Title of Invention  SCALABLE AUDIO ENCODING/DECODING METHOD AND APPARATUS 

Abstract  A scalable audio encoding/decoding method and apparatus are provided. To code an audio signal into layered data streams having a base layer and at least one enhancement layer, the encoding method includes the steps of time/frequency mapping input audio signals and quantizing the spectral data with the same scale factor for each predetermined scalefactor band, and packing the quantized data into bit streams, wherein the bit stream generating step comprises the steps of coding the quantized data corresponding to the base layer, coding the quantized data corresponding to the next enhancement layer of the coded base layer and the remaining quantized data uncoded by a limit in a layer size and belonging to the coded layer, and performing the layer coding step for all enhancement layers to form bit streams. In the base layer coding step, the enhancement layer coding step and the sequential coding step, arithmetic coding is performed using a predetermined probability model in the order of bit sequences from the most significant bit sequence to the least significant bit sequence by representing the side information and quantized data corresponding to a layer to be coded in a predetermined number of bits. The side information contains scale factors and probability model information to be used in arithmetic coding. 
Full Text  BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present Invention relates to audio encoding and decoding method and apparatus, and more particularly, to a scalable audio encoding/decoding method and apparatus using bitsliced arithmetic coding. The present invention is adopted as 1SO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 N1903 (ISO/EC Committee Draft 144983 SUBPART 4), 2. Description of the Related Art The MPEG audio standards or AC2/AC3 method provide almost the same audio quality as a compact disc, with a bitrate of 64384 Kbps which is onesixth to oneeighth that of conventional digital coding. For this reason, MPEG audio standards play an important role in storing and transmitting audio signals as in digital audio broadcasting (DAB), internet phone, or audio on demand (AOD). Research into methods by which clear audio quality in its original sound can be reproduced at a lower bitrate have been ongoing. One method is an MPEG2 Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) authorized as a new International standard. The MPEG2 AAC providing the clear audio quality to the original sound at 64 kbps has been recommended by the experts group. In conventional techniques, a fixed bitrate Is given in an encoder, and the optimal state suitable for the given bitrate is searched to then perform quantization and coding, thereby exhibiting considerably better efficiency. However, with the advent of multimedia technology, there is an increasing demand for a coder/decoder (codec) having versatility at a low bitrate. One such demand is a scalable audio codec. The scalable audio codec can make bitstreams coded at a high bitrate into tow bitrate bitstreams to then restore only some of them. By doing so, signals can be restored with a reasonable efficiency with only some of the bitstreams, exhibiting little deterioration in performance due to lowered bitrates, 1A when an overload is applied to the system or the performance of a decoder is poor, or by a user's request. According to general audio coding techniques such as the MPEG2 AAC standards, a fixed bitrate is given to a coding apparatus, the optimal state for the given bitrate is searched to then perform quantization and coding, thereby forming bitstreams in accordance with the bitrate. One bitstream contains information for one bitrate. In other words, bitrate information is contained in the header of a bitstream and a fixed bitrate is used. Thus, a method exhibiting the best efficiency at a specific bitrate can be used. For example, when a bitstream is formed by an encoder at a bitrate of 64 Kbps, the best quality sound can be restored by a decoder corresponding to an encoder having a bitrate of 64 Kbps. According to such methods, bitstreams are formed without consideration of other bitrates, but bitstreams having a magnitude suitable for a given bitrate, rather than the order of the bitstreams, are formed. Actually, if the thusformed bitstreams are transmitted via a communications network, the bitstreams are sliced into several slots to then be transmitted. When an overload is applied to a transmission channel, or only some of the slots sent from a transmission end are received at a reception end due to a narrow bandwidth of the transmission channel, data cannot be reconstructed properly. Also, since bitstreams are not formed according to the significance thereof, if only some of the bitstreams are restored, the quality is severely degraded. The reconstructed audio data makes sound objectionable to the ear. In the case of a scalable audio codec for solving the abovedescribed problems, coding for a base layer is performed and then a difference signai between the original signal and the coded signal is coded in the next enhancement layer (K. Brandenburg. Et al., "First Ideas on Scalable Audio Coding", 97th AESConventional, preprint 3924, San Francisco, 1994) and (K. Brandenburg, et al., "A Two or ThreeStage Bit Rate Scalable Audio Coding System", 99th AESConvention, preprint 4132, New York, 1995). Thus, the more layers there are the poorer the performance at a high bitrate. In the case of using a scalable coding apparatus, a signal having good audio quality is reproduced initially. However, if the state of communication channels is worsened or the load 2 applied to the decoder of a receiving terminal is increased, a sound having a low bitrate quality is reproduced, Therefore, the aforementioned encoding method is not suitable for practically attaining scalability. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION To solve the above problems, it is an objective of the present invention to provide a scalable digital audio data encoding method, apparatus, and recording medium for recording the encoding method, using a bitsliced arithmetic coding (BSAC) technique, instead of a lossless coding module with all other modules of the conventional coder remaining unchanged. It is another objective of the present invention to provide a scalable digital audio data decoding method, apparatus, and recording medium for recording the decoding method, using a bitsliced arithmetic coding (BSAC) technique, instead of a lossless coding module with all other modules of the conventional audio decoder remaining unchanged. To achieve the first objective of the present invention, there is provided a scalable audio encoding method for coding audio signals into a layered datastream having a base layer and enhancement layers of a predetermined number, comprising the steps of: signalprocessing input audio signals and quantizing the same for each predetermined coding band; and packing the quantized data to generate bitstreams, wherein the bitstream generating step comprises: coding the quantized data corresponding to the base layer; coding the quantized data corresponding to the next enhancement layer of the coded base layer and the remaining quantized data uncoded due to a layer size limit and belonging to the coded layer; and sequentially performing the layer coding steps for all enhancement layers to form bitstreams, wherein the base layer coding step, the enhancement layer coding step and the sequential coding step are performed such that the side information and quantized data corresponding to a layer to be coded are represented by digits of a same predetermined number; and then arithmeticcoded using a predetermined probability mode! in the order ranging from the MSB sequences to the LSB sequences, the side information containing scale factors and probability models to be used in the arithmetic coding. 3 The step of coding the scale factors comprises the steps of: obtaining the maximum scale factor; and obtaining differences between the maximum scale factor and the respective scale factors and arithmeticcoding the differences. When the quantized data is composed of sign data and magnitude data, the coding step comprises the steps of: coding by a predetermined encoding method the most significant bit sequences composed of most significant bits of the magnitude data of the quantized data represented by the same number of bits; coding sign data corresponding to nonzero data among the coded most significant bit sequences; coding the most significant bit sequences among uncoded magnitude data of the digital data by a predetermined encoding method; coding uncoded sign data among the sign data corresponding to nonzero magnitude data among bit sequences; and performing the magnitude data coding step and the sign data coding step on the respective bits of the digital data. The coding steps are performed by coupling bits composing the respective bit sequences for the magnitude data and sign data, into units of bits of a predetermined number, A fourdimensional vector coupled in units of bits is divided into two subvectors according to its prestates in coding the respective samples. The bitrate of the base layer is 16 kbps and the interlayer bitrate is 8 kbps. To achieve the second objective of the present invention, there is provided a scalable audio coding apparatus as in amended claim 16. To achieve the second objective of the present invention, there is provided a scalable audio coding apparatus comprising; a quantizing portion for (i) signalprocessing input audio signals and (it) quantizing the same for each coding band; and a bit packing portion for (i) generating bitstreams by bandlimiting for a base layer into scale factor bands so as to be scalable, (ii) coding side information corresponding to the base layer, (iii) coding the quantized information sequentially from the most significant bit sequence to the least significant bit sequence, and from lower frequency components to higher frequency components coresponding to the base layer, and (iv) coding side information and the quantized data corresponding to the next enhancement layer of the base layer and the quantized data, to perform coding on all layers, wherein the side information has the scale factor and probability models to be used in the arithmetic coding. The quantizing portion comprises: a time/frequency mapping portion for converting the input audio signals of a temporal domain into signals of a frequency domain; a psychoacoustic portion for coupling the converted signals by signals of 4 predetermined subbands by time/frequency mapping and calculating a masking threshold at each subband using a masking phenomenon generated by interaction of the respective signals; and a quantizing portion for quantizing the signals for each predetermined coding band while the quantization noise of each band is compared with the masking threshold. To achieve the third objective of the present invention, there is provided a scalable audio decoding method for decoding audio data coded to have layered bitrates, comprising the steps of: decoding side information having at least scale factors and arithmeticcoding model information allotted to each band, in the order of creation of the layers in datastreams having layered bitrates, by analyzing the significance of bits composing the datastreams, from upper significant bits to lower significant bits, using the arithmetic coding models corresponding to the quantized data; restoring the decoded scale factors and quantized data into signals having the original magnitudes; and converting inversely quantized signals into signals of a temporal domain. The decoding of the scale factors are performed by the steps of: decoding the maximum scale factor in the bitstream, arithmeticdecoding differences between the maximum scale factor and the respective scale factors, and subtracting the differences from the maximum scale factor. Also, there is provided a scalable audio decoding apparatus comprising: a bitstream analyzing portion for decoding side information having at least scale factors and arithmetic model information and quantized data, in the order of creation of the layers in layered bitstreaims; an inverse quantizing portion for restoring the decoded scale factors and quantized data into signals having the original magnitudes; and a frequency/time mapping portion for converting inversely quantized signals of a frequency domain into signals of a temporal domain. The invention may be embodied in a general purpose digital computer that is running a program from a computer usable medium, including but not limited to storage media such as magnetic storage media (e.g., ROM's, floppy disks, hard disks, etc.), optically readable media (e.g., CDROMs, DVDs, etc.) And carrier waves (e.g., transmissions over the Internet). For instance, there is provided a computer usable medium, tangibly embodying a program of instructions 5 executable by the machine to perform a scalable audio coding method for coding audio signals into a layered datastrearn having a base layer and enhancement layers of a predetermined number, the method comprising the steps of: signalprocessing input audio signals and quantizing the same for each predetermined coding band; and packing the quantized data to generate bitstreams, wherein the bitstream generating step comprises: coding the quantized data corresponding to the base layer; coding the quantized data corresponding to the next enhancement layer of the coded base layer and the remaining quantized data uncoded due to a layer size limit and belonging to the coded layer; and sequentially performing the layer coding steps for all enhancement layers to form bitstreams, wherein the base layer coding step, the enhancement layer coding step and the sequential coding step are performed such that the side information and quantized data corresponding to a layer to be coded are represented by digits of a predetermined same number; and then arithmeticcoded using a predetermined probability model in the order ranging from the MSB sequences to the LSB sequences, the side information containing scale factors and probability models to be used in the arithmetic coding. The scale factor coding step comprises the steps of: obtaining the maximum scale factor; and obtaining differences between the maximum scale factor and the respective scale factors and arithmeticcoding the same. The coding of the information for the probability models is performed by the steps of: obtaining the minimum value of the probability model information values; obtaining differences the minimum probability model information and the respective model information values and arithmeticcoding the same using the probability models listed in Tables 5.5 through 5.9. Also, there is provided a computer usable medium, tangibly embodying a program of instructions executable by the machine to perform a scalable audio decoding method for decoding audio data coded to have layered bitrates, comprising the steps of: decoding side information having at least scale factors and arithmeticcoding model information allotted to each band, in the order of creation of the layers in datastreams having layered bitrates, by analyzing the significance of bits composing the datastreams, from upper significant bits to lower 6 significant bits, using the arithmetic coding models corresponding to the quantized data; restoring the decoded scale factors and quantized data into signals having the original magnitudes; and converting inversely quantized signals into signals of a temporal domain, a recording medium capable of reading a program for executing the scalable audio encoding method using a computer. The bitstreams are decoded in units of fourdimensional vectors, and bitsliced information of four samples in the fourdimensional vectors is decoded. The decoding of the scale factors is performed by decoding the maximum scale factor, arithmeticcoding the differences between the maximum scale factor and the respective scale factors and subtracting the differences from the maximum scale factor. The decoding of the arithmetic model indices is performed by decoding the minimum arithmetic model index in the bitstream, decoding differences between the minimum index and the respective indices in the side information of the respective layers, and adding the minimum index and the differences. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE ACCOMPANYING DRAWINGS The above objectives and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent by describing in detail a preferred embodiment thereof with reference to the attached drawings in which: FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a simple scalable coding/decoding apparatus (codec); FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a coding apparatus according to the present invention; FIG. 3 shows the structure of a bitstream according to the present invention; FIG. 4 is a block diagram of a decoding apparatus according to the present invention; FIG. 5 illustrates the arrangement of frequency components for a long block (window size=2048); and FIG. 6 illustrates the arrangement of frequency components for a short block (window size=2048). 7 DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Hereinbelow, preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to accompanying drawings. Bitstreams formed in the present invention are not constituted by a single bitrate but are constituted by several enhancement layers based on a base layer. The present invention has good coding efficiency, that is, the best performance is exhibited at a fixed bitrate as in the conventional coding techniques, and relates to a coding/decoding method and apparatus in which the bitrate coded suitable for the advent of multimedia technology is restored. FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a scalable audio encoding apparatus according to the present invention, which largely includes a quantization processor 230 and a bit packing portion 240. The quantization processor 230 for signalprocessing input audio signals and quantizing the same for predetermined coding band, includes a time/frequency mapping portion 200, a psychoacoustic portion 210 and a quantizing portion 220. The time/frequency mapping portion 200 converts the input audio signals of a temporal domain into signals of a frequency domain. A perceived difference between signal characteristics by the human ear is not very large temporally. However, according to human psychoacoustic models, a big difference is produced for each band. Thus, compression efficiency can be enhanced by allotting different quantization bits depending on frequency bands. The psychoacoustic portion 210 couples the converted signals by signals of predetermined subbands by the time/frequency mapping portion 200 and calculates a masking threshold at each subband using a masking phenomenon generated by interaction with the respective signals. The masking phenomenon is a phenomenon in which an audio signal (sound) is inaudible due to another signal. For example, when a train passes through a train station, a person cannot hear his/her counter part's voice during a lowvoice conversation due to the noise caused by the train. The quantizing portion 220 quantizes the signals for each predetermined coding band so that the quantization noise of each band becomes smaller than the 8 masking threshold. In other words, the frequency signals of each band are applied to scala quantization so that the magnitude of the quantization noise of each band is smaller than the masking threshold, so as to be imperceivable. Quantization is performed so that the NMR (NoisetoMask Ratio) value, which is a ratio of the masking threshold calculated by the psychoacoustic portion 210 to the noise generated at each band, is less than or equal to 0 dB. The NMR value less than or equal to 0 dB means that the masking threshold is higher than the quantization noise. In other words, the quantization noise is not audible. The bit packing portion 240 codes side information and the quantized data corresponding to a base layer having the lowest bitrate, successively codes side information and the quantized data corresponding to the next enhancement layer of the base layer, and performs this procedure for all layers, to generate bitstreams. Here, the side information includes scale factors and probability model information to be used in arithmetic coding. Coding the quantized data of the respective layers is performed by the steps of slicing each quantized data into units of bits by representing the quantized data as binary data comprised of bits of a predetermined same number, and coding the bitsliced data sequentially from the most significant bit sequence to the least significant bit sequence, using a predetermined probability model. When the digital data is composed of sign data and magnitude data, the bit packing portion 240 collects each magnitude data for the bits having the same significance level among the bitsliced data, codes the magnitude data, and then codes the uncoded sign data among the sign data corresponding to nonzero magnitude data among the coded magnitude data. Here, the coding procedure for the sign data and the magnitude data are performed sequentially from the MSBs to the lower significant bits, The bitstreams formed by the coding apparatus having the aforementioned configuration have a layered structure in which the bitstreams of lower bitrate layers are contained in those of higher bitrate layers, as shown in FIG. 3. Conventionally, side information is coded first and then the remaining information is coded to form bitstreams. However, in the present invention, as shown in FIG, 3, the side information for each enhancement layer is separately coded. Also, although all quantized data are sequentially coded in units of samples 9 conventionally, in the present invention, quantized data is represented by binary data and is coded from the MSB sequence of the binary data to form bitstreams within the allocated bits. Now, the operation of the coding apparatus will be described. Input audio signals are coded and generated as bitstreams. To this end, the input signals are converted to signals of a frequency domain through MDCT (Modified Discrete Cosine Transform) in the time/frequency mapping portion 200. The psychoacoustic portion 210 couples the frequency signals by appropriate subbands to obtain a masking threshold. The quantizing portion 220 performs scalar quantization so that the magnitude of the quantization noise of each scale factor band is smaller than the masking threshold, which is audible but is not perceivable within allocated bits. If quantization fulfilling such conditions is performed, scale factors for the respective scale factor bands and quantized frequency values are generated. Generally, in view of human psychoacoustics, close frequency components can be easily perceived at a lower frequency. However, as the frequency increases, the interval of perceivable frequencies becomes wider. The bandwidths of the scale factor bands increase as the frequency bands become higher. However, to facilitate coding, the scale factor bands of which the bandwidth is not constant are not used for coding, but coding bands of which the bandwidth is constant are used instead. The coding bands include 32 quantized frequency coefficient values. 1. Coding of scalefactors To compress scalefactors, an arithmetic coding method is used. To this end, first, the maximum scalefactor (max_scalefactor) is obtained. Then, differences between the respective scalefactors and the maximum scalefactor are obtained and then the differences are arithmeticcoded. Four models are used in arithmeticcoding the differences between scale factors. The four models are demonstrated in Tables 51 through 5.4. The information for the models is stored in a scalefactor model. [Table 5.1] Differentia! scale factor arithmetic model 1 10 Size Cumulative frequencies 8 1342, 790, 510, 344, 214, 127, 57, 0 [Table 5.2] Differential scale factor arithmetic model 2 Size Cumulative frequencies 16 2441, 2094, 1798, 1563, 1347, 1154, 956, 818, 634, 464, 342, 241, 157, 97, 55, 0 [Table 5.3] Differential scale factor arithmetic model 3 Size Cumulative frequencies 32 3963, 3525, 3188, 2949, 2705, 2502, 2286, 2085,1868, 1668, 1515, 1354, 1207, 1055, 930, 821, 651, 510, 373, 269, 192, 134, 90, 58, 37, 29, 24, 15, 10, 8, 5, 0 [Table 5.4] Differential scale factor arithmetic model 4 Size Cumulative frequencies 64 13587, 13282, 12961, 12656, 12165, 11721, 11250, 10582, 10042, 9587, 8742, 8010, 7256, 6619, 6042, 5480, 4898, 4331, 3817, 3374, 3058, 2759, 2545, 2363, 2192, 1989, 1812, 1582, 1390, 1165, 1037, 935, 668, 518, 438, 358, 245, 197, 181, 149, 144, 128, 122, 117, 112, 106, 101, 85, 80, 74, 69, 64, 58, 53, 48, 42, 37, 32, 26, 21, 16, 10, 5, 0 2. Coding of arithmeticcoding model index Each coding band includes 32 frequency components. The 32 quantized frequency coefficients are arithmeticcoded. Then, a model to be used for arithmetic coding for each coding band is decided, and the information is stored in the arithmetic coding model index (ArModel). To compress the ArModel, an arithmetic coding method is used. To this end, first, the minimum ArModel index (min_ArModel) is obtained. Then, differences between the respective ArModel 11 indices and the minimum ArModel index are obtained and then the differences are arithmeticcoded. Here, four models are used in arithmeticcoding the differences. The four models are demonstrated in Tables 5.5 through 5.8. The information for the model used in the arithmetic coding is stored in an ArModel model. [Table 5.5] Differential ArModel arithmetic model 1 Size Cumulative frequencies 4 9868, 3351, 1676, 0 [Table 5.6] Differential ArModel arithmetic model 2 Size Cumulative frequencies 12492, 8600, 5941, 3282, 2155, 1028, 514, 0 [Table 5.7] Differential ArModel arithmetic model 3 Size Cumulative frequencies 16 14316, 12248, 9882, 7516, 6399, 5282, 4183, 3083, 2247, 1411 860, 309, 185, 61, 31, 0 [Table 5.8] Differential ArModel arithmetic model 4 Size Cumulative frequencies 40 12170, 7956, 6429, 4901, 4094, 3287, 2982, 2677, 2454, 2230, 2062, 1894, 1521, 1348, 1199, 1050, 854, 658, 468, 278, 169, 59, 38, 18, 17, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0 1.3 Bitsliced coding of quantized frequency components Generally, the significance of the MSB (most significant bit) is far greater than that of the LSB (least significant bit). However, according to the conventional method, coding is performed irrespective of significance. Thus, if only some bitstreams from the leading bitstreams among all bitstreams are to be used, the information less important than the information included in the unused lagging bitstreams is considerably included in the leading bitstreams. 12 By the foregoing reason, in the present invention, quantized signals of the respective bands are coded sequentially from the MSBs to the LSBs. In other words, the respective quantized signals are represented by binary notation, and the quantized values of the respective frequency components are sequentially processed in units of bits, from low frequency components to high frequency components. First, the MSBs of the respective frequency components are obtained, and then the next upper significant bits are coded sequentially by one bit, up to the LSBs. In such a manner, more important information is coded first so that bitstreams are generated from the beginning. The sign values of the quantized values are stored separately and the absolute values thereof are taken to obtain data represented as positive values. The quantized frequency data are sliced into units of bits and then sequentially arranged from the MSB to the LSB. The bitsliced data are reconstructed by fourdimensional vectors. Now, it is assumed that 8 quantized values each having 4 bits are represented by binary notation as follows: LSB MSB 0: 10 0 1 1: 1000 2: 0 1 0 1 3: 0 0 1 0 4: 0 000 5: 10 0 0 6: 0000 7: 0 100 Conventionally, 1001 of the lowest frequency component is first coded and then 1000, 0101, 0010 are sequentially coded (that is, horizontally for each frequency component). However, according to the present invention, 1, the MSB sequences composed of the MSB of the lowest frequency component, and 0,1,0, 0,... the MSBs of other frequency components, are obtained and then processed sequentially, by being coupled by several bits. For example, in the case of coding in units of 4 bits, 1010 is coded and then 0000 is coded. If the coding of the 13 MSBs is completed, the next upper significant bit sequences are obtained to then be coded in the order of 0001, 000,..., up to the LSBs. The respective fourdimensional vectors coupled in units of four bits are subdivided into two subvectors according to their state. The two subvectors are coded by an effective lossless coding such as Arithmetic coding. To this end, the model to be used in the arithmetic coding for each coding band is decided. This information is stored in the ArModel. The respective arithmeticcoding models are composed of several loworder models. The subvectors are coded using one of the loworder models. The loworder models are classified according to the dimensions of the subvector to be coded, the significance of a vector or the coding states of the respective samples. The significance of a vector is decided by the bit position of the vector to be coded. In other words, according to whether the bitsliced information is for the MSB, the next MSB, or the LSB, the significance of a vector differs. The MSB has the highest significance and the LSB has the lowest significance. The coding state values of the respective samples are renewed as vector coding progresses from the MSB to the LSB. At first, the coding state value is initialized as zero. Then, when a nonzero bit value is encountered, the coding state value becomes 1. 1.4 Coding of sign bit Basically, the coding of a sign bit is performed sequentially from the MSB sequence to the LSB sequence, where the coding of the frequency component data whose sign bit is coded is reserved and the coding of that whose sign bit is not coded is first performed. After the sign bits of all the frequency components are coded in such a manner, the coding of the reserved frequency component data are performed in the order of the upper significant bit sequences. This will be described in more detail. Referring back to the above example, the MSB sequences '1010, 0000' are both coded because their sign bits have not been coded previously, that is, there is no need to reserve the coding. Then, the next upper significant bit sequences '0001, 0000' are coded. Here, for 0001, the first 0 and the third 0 are not coded because the sign bits are already coded in the MSBs, and then the second and fourth bits 0 and 1 are coded. Here, since there is no 1 among the upper bits, the sign bit for the frequency component of the 14 fourth bit 1 is coded. For 0000, since there are no coded sign bits among the upper bits, these four bits are all coded. In such a manner, sign bits are coded up to the LSBs, and then the remaining uncoded information is coded sequentially from the upper significant bits. 1.5. Formation of scalable bitstreams Now, the structure of the bitstreams formed in the present invention will be described. When representing the respective frequency component values into binary digits, the MSBs are first coded in the base layer, the next upper significant bits are then coded in the next enhancement layer and the LSBs are finally coded in the top layer. In other words, in the base layer, only the contour of all frequency components is coded. Then, as the bitrate increases, more detailed information can be expressed. Since detailed information data values are coded according to increasing bitrates, i.e., enhancement of layers, and audio quality can be improved. The method fpr forming scalable bitstreams using such represented data will now be described. First, bitstreams of the base layer are formed. Then, side information to be used for the base layer is coded. The side information includes scale factor information for scale factor bands and the arithmetic coding model indices for each coding band. If the coding of the side information is completed, the information for the quantized values is sequentially coded from the MSBs to the LSBs, and from tow frequency components to high frequency components. If allocated bits of a certain band are less than those of the band being currently coded, coding is not performed. When the allocated bits of the band equal those of the band being currently coded, coding is performed. In other words, coding is performed within a predetermined band limit. The reason for the band limit will now be described. If there is no band limit in coding signals of the respective enhancement layers, coding is performed from the MSB irrespective of bands. Then, sound objectionable to the ear may be generated because signals are on and off when restoring signals of the layers having low bitrates. Thus, it is advisable to restrict bands appropriately according to bitrates. Also, if the bands are restricted for the respective enhancement layers, the decoder complexity for the respective enhancement layers is reduced. 15 Therefore, both quality scalability and complexity scalability can be supported. After the base layer is coded, the side information and quantized value of audio data for the next enhancement layer are coded. In such a manner, data of all layers are coded. The thuscoded information is collected altogether to form bitstreams. FIG. 4 is a block diagram of the decoding apparatus, which includes a bitstream analyzing portion 400, an inverse quantizing portion 410, and a frequency/time mapping portion 420. The bitstream analyzing portion 400 decodes side information having at least scale factors and arithmetic coding models, and bitsliced quantized data, in the order of generation of the bitstreams having a layered structure. The decoded data is restored as a signal of a temporal region by such a processing module as a conventional audio algorithm such as the AAC standards. First, the inverse quantizing portion 410 restores the decoded scale factor and quantized data into signals having the original magnitudes. The frequency/time mapping portion 420 converts inversely quantized signals into signals of a temporal domain so as to be reproduced. Next, the operation of the decoding apparatus will be described. The order of decoding bitstreams generated by the coding apparatus is exactly the reverse of the coding order. First, the information for the base layer is decoded. The decoding process will be briefly described. First, the information commonly used for all layers, i.e., header Information, stored in the foremost bitstream, is first decoded. The side information used in the base layer includes scale factors and arithmetic model indices for the bands allocated in the base layer. Thus, the scale factors and arithmetic model indices are decoded. The bits allocated to each coding band can be known by the decoded arithmetic model indices. Among the allocated bits, the maximum value is obtained. The quantized vaiues in the bitstreams are decoded sequentially from the MSBs to the LSBs, and from low frequency components to high frequency components, as in the coding process. If the allocated bit of a certain band is smaller than that being currently decoded, 16 decoding is not performed. When the allocated bit of a certain band becomes equal to that being currently decoded, decoding is started. After completing decoding of the bitstreams allocated for a base layer, side information and quantized values of audio data for the next enhancement layer are decoded. In such a manner, data of all layers can be decoded. The data quantized through the decoding process is restored as the original signals through the inverse quantizing portion 410 and the frequency/time mapping portion 420 shown in FIG. 4, in the reverse order of the coding. Now, a preferred embodiment of the present invention will be described. The present invention is adoptable to the base structure of the AAC standards and implements a scalable digital audio data coder. !n other words, in the present invention, while the basic modules used in AAC standard coding/decoding are used, only the lossless coding module is replaced with the bitsliced encoding method. Therefore, the bitstreams formed in the coder according to the present invention are different from those formed in the AAC technique. In the present invention, information for only one bitrate is not coded within one bitstream but information for the bitrates of various enhancement layers is coded within a bitstream, with a layered structure, as shown in FIG. 3, in the order ranging from more important signal components to less important signal components. Using the thusformed bitstreams, bitstreams having a low bitrate can be formed by simply rearranging the low bitrate bitstreams contained in the highest bitstream, by a user's request or according to the state of transmission channels. In other words, bitstreams formed by a coding apparatus on a real time basis, or bitstreams stored in a medium, can be rearranged to be suitable for a desired bitrate by a user's request, to then be transmitted. Also, if the user's hardware performance is poor or the user wants to reduce the complexity of a decoder, even with appropriate bitstreams, only some bitstreams can be restored, thereby controlling the complexity. For example, in forming a scalable bitstream, the bitrate of a base layer is 16 Kbps, that of a top layer is 64 Kbps, and the respective enhancement layers has a bitrate interval of 8 Kbps, that is, the bitstream has 7 layers of 18, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56 and 64 Kbps. The respective enhancement layers are defined as 17 demonstrated in Table 2.1. Since the bitstream formed by the coding apparatus has a layered structure, as shown in FIG. 3, the bitstream of the top layer of 64 Kbps contains the bitstreams of the respective enhancement layers (16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56 and 64 Kbps). If a user requests data for the top layer, the bitstream for the top layer is transmitted without any processing therefor. Also, if another user requests data for the base layer (corresponding to 16 Kbps), only the leading bitstreams are simply transmitted. [Table 2.1] Bitrate for each layer (8 kbps interval) Layer Bitrate (kbps) 0 16 1 24 2 32 3 40 4 48 5 56 6 64 [Table 2.2] Band limit in each layer for short windows (8 kbps interval) Layer Band limit 0 20 1 28 2 40 3 52 4 60 5 72 6 84 [Table 2.3] Band limit in each layer for long windows (8 kbps interval) 18 Layer Band limit 0 160 1 244 2 328 3 416 4 500 5 584 6 672 [Table 2.4] Available bits for each channel in each layer (8 kbps interval) Layer Available bits 0 341 1 512 2 682 3 853 4 1024 5 1194 6 1365 [Table 2.5] Minimum scale factor band newly added to each layer for short windows (8 kbps interval) Layer Scale factor band 0 5 1 6 2 8 3 9 4 10 5 11 6 12 19 [Table 2.6] Minimum scale factor band newly added to each layer for long windows (8 kbps interval) Layer Scaie factor band 0 22 1 27 2 30 3 32 4 35 5 38 6 40 Alternatively, the enhancement layers may be constructed in intervals. The bitrate of a base layer is 16 Kbps, that of a top layer is 64 Kbps, and each enhancement layerhas a bitrate interval of 1 Kbps. The respective enhancement layers are constructed as demonstrated in Table 3.1. Therefore, fine granule scalability can be implemented, that is, scalable bitstreams are formed in a bitrate interval of 1 kbps from 16 kbps to 64 kbps. [Table 3.1] Bitrate for each layer (1 kbps interval) Layer Bitrate Layer Bitrate Layer Bitrate Layer Bitrate 0 16 12 28 24 40 36 52 1 17 13 29 25 41 37 53 2 18 14 30 26 42 38 54 3 19 15 31 27 43 39 55 4 20 16 32 28 44 40 56 5 21 17 33 29 45 41 57 6 22 18 34 30 46 42 58 7 23 19 35 31 47 43 59 8 24 20 36 32 48 44 60 20 9 25 21 37 33 49 45 61 10 26 22 38 34 50 46 62 11 27 23 39 35 51 47 63 48 64 [Table 3.2] Band limit in each layer for short windows (1 kbps interval) Layer Band limit Layer Band limit Layer Band limit Layer Band limit 0 20 12 36 24 52 36 68 1 20 13 36 25 52 37 68 2 20 14 36 26 52 38 68 3 24 15 40 27 56 39 72 4 24 16 40 28 56 40 72 5 24 17 40 29 56 41 72 6 28 18 44 30 60 42 76 7 28 19 44 31 60 43 76 8 28 20 44 32 60 44 76 9 32 21 48 33 64 45 80 10 32 22 48 34 64 46 80 11 32 23 48 35 64 47 80 48 84 [Table 3.3] Band limit in each layer for long windows (1 kbps interval) Layer Band limit Layer Band limit Layer Band limit Layer Band limit 0 160 12 288 24 416 36 544 1 168 13 296 25 424 37 552 2 180 14 308 26 436 38 564 3 192 15 320 27 448 39 576 4 200 16 328 28 456 40 584 5 212 17 340 29 468 41 596 21 6 224 18 352 30 480 42 608 7 232 19 360 31 488 43 616 8 244 20 372 32 500 44 628 9 256 21 384 33 512 45 640 10 264 22 392 34 520 46 648 11 276 23 404 35 532 47 660 48 672 [Table 3.4] Available bits per channel in each layer (1 kbps interval) Layer Available bits Layer Available bits Layer Available bits Layer Available bits 0 341 12 597 24 853 36 1109 1 362 13 618 25 874 37 1130 2 384 14 640 26 896 38 1152 3 405 15 661 27 917 39 1173 4 426 16 682 28 938 40 1194 5 448 17 704 29 960 41 1216 6 469 18 725 30 981 42 1237 7 490 19 746 31 1002 43 1258 8 512 20 768 32 1024 44 1280 9 533 21 789 33 1045 45 1301 10 554 22 810 34 1066 46 1322 11 576 23 832 35 1088 47 1344 48 1365 [Table 3.5] Lowest scale factor band to be newly added in each layer for short windows (1 kbps interval) 22 Layer Scale factor band Layer Scale factor band Layer Scale factor band Layer Scale factor band 0 5 12 7 24 9 38 10 1 5 13 7 25 9 37 10 2 5 14 7 26 9 38 10 3 6 15 8 27 9 39 10 4 6 16 8 28 9 40 11 5 6 17 8 29 9 41 11 6 6 18 8 30 10 42 11 7 6 19 8 31 10 43 11 8 6 20 8 32 10 44 11 9 7 21 9 33 10 45 11 10 7 22 9 34 10 46 12 11 7 23 9 35 10 47 12 48 12 [Table 3.6] Lowest scale factor band to be newly added in each layer for long windows (1 kbps interval) Layer Scale factor band Layer Scale factor band Layer Scale factor band Layer Scale factor band 0 22 12 28 24 32 36 36 1 23 13 29 25 32 37 37 2 24 14 29 26 33 38 37 3 24 15 29 27 33 39 37 4 25 16 30 28 34 40 38 5 25 17 30 29 34 41 38 6 26 18 30 30 34 42 38 23 7 28 19 31 31 35 43 39 8 27 20 31 32 35 44 39 9 27 21 31 33 35 45 39 10 27 22 32 34 36 46 40 11 28 23 32 35 36 47 40 48 40 The respective layers have limited bandwidths according to bitrates. If 8 kbps interval scalability is intended, the bandwidths are limited, as demonstrated in Tables 2.2 and 2.3. In the case of 1 kbps interval, the bandwidths are limited, as demonstrated in Tables 3.2 and 3.3. Input data is a PCM data sampled at 48 KHz, and the magnitude of one frame is 1024. The number of bits usable for one frame for a bitrate of 64 Kbps is 1365.3333 (=64000 bits/sec*( 1024/48000)) on the average. Similarly, the size of available bits for one frame can be calculated according to the respective bitrates. The calculated numbers of available bits for one frame are demonstrated in Table 2.4 in the case of 8 kbps, and in Table 3.4 in the case of 1 kbps. 2.1. Coding procedure The entire coding procedure is the same as that described in MPEG2 ACC International standards, and the bitsliced coding proposed in the present invention is adopted as the lossless coding. 2.1.1. Psychoacoustic portion Prior to quantization, using a psychoacoustic model, the block type of a frame being currently processed (long, start, short, or stop), the SMR values of the respective processing bands, group information of a short block and temporally delayed PCM data for time/frequency synchronization with the psychoacoustic model, are first generated from input data, and transmitted to a time/frequency mapping portion. ISO/IEC 111723 Model 2 is employed for calculating the psychoacoustic model [MPEG Committee ISO/IEC/JTC1/SC29/WG11, Information technologyCoding of moving pictures and associated audio for data storage media to about 1.5 Mbit/sPart 3: Audio, ISO/OEC IS 111723, 1993], 24 2.1.2. Time/frequency mapping portion The time/frequency mapping defined in the MPEG2 AAC International standards is used. The time/frequency mapping portion converts data of a temporal domain into data of a frequency domain using MDCT according to the block type output using the psychoacoustic model. At this time, the block sizes are 2048 and 256 in the case of long/start/stop blocks and in the case of a short block, respectively, and MDCT is performed 8 times [MPEG Committee ISO/IEC/JTC1/SC29/WG11, ISO/IEC MPEG2 AAC IS 138187, 1997]. The same procedure as that used in the conventional MPEG2 AAC [MPEG Committee ISO/IEC/JTC1/SC29/WG11, ISO/IEC MPEG2 AAC IS 138187, 1997] has been used heretofore. 2.1.3, Quantizing portion The data converted into that of a frequency domain is quantized with increasing scale factors so that the SNR value of the scale factor band shown in Tables 1.1 and 1,2 is smaller than the SMR as the output value of the psychoacoustic model. Here, scalar quantization is performed, and the basic scale factor interval is 21/4. Quantization is performed so that the perceivable noise is minimized. The exact quantization procedure is described in the MPEG2 AAC. Here, the obtained output is quantized data and scale factors for the respective scale factor bands. Table 1.1] Scale factor band for long blocks swb swb_offset_ long window swb swb_offset_ long window swb swb__offset_ long window swb swb_offset_ long window 0 0 12 56 24 196 37 576 1 4 13 64 25 216 38 608 2 8 14 72 26 240 39 640 3 12 15 80 27 264 40 672 4 16 16 88 28 292 41 704 5 20 17 96 29 320 42 736 6 24 18 108 30 352 43 768 25 7 28 19 120 31 384 44 800 8 32 20 132 32 416 45 832 9 36 21 144 33 448 46 864 10 40 22 160 34 480 47 896 11 48 23 176 35 512 48 928 36 544 1024 [Table 1.2] Scale factor band for short blocks swb swb_offset_short window swb swb_offset_short window 0 0 8 44 1 4 9 56 2 8 10 68 3 12 11 80 4 16 12 96 5 20 13 112 6 28 128 7 36 2.1.4. Arrangement of frequency components For convenient coding, frequency components are rearranged. The rearrangement order is different depending on block types. In the case of using a long window in the block type, the frequency components are arranged in the order of scale factor bands, as shown in FIG. 5. In FIG. 5, sfb indicates scale factor band. In the case of using a short window in the block type, each four frequency components from eight blocks are repeatedly arranged in increasing order, as shown in FIG. 6. In FIG. 6, B indicates 8 blocks, and the digits listed below indicate frequency components in each block. 2.1.5. Bit packing portion using bitsliced arithmetic coding (BSAC) The rearranged quantized data and scale factors are formed as layered bitstreams. 26 The bitstreams are formed by syntaxes demonstrated in Tables 7.1 through 7.10. [Table 7.1] Syntax of raw_data_stream () Syntax No. of bits Mnemonics raw_data_stream () { while (data_available ()){ raw_data_block () byte_alignment () } } [Table 7.2] Syntax of raw_data_block () Syntax No. of bits Mnemonics raw_data_block () { while (id = id_syn_efe) ! = ID_END){3 3 unimsbf switch (id){ case ID_J3CE: single_channel_element (} break; default : break; } } } [Table 7.3] Syntax of single_channel_element () Syntax No. of bits Mnemonics 27 single_channel_element () { eiement_instant_tag 4 unimsbf bsac_channel_stream (target_layer) } [Table 7.4] Syntax of ics_info () Syntax No. of bits Mnemonics ics_info () { lcs_reserved_bit 1 bslbf window__sequence 2 uimsbf window_shape 1 uimsbf If (window_sequence==EIGHT_SHORT_SEQUENCE) { max__sfb 4 uimsbf scale_factor_grouping 7 uimsbf } else { max_sfb 6 uimsbf } } [Table 7.5] Syntax of bsac_channel_stream () Syntax No. of bits Mnemonics 28 bsac_channel_stream (target_layer) { max_sfb 8 uimbf ics_info () bsac_data (targetjayer); } [Table 7.6] Syntax of bsac_data () Syntax No. of bits Mnemonics bsac_data (targetjayer) { frame_length 9 uimbf encoded_layer 3/6 uimbf scalefactor_modet 2 uimbf min_ArModel 5 uimbf ArModel_model 2 uimbf bsac_stream (targetjayer); Ieftover_arithmetic_codebits } 0..14 bslbf [Table 7.7] [Table 7.8] Syntax of bsac_stream () Syntax No. of bits Mnemonics 29 bsac__stream (target_layer) { base_initialization (); for (layer=0; layer= bsac_side_jnfo (layer) bsac_spectral_data (layer) if (layer==target_layer) return; } } [Table 7.9] Syntax of bsac_side_info () Syntax No. of bits Mnemonics 30 bsac_side_info (layer) { for (g=0; g for (sfb=layer_sfb[layer];sfb for (sfb=layer_sfb[layer];sfb for (i=swb__offset[band];i cband index2cd (g, i); if (!decode_cband[g][cband]) { acode_Model[g][cband] 0..13 bslbf decode_cband[g]fcband] = 1; } } } } [Table 7.10] Syntax of bsac_spectral_data () Syntax No. of bits Mnemonics 31 bsac_spectral_data (layer) { laye_initialization (layer); for (snf=maxsnf; snf>0; snf) { for (i=0; i if (cur_snf[i] dim0 = dim1 = 0 for (k = 0; k if (prestate [i+k]) dim1++ else dim0++ if (dim0) acode_vec0 0..14 bslbf if (dim 1) acode_vec1 0..14 bslbf construct_sample (); for (k=0; k { if (sample[i+k] &&! Prestate[i+k]) { acode_sign 0..1 bslbf prestate[i+k] = 1 } } cur_snf[i] if(total_estimated_bits>=available_bits[layer]) return } if (total_estimated_bits>=avaiable_bits[layer])return } } 32 The leading elements of a bitstream are elements which can be commonly used in the conventional AAC, and the elements newly proposed in the present invention are specifically explained. However, the principal structure is similar to that of the AAC standards. Next, the elements of a bitstream newly proposed in the present invention will be described. Table 7.5 shows the syntax for coding bsac_channel_stream, in which 'max_scalefactor' represents the maximum scale factors, which is an integer, i.e., 8 bits. Table 7.6 shows the syntax for coding bsac_data, in which 'frame_length represents the size of all bitstreams for one frame, which is expressed in units of bytes. Also, 'encoded_layer' represents the coding for the top layer coded in the bitstream, which is 3 bits in the case of 8 kbps interval and 6 bits in the case of 1 kbps interval, respectively. The information for the enhancement layers is demonstrated in Tables 2.1 and 3.1. Also, 'scalefactor_model' represents information concerning models to be used in arithmeticcoding differences in scale factors. These models are shown in Table 4.1. 'min_ArModel' represents the minimum value of the arithmetic coding model indices. 'ArModel__rnodel' represents information concerning models used in arithmeticcoding a difference signal between the ArModel and min_ArModel. This information is shown in Table 4.2. [Table 4.1] Arithmetic Model of differential scale factor Model number Largest differential scale factor Model listed table 0 7 Table 5,1 1 15 Table 5.2 2 31 Table 5.3 3 63 Table 5.4 Table 4.2] Arithmetic Model of differential ArModel Model number Largest differential scale factor Model listed table 0 3 Table 5.5 1 7 Table 5.6 33 2 15 Table 5.7 3 31 Table 5.8 Table 7.9 shows the syntax for coding bsac_side_info. The information which can be used for all layers is first coded and then the side information commonly used for the respective enhancement layers is coded. 'acode_scf represents a codeword obtained by arithmeticcoding the scale factors. 'acode_ArModel' represents a codeword obtained by arithmeticcoding the ArModel. The ArModel is information on which is selected from the models listed in Table 4.3. [Table 4.3] BSAC Arithmetic Model Parameters ArModel index Allocated bits of coding band Model listed table ArModel index Allocated bits of coding band Model listed table 0 0 Table 6.1 16 8 Table 6.16 1  Not used 17 8 Table 6.17 2 1 Table 6.2 18 9 Table 6.18 3 1 Table 6.3 19 9 Table 6.19 4 2 Table 6.4 20 10 Table 6.20 5 2 Table 6.5 21 10 Table 6.21 6 3 Table 6.6 22 11 Table 6.22 7 3 Table 6.7 23 11 Table 6.23 8 4 Table 6.8 24 12 Table 6.24 9 4 Table 6.9 25 12 Table 6.25 10 5 Table 6.10 26 13 Table 6.26 11 5 Table 6.11 27 13 Table 6.27 12 6 Table 6.12 28 14 Table 6.28 13 6 Table 6.13 29 14 Table 6.29 14 7 Table 6.14 30 15 Table 6.30 15 7 Table 6.15 31 15 Table 6.31 34 [Table 6.1] BSAC Arithmetic Model 0 Allocated bit = 0 BSAC arithmetic model 1 Not used [Table 6.2] BSAC Arithmetic Model 2 Allocated bit  1 snf pre_state dimension Cumulative frequencies 1 0 4 14858, 13706, 12545, 11545, 10434, 9479, 8475, 7619, 6457, 5456, 4497,3601, 2600, 1720, 862, 0 [Table 6.3] BSAC Arithmetic Model 3 Allocated bit = 1 snf pre_state dimension Cumulative frequencies 1 0 4 5476, 4279, 3542, 3269, 2545, 2435, 2199, 2111, 850, 739, 592, 550, 165,21,0 [Table 6.4] BSAC Arithmetic Model 4 Allocated bits = 2 snf pre_state dimension Cumulative frequencies 2 0 4 4299, 3445, 2583, 2473, 1569, 1479, 1371, 1332, 450, 347, 248, 219, 81, 50, 15, 0 1 0 4 15290, 14389, 13434, 12485, 11559, 10627, 9683, 8626, 7691, 5767, 4655, 3646, 2533, 1415, 0 3 15139, 13484, 11909, 9716, 8068, 5919, 3590, 0 2 14008, 10384, 6834, 0 35 1 11228, 0 1 4 10355, 9160, 7553, 7004, 5671, 4902t 4133, 3433, 1908, 1661, 1345, 1222, 796, 714, 233, 0 3 8328, 6615, 4466, 3586, 1759, 1062, 321, 0 2 4631, 2696, 793, 0 1 968, 0 [Table 6.5] BSAC Arithmetic Model 5 Allocated bits= 2 snf pre__state dimension Cumulative frequencies 2 0 4 3119, 2396, 1878, 1619, 1076, 1051, 870, 826, 233, 231, 198, 197, 27, 26, 1, 0 1 0 4 3691, 2897, 2406, 2142, 1752, 1668, 1497, 1404, 502, 453! 389, 368, 131, 102, 18, 0 3 11106, 8393, 6517, 4967, 2739, 2200, 608,0 2 10771, 6410, 2619, 0 1 6112,0 1 4 11484, 10106, 7809, 7043, 5053, 3521, 2756, 2603, 2296, 2143, 1990, 1531, 765,459, 153,0 3 10628, 8930, 6618, 4585, 2858, 2129, 796, 0 2 7596, 4499, 1512, 0 1 4155, 0 36 [Table 6.6] BSAC Arithmetic Model 6 Allocated bits = 3 snf pre_state dimension Cumulative frequencies 3 0 4 2845, 2371, 1684, 1524, 918, 882, 760, 729, 200, 198, 180, 178, 27, 25, 1f 0 2 0 4 1621, 1183, 933, 775, 645, 628, 516, 484, 210, 207, 188, 186, 39, 35, 1, 0 3 8800, 6734, 4886, 3603, 1326, 1204, 104, 0 2 8869, 5163, 1078, 0 1 3575, 0 1 4 12603, 12130, 10082, 9767, 8979, 8034, 7404, 6144, 4253, 3780, 3150, 2363, 1575, 945, 630, 0 3 10410, 8922, 5694, 4270, 2656, 1601, 533, 0 2 8459, 5107, 1670, 0 1 4003, 0 1 0 4 5185, 4084, 3423, 3010, 2406, 2289, 2169, 2107, 650, 539, 445, 419, 97, 61, 15, 0 3 13514, 11030, 8596, 6466, 4345, 3250, 1294, 0 2 13231, 8754,4635,0 1 9876, 0 1 4 14091, 12522, 11247, 10299, 8928, 7954, 6696, 6024, 4766, 4033, 3119, 2508, 1594, 1008, 353, 0 3 12596, 10427, 7608, 6003, 3782, 2580, 928, 0 2 10008,6213,2350, 0 1 5614, 0 (Table 6.7] BSAC Arithmetic Model 7 Allocated bits = 3 snf pre_state dimension Cumulative frequencies 37 3 0 4 3833, 3187, 2542, 2390, 1676, 1605, 1385, 1337, 468, 434, 377, 349, 117, 93, 30, 0 2 0 4 6621, 5620, 4784, 4334, 3563, 3307, 2923, 2682, 1700, 1458, 1213, 1040, 608, 431, 191, 0 3 11369, 9466, 7519, 6138, 3544, 2441, 1136, 0 2 11083, 7446, 3439, 0 1 8823, 0 1 4 12027, 11572, 9947, 9687, 9232, 8126, 7216, 6176, 4161, 3705, 3055, 2210, 1235, 780, 455, 0 3 9566, 7943, 4894, 3847, 2263, 1596, 562, 0 2 7212, 4217, 1240, 0 1 3296, 0 1 0 4 14363, 13143, 12054, 11153, 10220, 9388, 8609, 7680, 6344, 5408, 4578, 3623, 2762, 1932, 1099, 0 3 14785, 13256, 11596, 9277, 7581, 5695, 3348, 0 2 14050, 10293, 6547, 0 1 10948, 0 1 4 13856, 12350, 11151, 10158, 8816, 7913, 6899, 6214, 4836, 4062, 3119, 2505, 1624, 1020, 378, 0 3 12083, 9880, 7293, 5875, 3501, 2372, 828,0 2 8773, 5285, 1799, 0 1 4452, 0 [Table 6.8] BSAC Arithmetic Model 8 Allocated bits = 4 snf pre_state dimension Cumulative frequencies 4 0 4 2770, 2075, 1635, 1511, 1059, 1055, 928, 923, 204, 202, 190, 188, 9, 8, 1, 0 38 3 0 4 1810, 1254, 1151, 1020, 788, 785, 767, 758, 139, 138, 133, 132, 14, 13, 1,0 3 7113, 4895, 3898, 3193, 1096, 967, 97, 0 2 6858,4547,631, 0 1 4028, 0 1 4 13263, 10922, 10142, 9752, 8582, 7801, 5851, 5071, 3510, 3120, 2730, 2340, 1560, 780, 390, 0 3 12675, 11275, 7946, 6356, 4086, 2875, 1097, 0 2 9473, 5781, 1840, 0 1 3597, 0 2 0 4 2600, 1762, 1459, 1292, 989, 983, 921, 916, 238, 233, 205, 202, 32, 30, 3, 0 3 10797, 8840, 6149, 5050, 2371, 1697, 483, 0 2 10571,6942,2445, 0 1 7864, 0 1 4 14866, 12983, 11297, 10398, 9386, 8683, 7559, 6969, 5451, 4721, 3484, 3007, 1882, 1208, 590, 0 3 12611, 10374, 8025, 6167, 4012, 2608, 967, 0 2 10043, 6306, 2373, 0 1 5766, 0 1 0 4 6155, 5057, 4328, 3845, 3164, 2977, 2728, 2590, 1341, 1095, 885, 764, 303, 188, 74, 0 3 12802, 10407, 8142, 6263, 3928, 3013, 1225, 0 2 13131, 9420,4928, 0 1 10395, 0 1 4 14536, 13348, 11819, 11016, 9340, 8399, 7135, 6521, 5114, 4559, 3521, 2968, 1768, 1177, 433, 0 3 12735, 10606, 7861, 6011, 3896, 2637, 917, 0 ; 2 9831, 5972, 2251, 0 39 1 4944, 0 [Table 6.9] BSAC Arithmetic Model 9 Allocated bits = 4 snf pre_state dimension Cumulative frequencies 4 0 4 3383, 2550, 1967, 1794, 1301, 1249, 1156, 1118, 340, 298, 247, 213, 81, 54, 15, 0 3 0 4 7348, 6275, 5299, 4935, 3771, 3605, 2962, 2818, 1295, 1143, 980, 860, 310, 230, 75, 0 3 9531, 7809, 5972, 4892, 2774, 1782, 823, 0 2 11455, 7068, 3383, 0 1 9437, 0 1 4 12503, 9701, 8838, 8407, 6898, 6036, 4527, 3664, 2802, 2586, 2371, 2155, 1293, 431, 215, 0 3 11268, 9422, 6508, 5277, 3076, 2460, 1457, 0 2 7631, 3565, 1506, 0 1 2639, 0 2 0 4 11210, 9646, 8429, 7389, 6252, 5746, 5140, 4692, 3350, 2880, 2416, 2014, 1240, 851, 404, 0 3 12143, 10250, 7784, 6445, 3954, 2528, 1228, 0 2 10891, 7210, 3874, 0 1 9537, 0 1 4 14988, 13408, 11860, 10854, 9631, 8992, 7834, 7196, 5616, 4793, 3571, 2975, 1926, 1212, 627, 0 3 12485, 10041, 7461, 5732, 3669, 2361, 940, 0 2 9342, 5547, 1963, 0 1 5410, 0 1 0 4 14152, 13258, 12486, 11635, 11040, 10290, 9740, 8573, 7546, 6643, 5903, 4928, 4005, 2972, 1751, 0 40 3 14895, 13534, 12007, 9787, 8063, 5761,'3570, 0 2 14088, 10108, 6749, 0 1 11041, 0 1 4 14817, 13545, 12244, 11281, 10012, 8952, 7959, 7136, 5791, 4920, 3997, 3126, 2105, 1282, 623, 0 3 12873, 10678, 8257, 6573, 4186, 2775, 1053, 0 2 9969, 6059, 2363, 0 1 5694, 0 [Table 6.10] BSAC Arithmetic Model 10 Allocated bits (Abit) = 5 snf pre_state dimension Cumulative frequencies Abit 0 4 2335, 1613, 1371, 1277, 901, 892, 841, 833, 141, 140, 130, 129, 24, 23, 1, 0 Abit1 0 4 1746, 1251, 1038, 998, 615, 611, 583, 582, 106, 104, 101, 99, 3, 2, 1, 0 3 7110, 5230, 4228, 3552, 686, 622, 46, 0 2 6101, 2575, 265, 0 1 1489, 0 1 4 13010, 12047, 11565, 11083, 9637, 8673, 6264, 5782, 4336, 3855, 3373, 2891, 2409, 1927, 963, 0 3 10838, 10132, 8318, 7158, 5595, 3428, 2318, 0 2 8209, 5197, 1287, 0 1 4954, 0 Abit2 0 4 2137, 1660, 1471, 1312, 1007, 1000, 957, 951, 303, 278, 249, 247, 48, 47, 1, 0 3 9327, 7413, 5073, 4391, 2037, 1695, 205, 0 2 8658, 5404, 1628, 0 41 1 5660, 0 1 4 13360, 12288, 10727, 9752, 8484, 7899, 7119, 6631, 5363, 3900, 3023, 2535, 1852, 1267, 585, 0 3 13742, 11685, 8977, 7230, 5015, 3427, 1132, 0 2 10402,6691,2828,0 1 5298, 0 Abit3 0 4 4124, 3181, 2702, 2519, 1949, 1922, 1733, 1712, 524, 475, 425, 407, 78, 52, 15, 0 3 10829, 8581, 6285, 4865, 2539, 1920, 594, 0 2 11074, 7282, 3092,0 1 8045, 0 1 4 14541, 13343, 11637, 10862, 9328, 8783, 7213, 6517, 5485, 5033, 4115, 3506, 2143, 1555, 509, 0 3 13010, 11143, 8682, 7202, 4537, 3297, 1221, 0 2 9941, 5861, 2191, 0 1 5340, 0 Other snf 0 4 9845, 8235, 7126, 6401, 5551, 5131, 4664, 4320, 2908, 2399, 1879, 1506, 935, 603, 277, 0 3 13070, 11424, 9094, 7203, 4771, 3479, 1486, 0 2 13169, 9298, 5406, 0 1 10371, 0 1 4 14766, 13685, 12358, 11442, 10035, 9078, 7967, 7048, 5824, 5006, 4058, 3400, 2350, 1612, 659, 0 3 13391, 11189, 8904, 7172, 4966, 3183, 1383, 0 2 10280, 6372, 2633, 0 1 5419, 0 42 [Table 6.11] BSAC Arithmetic Model 11 Allocated bits (Abit) = 5 snf pre_state dimension Cumulative frequencies Abit 0 4 2872, 2294, 1740, 1593, 1241, 1155, 1035, 960, 339, 300, 261, 247, 105, 72, 34, 0 Abit1 0 4 3854, 3090, 2469, 2276, 1801, 1685, 1568, 1505, 627, 539, 445, 400, 193, 141, 51, 0 3 10654, 8555, 6875, 4976, 3286, 2229, 826, 0 2 10569, 6180, 2695, 0 1 6971, 0 1 4 11419, 11170, 10922, 10426, 7943, 6950, 3723, 3475, 1737, 1489, 1241, 992, 744, 496, 248, 0 3 11013, 9245, 6730, 4962, 3263, 3263, 1699, 883, 0 2 6969, 4370, 1366, 0 1 3166, 0 Abit2 0 4 9505, 8070, 6943, 6474, 5305, 5009, 4290, 4029, 2323, 1911, 1591, 1363, 653,443, 217, 0 3 11639, 9520, 7523, 6260, 4012, 2653, 1021, 0 2 12453, 8284, 4722, 0 1 9182, 0 1 4 13472, 12294, 10499, 9167, 7990, 7464, 6565, 6008, 4614, 3747, 2818, 2477, 1641, 1084, 557, 0 3 13099, 10826, 8476, 6915, 4488, 2966, 1223, 0 2 9212, 5772, 2053, 0 1 4244, 0 43 Abit3 0 4 14182, 12785, 11663, 10680, 9601, 8748, 8135, 7353, 6014, 5227, 4433, 3727, 2703, 1818, 866, 0 3 13654, 11814, 9714, 7856, 5717, 3916, 2112, 0 2 12497, 8501,4969, 0 1 10296, 0 1 4 15068, 13770, 12294, 11213, 10230, 9266, 8439, 7438, 6295, 5368, 4361, 3620, 2594, 1797, 895, 0  3 13120, 10879, 8445, 6665, 4356, 2794, 1047, 0 2 9311, 5578, 1793, 0 1 4695, 0 Other snf 0 4 15173, 14794, 14359, 13659, 13224, 12600, 11994, 11067, 10197, 9573, 9081, 7624, 6697, 4691, 3216, 0 3 15328, 13985, 12748, 10084, 8587, 6459, 4111, 0 2 14661, 11179, 7924, 0 1 11399, 0 1 4 14873, 13768, 12458, 11491, 10229, 9164, 7999, 7186, 5992, 5012, 4119, 3369, 2228, 1427, 684, 0 3 13063, 10913, 8477, 6752, 4529, 3047, 1241, 0 2 10101, 6369, 2615, 0 1 5359, 0 [Table 6.12] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 12 Same as BSAC arithmetic model 10, but allocated bit = 6 44 [Table 6.13] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 13 Same as BSAC arithmetic model 11, but allocated bit = 6 [Table 6.14] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 14 Same as BSAC arithmetic Modeld 10, but allocated bit = 7 [Table 6.15] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 15 Same as BSAC arithmetic model 11, but allocated bit = 7 [Table 6.16] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 16 Same as BSAC arithmetic model 10, but allocated bit = 8 [Table 6.17] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 17 Same as BSAC arithmetic mode! 11, but allocated bit = 8 [Table 6.18] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 18 Same as BSAC arithmetic model 10, but allocated bit = 9 [Table 6.19] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 19 Same as BSAC arithmetic model 11, but allocated bit = 9 [Table 6.20] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 20 Same as BSAC arithmetic model 10, but allocated bit = 10 [Table 6.21] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 21 Same as BSAC arithmetic model 11, but allocated bit = 10 [Table 6.22] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 22 Same as BSAC arithmetic model 10, but allocated bit = 11 [Table 6.23] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 23 Same as BSAC arithmetic model 11, but allocated bit = 11 45 [Table 6.24] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 24 Same as BSAC arithmetic model 10, but allocated bit = 12 [Table 6.25] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 25 Same as BSAC arithmetic model 11, but allocated bit = 12 [Table 6.26] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 26 Same as BSAC arithmetic model 10, but allocated bit = 13 [Table 6.27] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 27 Same as BSAC arithmetic model 11, but allocated bit = 13 [Table 6.28] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 28 Same as BSAC arithmetic Model 10, but allocated bit = 14 [Table 6.29] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 29 Same as BSAC arithmetic model 11, but allocated bit = 14 [Table 6.30] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 30 Same as BSAC arithmetic model 10, but allocated bit = 15 [Table 6.31] ASAC Arithmetic Modeld 31 Same as BSAC arithmetic model 11, but allocated bit = 15 Table 7.10 shows the syntax for coding bsac_spectral_data. The side information commonly used for the respective enhancement layers, the quantized frequency components are bitsliced using the BSAC technique and then arithmeticcoded. 'acode_vec0' represents a codeword obtained by arithmeticcoding the first subvector (subvector 0) using the arithmetic model defined as the ArModel value. 'acode__vec1' represents a codeword obtained by arithmeticcoding the second subvector (subvector 1) using the arithmetic model defined as the ArModel value. 46 'acode_sign' represents a codeword obtained by arithmeticcoding the sign bit using the arithmetic model defined in Table 5.9. [Table 5.9] Sign arithmetic model size Cumulative frequencies 2 8192, 0 While the number of bits used in coding the respective subvectors are calculated and compared with the number of available bits for the respective enhancement layers, when the used bits are equal to or more than the available bits, the coding of the next enhancement layer is newly started. In the case of a long block, since the bandwidth of the base layer is limited up to the 21st scale factor band. Then, the scale factors up to the 21st scale factor band and the arithmetic coding models of the corresponding coding bands are coded. The bit allocation information is obtained from the arithmetic coding models. The maximum value of the allocated bits is obtained from the bit information allotted to each coding band, and coding is performed from the maximum quantization bit value by the aforementioned encoding method. Then, the next quantized bits are sequentially coded. If allocated bits of a certain band are less than those of the band being currently coded, coding is not performed. When allocated bits of a certain band are the same as those of the band being currently coded, the band is coded for the first time. Since the bitrate of the base layer is 16 Kbps, the entire bit allowance is 336 bits. Thus, the total used bit quantity is calculated continuously and coding is terminated at the moment the bit quantity exceeds 336. After all bitstreams for the base layer (16 Kbps) are formed, the bitstreams for the next enhancement layer are formed. Since the limited bandwidths are increased for the higher layers, the coding of scale factors and arithmetic coding models is performed only for the newly added bands to the limited bands for the base layer. In the base layer, uncoded bitsliced data for each band and the bitsliced data of a newly added band are coded from the MSBs in the same manner as in the base layer. When the total used bit quantity is larger than the available 47 bit quantity, coding is terminated and preparation for forming the next enhancement layer bitstreams is made. In this manner, bitstreams for the remaining layers of 32, 40, 48, 56 and 64 Kbps can be generated. Now, the decoding procedure will be described. 3,1. Analysis and decoding of bitstreams 3.1.1. Decoding of bsac_channel_stream The decoding of bsac_channel_stream is performed in the order from Get max_scale factor to Get ics_info () and to Get BSAC data, as demonstrated in Table 7.5. 3.1.2. Decoding of bsac_data The side information necessary in decoding framelength, encodedlayer, scale factor models and arithmetic models is decoded in the bitstream, as demonstrated in Table 7.6. 3.1.3. Decoding of bsac_side_info The scalable bitstreams formed in the above have a layered structure. First, the side information for the base layer is separated from the bitstream and then decoded. Then, the bitsliced information for the quantized frequency components contained in the bitstream of the base layer is separated from the bitstream and then decoded. The same decoding procedure as that for the base layer is applied to other enhancement layers. 1) Decoding of scale factors The frequency components are divided into scale factor bands having frequency coefficients that are multiples of 4. Each scale factor band has a scale factor. The max_scalefactor is decoded into an 8bit unsigned integer. For all scale factors, differences between the scale factors and the max_scalefactor are obtained and then arithmeticdecoded. The arithmetic models used in decoding the differences are one of elements forming the bitstreams, and are separated from the bitstreams having been already decoded. The original scale factors can be restored in the reverse order of the coding procedure. The following pseudo code describes the decoding method for the scale factors in the base layer and the other enhancement layers. for (g=0: g for (sfb=layer_sfb[layer]; sfb 2) Decoding of arithmetic model index The frequency components are divided into coding bands having 32 frequency coefficients to be losslessly coded. The coding band is a basic unit used in the lossless coding. The arithmetic coding model index is information on the models used in arithmeticcoding/decoding the bitsliced data of each coding band, indicating which model is used in the arithmeticcoding/decoding procedures, among the models listed in Table 4.3. Differences between an offset value and all arithmetic coding model indices are calculated and then difference signals are arithmeticcoded using the models listed in Table 4.2. Here, among four models listed in Table 4.2, a model to be used is indicated by the value of ArModel_model and is stored in the bitstream as 2 bits. The offset value is 5bit min_ArModel value stored in the bitstream. The difference signals are decoded in the reverse order of the coding procedure and then the difference signals are added to the offset value to restore the arithmetic coding model indices. The following pseudo code describes the decoding method for the arithmetic coding model indices and ArModel[cband] in the respective enhancement layers. for (sfb=layer__sfb[layer]; sfb if (!decode_cband[ch][g][cband]){ ArModel[g][cband]=min_ArModel+arithmetic_decoding () decode_cband[ch][g][cband]=1; } } } Here, layer_sfb[layer] is a start scale factor band for decoding arithmetic coding model indices in the respective enhancement layers, and layer_sfb[layer+1] is an end scale factor band. decode_cband[ch][g][cband] is a flag indicative of whether an arithmetic coding model has been decoded (1) or has not been decoded (0). 3.1.4. Decoding of bitsliced data The quantized sequences are formed as bitsliced sequences. The respective fourdimensional vectors are subdivided into two subvectors according to their state. For effective compression, the two subvectors are arithmeticcoded as a lossless coding. The model to be used in the arithmetic coding for each coding band is decided. This information is stored in the ArModel. As demonstrated in Tables 6.1 through 6.31, the respective arithmeticcoding models are composed of several loworder models. The subvectors are coded using one of the loworder models. The loworder models are classified according to the dimension of the subvector to be coded, the significance of a vector or the coding states of the respective samples. The significance of a vector is decided by the bit position of the vector to be coded. In other words, according to whether the bitsliced information is for the MSB, the next MSB, or the LSB, the significance of a vector differs. The MSB has the highest significance and the LSB has the lowest significance. The coding state values of the respective samples are renewed as the vector coding is progressed from the MSB to the LSB. At first, the coding state value is initialized as zero. Then, when a nonzero bit value is encountered, the coding state value becomes 1. The two subvectors are one through fourdimensional vectors. The subvectors are arithmeticcoded from the MSB to the LSB, from lower frequency 50 components to higher frequency components. The arithmetic coding model indices used in the arithmeticcoding are previously stored in the bitstream in the order from low frequency to high frequency, before transmitting the bitsliced data to each coding band in units of coding bands. The respective bitsliced data is arithmeticcoded to obtain the codeword indices. These indices are restored into the original quantized data by being bitcoupled using the following pseudo code. 'pre_state[]' is a state indicative of whether the currently decoded value is 0 or not. 'snf is significance of a decoded vector. 'Idx0' is a codeword index whose previous state is 0. 'idx1' is a codeword index whose previous state is 1. 'dec_sample[]' is decoded data. 'start_ i' is a start frequency line of decoded vectors. for (i=start_i; i if (idx1 & 0x01) dec_sample[i]=(1 } else { if{idx0 & 0x01) dec__sample[i] =(1 idx0>>=1; } } While the bitsliced data of quantized frequency components is coded from the MSB to the LSB, when the sign bits of nonzero frequency coefficients are arithmeticcoded. A negative () sign bit is represented by 1 and a positive (+) sign bit is represented by 0. Therefore, if the bitsliced data is arithmeticdecoded in a decoder and a nonzero arithmeticdecoded bit value is encountered first, the information of the sign in the bitstream, i.e., acode_sign, follows. The sign_bit is arithmeticdecoded using this information with the models listed in Table 5.9. If the sign_bit is 1, the 51 sign information is given to the quantized data (y) formed by coupling the separated data as follows. 3.2. Inverse quantization The inverse quantizing portion restores the decoded scale factors and quantized data into signals having the original magnitudes. The inverse quantizing procedure is described in the AAC standards. 3.3. Frequency/time mapping The frequency/time mapping portion inversely converts audio signals of a frequency domain into signals of a temporal domain so as to be reproduced by a user. The formula for mapping the frequency domain signal into the temporal domain signal is defined in the AAC standards. Also, various items such as a window related to mapping are also described in the AAC standards. The aforementioned embodiment of the present invention can be formed as a program executable in a computer. The program can be stored in a recording medium such as a CDROM, a hard disk, a floppy disk or a memory. The recording medium is commercially available. The recording medium is evidently within the scope of the present invention. The present invention may be embodied in a general purpose digital computer that is running a program from a computer usable medium, including but not limited to storage media such as magnetic storage media (e.g., ROM's, floppy disks, hard disks, etc.), optically readable media (e.g., CDROMs, DVDs, etc.) And carrier waves (e.g., transmissions over the Internet). Hence, the present invention may be embodied as a computer usable medium having computer readable program code means embodied therein for coding a sequence of digital dataq of a predetermined number, the computer readable program code means in the computer usable medium comprising computer readable program code means for causing a computer to effect signalprocessing input audio signals and quantizing the same for each predetermined coding band, and computer readable program code means for causing a computer to effect packing the quantized data to 52 generate bitstreams, wherein bitstream generating step comprises coding the quantized data corresponding to the base layer, coding the quantized data corresponding to the next enhancement layer of the coded base layer and the remaining quantized data uncoded due to a layer size limit and belonging to the coded layer, and sequentially performing the layer coding steps for all enhancement layers to form bitstreams, wherein the base layer coding step, the enhancement layer coding step and the sequential coding step are performed such that the side information and quantized data corresponding to a layer to be coded are represented by digits of a same predetermined number; and then arithmeticcoded using a predetermined probability model in the order ranging from the MSB sequences to the LSB sequences, the side information containing scale factors and probability models to be used in the arithmetic coding. A funtional program, code and code segments, used to implement the present invention can be derived by a skilled computer programmer from the description of the invention contained herein. According to the present invention, while using the conventional audio algorithm such as the MPEG2 AAC standards, only the lossless coding portion is modified to allow scalability. Also, since the conventional audio algorithm is used, the operation necessary for implementing the present invention is simplified. Since the bitstreams are scalable, one bitstream may contain various Bitstreams having several bitrates. If the present invention is combined with the AAC standards, almost the same audio quality can be attained at the bitrate of the top layer. Also, since coding is performed according to significance of quantization bits, instead of performing coding after processing the difference between quantized signals of the previous layer and the original signal, for each layer, the complexity of the coding apparatus is reduced. Since one bitstream contains multiples bitsreams, the bitstreams for various layers can be generated simply and the complexity of a transcoder is reduced. If the bitrate is lowered, due to limited bands with, the complexity of a filter, which is a major source of the complex coding and decoding, is considerably 53 lessened. Accordingly, the complexity of a coding and decoding apparatus is lessened. Also, according to the performance of users' decoders and bandwidth/congestion of transmission channels or by the users' request, the bitrates or the complexity can be controlled. To satisfy various user requests, flexible bitstreams are formed. In other words, by user request, the information for the bitrates of various layers is combined with one bitstream without overlapping, thereby providing bitstreams having good audio quality. Also, no converter is necessary between a transmitting terminal and a receiving terminal. Further, any state of transmission channels and various user requests can be accommodated. 54 WE CLAIM: 1. A scalable audio encoding method for coding audio signals into a layered datastream having a'base layer and enhancement layers of a predetermined number, comprising the steps of: signalprocessing input audio signals and quantizing the same for each predetermined coding band; and packing the quantized data to generate bitstreams, wherein the bitstream generating step comprises: coding the quantized data corresponding to the base layer; coding the quantized data corresponding to the next enhancement layer of the coded base layer and the remaining quantized data uncoded due to a layer size limit and belonging to the coded layer; and sequentially performing the layer coding steps for all enhancement layers to form bitstreams, wherein the base layer coding step, the enhancement layer coding step and the sequential coding step are performed such that the side information and quantized data corresponding to a layer to be coded are represented by digits of a same predetermined number; and then arithmeticcoded using a predetermined probability model in the order ranging from the MSB sequences to the LSB sequences, the side information containing scale factors and probability models to be used in the arithmetic coding. 2. The scalable audio encoding method according to claim 1, wherein the step of coding the scale factors comprises the steps of: obtaining the maximum scale factor; and obtaining differences between the maximum scale factor and the respective scale factors and arithmeticcoding the differences, 3. The scalable audio encoding method according to claim 2, wherein the probability models listed in Tables 51 through 5.4 are used in the step of arithmetic coding the differences. 55 4. The scalable audio encoding method according to claim 1, wherein the probability models listed in Tables 6.1 through 6.31are used in the arithmeticcoding step. 5. The scalable audio encoding method according to claim 4, wherein the coding of the information for the probability models is performed by the steps of: obtaining the minimum value of the probability model information values; obtaining differences between the minimum probability model information and the respective model information values and arithmeticcoding the differences. 6. The scalable audio encoding method according to claim 5, wherein the probability models listed in Tables 5.5 through 5.9 are used in the arithmeticcoding step. 7. The scalable audio encoding method according to claim 1, wherein, when the quantized data is composed of sign data and magnitude data, the coding step comprises the steps of: coding by a predetermined encoding method the most significant bit sequences composed of most significant bits of the magnitude data of the quantized data represented by the same number of bits; coding sign data corresponding to nonzero data among the coded most significant bit sequences; coding the most significant bit sequences among uncoded magnitude data of the digital data by a predetermined encoding method; coding uncoded sign data among the sign data corresponding to nonzero magnitude data among bit sequences; and performing the magnitude data coding step and the sign data coding step on the respective bits of the digital data. 56 8. The scalable audio encoding method according to claim 7; wherein a probability model having a size of 2 and cumulative frequency values of 8192 and 0 is used in the arithmeticcoding step of the sign data. 9. The scalable audio encoding method according to claim 7,wherein the coding steps are performed by coupling bits composing the respective bit sequences for the magnitude data and sign data, into units of bits of a predetermined number. 10. The scalable audio encoding method according to claim 9( wherein the number of bits is 4. 11. The scalable audio encoding method according to claim 9 or 10, wherein a fourdimensional vector coupled in units of bits is divided into two subvectors according to its prestates In coding the respective samples. 12. The scalable audio encoding method according to claim 1, wherein the bitrate of the base layer is 16 kbps and the interlayer bitrate is 8 kbps. 13. The scalable audio encoding method according to claim 1, wherein the bitrate of the base layer is 18 kbps and the interlayer bitrate is 1 kbps. 14. The scalable audio encoding method according to claim 1, wherein the header information commonly used for all bands is coded and the side information and the quantized frequencies necessary for the respective layer are formed by bitsliced information to then be coded to have a layered structure. 15. The scalable audio encoding method according to claim 1, wherein the quantization is performed by the steps of: converting the input audio signals of a temporal domain into signals of a frequency domain; 57 coupling the converted signals as signals of predetermined subbands by time/frequency mapping and calculating a masking threshold at each subband; and quantizing the signals for each predetermined coding band so that quantization noise of each band is smaller than the masking threshold. 16. A scalable audio coding apparatus comprising; a quantizing portion for (i) signalprocessing input audio signals and (ii) quantizing the same for each coding band; and a bit packing portion for (i) generating bitstrearns by bandlimiting for a base layer into scale factor bands so as to be scalable, (ii) coding side information corresponding to the base layer, (iii) coding the quantized information sequentially from the most significant bit sequence to the least significant bit sequence, and from lower frequency components to higher frequency components coresponding to the base layer, and (iv) coding side information and the quantized data corresponding to the next enhancement layer of the base layer and the quantized data, to perform coding on all layers, wherein the side information has the scale factor and probability models to be used in the arithmetic coding. 17. The scalable audio coding apparatus according to claim 16, wherein the quantizing portion comprises: a time/frequency mapping portion for converting the input audio signals of a temporal domain into signals of a frequency domain; a psychoacoustic portion for coupling the converted signals by signals of predetermined subbands by time/frequency mapping and calculating a masking threshold at each subband using a masking phenomenon generated by interaction of the respective signals; and a quantizing portion for quantizing the signals for each predetermined coding band while the quantization noise of each band is compared with the masking threshold, 18. A scalable audio decoding method for decoding audio data coded to have layered bitrates, comprising the steps of; 58 decoding side information having at least scale factors and arithrneticcoding model information allotted to each band, in the order of creation of the layers in datastreams having layered bitrates, by analyzing the significance of bits composing the datastreams, from upper significant bits to lower significant bits, using the arithmetic coding models corresponding to the quantized data; restoring the decoded scale factors and quantized data into signals having the original magnitudes; and converting inversely quantized signals into signals of a temporal domain. 19. The scalable audio decoding method according to claim 18, wherein the bitstreams are decoded in units of fourdimensional vectors. 20. The scalable audio decoding method according to claim 19, wherein the fourdimensional vectors are restored from two subvectors arithmeticdecoded according to the coding states of the respective samples. 21 The scalable audio decoding method according to claim 20, wherein the probability models listed in Tables 8.1 through 6.31 are used in the arithmeticdecoding step. 22. The scalable audio decoding method according to claim 18, wherein the decoding of the scale factors are performed by the steps of; decoding the maximum scale factor in the bitstream, arithmeticdecoding differences between the maximum scale factor and the respective scale factors, and subtracting the differences from the maximum scale factor, 23. The scalable audio decoding method according to claim 22, wherein the probability models listed in Tables 5.1 through 5.4 are used in the arithmeticdecoding step. 24. The scalable audio decoding method according to claim 18, wherein the decoding of the arithmetic model indices is performed by decoding the 59 minimum arithmetic model index in the bitstream, decoding differences between the minimum index and the respective indices in the side information of the respective layers, and adding the minimum index and the differences. 25. The scalable audio decoding method according to claim 22, wherein the probability models listed in Tables 5.5 through 5.8 are used in the arithmeticdecoding step. 28. A scalable audio decoding apparatus comprising: a bitstream analyzing portion for decoding side information having at least scale factors and arithmetic model information and quantized data, in the order of creation of the layers in layered bitstreams; an inverse quantizing portion for restoring the decoded scale factors and quantized data into signals having the original magnitudes; and a frequency/time mapping portion for converting inversely quantized signals of a frequency domain into signals of a temporal domain. 27. A scalable audio encoding method, substantially as herein described, particularly with reference to the accompanying drawings. 28. A scalable audio coding apparatus, substantially as herein described, particularly with reference to and as illustrated in the accompanying drawings. Dated this 8th day of June, 1998. 60 A scalable audio encoding/decoding method and apparatus are provided. To code an audio signal into layered data streams having a base layer and at least one enhancement layer, the encoding method includes the steps of time/frequency mapping input audio signals and quantizing the spectral data with the same scale factor for each predetermined scalefactor band, and packing the quantized data into bit streams, wherein the bit stream generating step comprises the steps of coding the quantized data corresponding to the base layer, coding the quantized data corresponding to the next enhancement layer of the coded base layer and the remaining quantized data uncoded by a limit in a layer size and belonging to the coded layer, and performing the layer coding step for all enhancement layers to form bit streams. In the base layer coding step, the enhancement layer coding step and the sequential coding step, arithmetic coding is performed using a predetermined probability model in the order of bit sequences from the most significant bit sequence to the least significant bit sequence by representing the side information and quantized data corresponding to a layer to be coded in a predetermined number of bits. The side information contains scale factors and probability model information to be used in arithmetic coding. 

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Patent Number  212579  

Indian Patent Application Number  1009/CAL/1998  
PG Journal Number  49/2007  
Publication Date  07Dec2007  
Grant Date  04Dec2007  
Date of Filing  08Jun1998  
Name of Patentee  SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO.LTD.  
Applicant Address  416, MAETANDONG, PALDALGU, SUWONCITY,KYUNGKIDO, REPUBLIC OF KOREA.  
Inventors:


PCT International Classification Number  G09C 1/10  
PCT International Application Number  N/A  
PCT International Filing date  
PCT Conventions:
