrical hollow body in which an intermediate web 26 is
formed extending essentially at right angles to axis A. Two balls 28 of ball valve
10 are arranged to run on the web 26. Balls 28 are positioned at the outer
periphery of web 26 or valve carrier 16. In this position they are held both during
the "drilling" and "cutting" operating states, and during a switch-over from one
operating state to the other, by positioned aids. In the present embodiment, the
positioning aid is formed as a spring 30 exerting a force between the two balls
The position of balls 28 on the web 26 is determined by the means for guiding
the balls. These means for guiding the balls 28 are concave shells 32 in the
present embodiment, embracing the top half of the balls 28 as well as spring 30.
A guide 34 extents from concave shells 32 upwards.
Web 26 of valve carrier 16 comprises bores 36, as shown in Figure 2, whose
number is equal to the number of balls 8. Valve carrier 16 has bores 40, into
which cutting nozzles 6 are inserted, at its outer wall 38.
Below the web 26 or at its bottom surface, contacting surfaces 42a and 42b, and
44a and 44b are provided. Contacting surfaces 42a, b are parallel to axis A while
contacting surfaces 44a, b are vertical to axis A.
The bottom housing half 4b contacts these contacting surfaces 42a, b and 44a, b
and is attached to the valve carrier by bolts 46 which engage threaded bores
(not shown) of valve carrier 16. In the area of contacting surfaces 44a, b, a
circular sealing ring 48 is provided.
A cavity 50 in the bottom housing half 4b ensures that liquid can pass
unhindered through bores 36 to drilling nozzles 8 positioned in the bottom
housing half 4b. Drilling nozzles 8 are only schematically shown.
The tool 2 shown in Figures 1 and 2 is in the "drilling" operating state (drilling
state). In the drilling state, balls 28 of ball valve 10 block bores 40 in the outer
wall 38 of valve carrier 16. The diameter of balls 28 is such that bores 40 are
reliably and completely covered.
At the same time, as shown in Figure 2, bores 36 in web 26 of valve carrier 16
are left free. Water entering tool 2 at high pressure from the drill stem, flows
through the interior 52 within the tool above web 26,through bores 36, passes
through cavity 50 in the bottom housing half 4b, and the exits through nozzles 8
into a drum filled with coke (not shown).
To switch over from the drilling state into the "cutting" operating state, an
apparatus 54 for operating valve 10 is provided at tool 2. Apparatus 54
comprises a cylindrical hollow body 56 inserted in the top housing half 4a. The
bottom end of this hollow body 56 has recesses 58 in engagement with guides
34 of ball valve 10. The top end 60 of hollow body 56 is formed in the manner of
a gear rim. A gear 62 is in mesh with said top end 60 of hollow body 56 formed
in the manner of a gear rim. An axle 64 is attached to gear 62 extending through
top housing half 4a. Axle 64 is manually adjusted using a wrench.
To switch over from the drilling state to the "cutting" operating state, gear 62 is
operated by turning axle 64. Hollow body 56 in mesh with gear 62 is rotated
within the top housing half 4a by gear 62. Guide 34 and with it balls 28 of ball
valve 10 are rotated together with hollow body 56. By rotating balls 28 on valve
carrier 16, bores 40 that had closed off nozzles 6, are now exposed (cf. Figure
3). By operating handle 64, balls 28 move on a circular path until bores 36 are
completely closed off (cf. Figure 4).
Figures 3 and 4 show a tool 2 in the cutting operating state. Water at high
pressure flows from the drill stem into interior 2 of the top housing half 4a and
exits from the cutting nozzles, the only possible outlets, at about right angles to
axis A. Bores 36 are safely and completely blocked by balls 28 positioned on top
of them. The closing action of balls 28 is additionally secured in this position and,
likewise, when bores 40 are blocked by the fact that the extremely high pressure
of the water, far above 100 bars, presses the balls to the valve carrier.
The exemplary embodiment shown in Figures 1 to 4 concerns an embodiment of
the invention with two nozzles 6 for cutting and two nozzles 8 for drilling.
However, embodiments are also covered by the subject matter of the invention
with three or more nozzles 6 or nozzles 8, respectively. Neither is it necessary for
the numbers of nozzles 6 and of nozzles 8 to be equal. In particular with
embodiments of the invention having three or more nozzles requiring more than
two balls 28, a separate guide for each ball may serve as a positioning aid.
Spring 30 is then no longer needed.
Such an embodiment of tool 2 having a plurality of nozzles in Figure 5
(equivalent features are designated with identical reference numerals). Tool 2
has a housing 4 and a valve 10. Valve carrier 16 is inserted in the housing.
Cutting nozzles 6 as shown in Figure 5 are arranged in two levels, one on top of
the other. Nozzles 6A and 6B are shown to be vertically aligned, whereas in fact
they are offset at an angle of about 60° to each other. This is indicated by cross-
Balls 28 opening or closing, depending on the operating state, nozzles 6 and
openings 36 supplying drilling nozzles 8, are received in means for guiding,
which fix balls 28 in predetermined positions and act as a support 33 together
with guiding protrusions 35 integral with it. Support 33 is attached to cylindrical
hollow body 56 as part of apparatus 54 for operating valve 10. Guiding
protrusions 35 effect a secure positioning of balls 28 so that no springs are
needed. Apparatus 54 for operating the valve otherwise corresponds to the
embodiments shown in Figures 1 to 4.
Between housing 4, valve carrier 16 and the means 33 for guiding the balls 28,
there are gaps in flow communication with interior cavity 52. In operation, the
water flowing through tool 2 therefore flows both through interior cavity 52 and
through gaps 66 so that any pressure differentials are avoided.
1. A safe and simple tool (2) for disintegrating coke (6) comprising:
- a housing (4) attached to a drill stern in operation, and at which or
- at least one nozzle (6) for cutting and a nozzle (8) for drilling of
coke and ball valves (10) for closing and opening the nozzles (6,8)
is arranged wherein said tool (2) is adapted to have two different
operating states and wherein said at least one valve (10) closes off
said cutting nozzles (6,8) in the drilling operating state, while the
drilling nozzles (8) are closed off by said valve (10) in the cutting
- and wherein said housing (4), said valve (10) and said nozzles (6,
8) are adapted so that water may flow unhindered from said drill
stem through said housing (4) and said valve (10) and through the
nozzles (6,8) not closed off by said valve (10),
characterized in that
the nozzles (6, 8) to be closed, depending on each chosen
operating state, are closed off by the balls (28) of ball valve (10).
2. The tool as claimed in claim 1, wherein said balls (28) are spherically
formed at least in sections.
3. The tool as claimed in claim 2, wherein said balls (28) have at least two
spherical surface sections.
4. The tool as claimed in one of claims 1 to 3, wherein said bails (28) are
5. The tool as claimed in claim 1, wherein said balls (28) are held in position
by a spring (30).
6. The tool as claimed in claim 1, wherein said balls (28) of said ball valve
(10) comprise engage means (32) for guiding.
7. The tool as claimed in claim 6, wherein said means (32) for guiding said
balls (28) of said ball valve (10) are concave shells (32) embracing said
8. The tool as claimed in claim 1, wherein said valve (10) engages means
(54) for operating said valve, in particular for switching over from a first
operating state to a second operating state.
9. The tool as claimed in claim 8, wherein said means (32) for guiding said
balls (28) have a guide (34) engaging means (54) for operating said valve
10.The tool as claimed in claim 1, wherein said valve carrier (16) is arranged
in said housing (4), wherein a gap (66) is configured between said
housing (4) and said valve carrier (16), and wherein said gap (66) is in
flow communication with said interior cavity (52) of said tool.
11.The tool as claimed in claim 1, wherein at least two nozzles (6A, 6B) for
cutting are inserted in bores (40) and at least two bores (36) are arranged
in the web (26) of a valve carrier (16) of said valve (10), wherein the
bores (36) are blocked by said balls (28) when said tool (2) is in said
cutting operating state, and wherein said bores (40) are blocked by said
balls (28) when said tool (29) is in a drilling operating state.
12.The tool as claimed in claim 11, wherein said at least two nozzles (6A, 6B)
are arranged one top of the other.
13.The tool as claimed in claim 1, wherein said means (54) for operating said
valve (10) are arranged between said nozzles (6, 8) and (he top end of
said tool (2).
The invention relates to a safe and simple tool (2) for disintegrating coke (6)
comprising: a housing (4) attached to a drill stem in operation, and at which or
in which one nozzle (6) for cutting and a nozzle (8) for drilling of coke and ball
valves (10) for closing and opening the nozzles (6, 8) is arranged wherein said
tool (2) is adapted to have two different operating states and wherein said at
least one valve (10) closes off said cutting nozzles (6,8) in the drilling operating
state, while the drilling nozzles (8) are closed off by said valve (10) in the cutting
operating state, and wherein said housing (4), said valve (10) and said nozzles
(6, 8) are adapted so that water may flow unhindered from said drill stem
through said housing (4) and said valve (10) and through the nozzles (6,8) not
closed off by said valve (10), the nozzles (6, 8) to be closed, depending on each
chosen operating state, are closed off by the balls (28) of ball valve (10).
|Indian Patent Application Number
|PG Journal Number
|Date of Filing
|Name of Patentee
|STOCKUMER STRASSE 28, 58453 WITTEN GERMANY
|PCT International Classification Number
|PCT International Application Number
|PCT International Filing date