|Title of Invention||
A CONTINUOUS METHOD FOR MATURING BEER AFTER MAIN FERMENTATION
|Abstract||The invention relates to a continuous method for maturing beer after main fermentation wherein the unmatured beer after removal of yeast is subjected to heat treatment and is then passed into a bioreactor filled with a carrier material with yeast immobilized on it, said carrier material being wood particles or similar natural cellulosic particles. The invention also relates to a continuous beer maturation reactor, which is an upright column-type flow-through reactor containing one or more sieves, intermediate bottoms or flanges and which is filled with a carrier material with yeast immobilized on it, wherein said carrier material consists of wood particles or similar natural cellulosic particles.|
The present invention reidces to a concinoos method for the maturation of beer after main fermentation, in which method the unmatured beer, after removal of yeast and a heat treatment, is passed into a bio-reactor filled with a carrier with yeast immobilised on it. The invention also relates to a continuous maturation reactor, which is an upright column-type flow •through reactor containing one or more sieves, intermediate floors or flanges and which is filled with a carrier with yeast immobilised on it.
Beer production generally comprises the following main steps:
malting of grain (usually barley) by germinating;
crushing of the malted grain to produce malt grist,
adding water into the grist to form a mash,
mashing to decompose starch into fermentable sugar,
separating the wort thus produced from the mash,
cooking the wort with hops to produce a taste
and aroma and to stop the enzymatic activity,
clarifying and cooling the wort,
fermenting tha wort with yeast to convert the glucose and maltose into ethanol and carbon dioxide (main fermentation) to produce unmatured beer,
maturing the unmatured beer (secondary fermentation) , and
filtering and stabilising the beer and putting it into suitable containers.
The maturation of beer is an important opera -
tion to give the beer a mellow and homogeneous taste and flavour.
Traditionally, beer is matured by storing the unmatured beer for several weeks at a low temperature after the main fermentation. This involves high storage costs, which has given rise to the development of a fast continuous method for the maturation of beer to substitute storage. In this method, the yeast Is removed from the unmatured beer after the conventional main fermentation, the unmatured beer is subjected to a heat treatment (e.g. BO - 90 °C for 5 - 15 min) , whereupon the beer 13 cooled (e.g. 10 - 15 °C) and then matured in a reactor in which the yeaat is immobilised on a carrier. Finally, the beer is finished, i.e. stabilised and filtered in the conventional manner. The retention time in the continuous reactor is of the order of e.g. two hours.
During the heat treatment, the a-acetolactate contained in ,fche unmatured beer is converted to diace-tyl and partly also acetoin. The taste of diacetyl is felt in beer even when the acetyl concentration is only 0.05 mg/l. It is a strong sugary or ta£fy-like taste and flavour, which is characteristic of unmatured or newly brewed beer. In the reactor, the yeast reduces the diacetyl into acetoin. At the same time, certain other carbonyl compounds are also reduced, and the result is a savoury beer. Acetoin has a milder taste and flavour, and the threshold concentration, 50 - 1000 mg/l, above which its taste is felt in beer is considerably higher than for diacetyl.
Prior-art methods are described e.g. in the following articles; Monograph XXIV of the European Brewery Convention, B.B.C.-Symposium Immobilized yeast applications in the brewing industry, Espoo, Finland; October 1995 (ISBN 3-418-GO749-X): E, Pajunen: Immobilized yeast lager beer maturation: DEAE--cellulose at Sinebrychoff (pages 24-40) and I. Hyttinem Use of porous glass at Hart wall brewery in the maturation of beer with immobilized yeast (pages 55-56)• In the for-
mer application, the carrier used to immobilise the yeant is DEAE eel 1 ulose with titanium dioxide and polystyrene mixed in it; patent specification US 4915959 describes the same application. In the latter application, the carrier is porous glass. In the pro* duct ion of beer containing only a small amount of alcohol or no alcohol, a column in which yeast is immobilised in DEAE cellulose (H,Iommi; Immobilized yeast for maturation and alcohol-free beer, Brewing and Distilling International, May 1990, pp. 22-23) has been used.
These applications work well in a technical sense, and the beer produced is of good quality, the same as beer matured by the traditional method. However, che problem with the known applications is the high cost of the carrier materials * Purchase of the carrier material is a significant investment, and because of the high price the carrier must be regenerated after a certain period of use so that it can be used ng«*i n .
In traditional maturation in a container, fairly large wooden strips e.g. 400 - 500 mm long and 40 - 50 mm wide have been added into the storage containers. The purpose of the strips is to bind some of the yeast and thus to promote the clarification, and to some extent, secondary fermentat ion of the beer. This is a conventional slow batch process. Some breweries still use this procedure, mainly to preserve the tradition.
In the production of ethanol by a continuous fermenting process, immobilisation of yeast has been effected by using pieces of wood, e.g. beech, (M. Moo-Young, J. LampLey and C.W. Robinson: Immobilisation of yeast cells on various supports for ethanol production, Biotechnology Letters 2 (1980) No. 12, pp. 541-54 5) and birch (M.A. Gencer and R, Mutharasan: EthaneL fermentation in a yeast immobilised tubular £ermentor,
Blocechnoloqy and Bioengineerinq 25 (1983) 2243-2262). However, the production of ‹afchanol is completely d t f-£ereht from the manufacture of beer: in the former, the aim is to achieve a fermenting process as effective as possible, whereas in f.he latter the primary objective is co develop the desired good taste and flavour in conjunction with the fermenting process.
In the production of beer, small-scale experiments have also been carried out in which wooden chips have been used in conjunction with main fermentation to immobilise yesast : J. KronlOf and V. - P,
Maatt‹¾; Main fermentation using immobilised yeagt in ‹
beer production, Mallas ja Olut 1993, No. 5, pp. 133-147) .
The object of che .present invention is to eliminate the* drawbacks mentioned above.
The object of the invention is to disclose a fast, continuous method for the maturation of beer, in which yeast immobilised on a carrier effectively reduces the diacetyl concentration to a level below an acceptable taste threshold and which is applicable for use in conjunction with known beer production methods for the maturation of unmatured beer.
Another object of the invention is to disclose a fast, continuous method for the maturation of beer in which the carrier is an economically priced and risk •free material.
A further object of the invention is to disclose a continuous maturation reactor for implementing the method.
The method of the invention for the maturation of beer is characterised by what is presented in
‹_:lairn 1 .
The maturation reactor of the invention is characterised by what is presented in claim 13.
The invention is based on research work carried out, the aim of which was to apply the. technique
of immobilising yeast to secondary lermentat ion and
maturation of beer. T t w¾3 unexpectedly established
that wooden particles and/or similar particles are ex
cellently suited for use as a carrier for the immobi-
1iaation o£ yeast.
In the continuous method of the invention for
the maturation of hr-»er, the unmatured beer, after r.h‹*
removal of yeast and a heat treatment, is passed into
a bio-reactor filled mainly with wooden particles
and/or similar particles with yeast immobilised on
th©m. Thß principle of the method o£ the invention is
the same as in industrial procedures using DEAfi r^llu-‹
lose or porous glass as a carrier. The yeast removal and other secondary treatment operations are performed an in the known procedures.
The method of the invention is applicable for the production of various kinds of beer, i.e. bottom yeast beer and scum yeast beer. Suitable raw materials are malt and other sources of starch and sugar as are known in beer production. Th‹• be‹¾r to be produced may have an alcoholic content between 0 - 10 % and a pitching wort content between 5 - 20 % or more, even 30 %.
In the method of the invention, the carrier mary consist of wooden particles and/or similar particles of any size and shape, preferably cut into fairly small chips, sticks or into the shape of any regular or irregular bodies of roughly uniform size. The largest dimension of the particles is mainly 1 - 100 mm, advantageously 1 - 50 mm and preferably 2-20 mm.
The wooden particles to be used may be produced from any deciduous wood species, e.g. aspen, beech, palm or the? like. The ■ particles may also be produced from coniferous wood. The wood species to be used can be so chosen that the aromatic substances contained in it will have a desired effect on the taste and flavour of the beer to be produced. The par-
tides may also be produced £rom tropical grass, e.g. bamboo, rattan and/or the like.
In the continuous reactor, some of the yeast is immobil Ised on the carrier and some of it may be freely suspended- Conventional known brewing yeasts ar« well sxiiced for use in such a reactor. However, if hiqhly fLoreulabl* yeasts are used, a high yeast concentration will be quickly reached in the reactor, and the high yeast concentration is also maintained, thus improving the efficiency of the reactor.
The immobilisar. ion of yeast can be implemented in any known way, e.g. as described in patent .specification IIS 4915959.
The amount of immobilised yeast in the reactor may vary as is known in the art, a preferable amount being 10s - 109 yeast cells/1 cm of filler particles- The service life of the wooden particles used for yeast immobilisation is a few months, e.g. 1 - 6 months, but it may be as .long as 1 year or more,
The rate at which the unmatured beer flows through the reactor and ita retention time in the reactor have an effect on the diacetyl content of the beer. The flow rate of the unmatured beer is adjusted to a value such that a sufficient amount of diacetyl is" reduced to ace to in in the reactor, with the result that the diacetyl concentration in the matured beer does not exceed an acceptable taste threshold. The flow rate of unmatured beer through the reactor may be 0.05 - 2 times the reactor volume / h. A preferred flow rate of unmatured beer is of the order of 0.5 - l reactor volume / h. The temperature in the reactor is 5-22 °C, preferably 5 - 20 °C. Even higher tempera-tur«s may be used.
The maturation reactor may be pressurised to maintain the carbon dioxide in a dissolved state in r.he reactor. Free carbon dioxide may hamper the operation of the reactor. The operation pressure can be se-
leeted according to temperature; desired taste and b‹¾ftt: qualit.y ,
After the maturation, the beer can be cool ed to a desired stabilising temperature, and secondary treatment of the beer, r.uch as stabilising, filtering and decanting, can be implemented in a manner known in itself.
Because of their low price, the wooden particles and/or similar particles used as filler may be thrown away after use. Disposal of the particles is **$y and free of risks. The filler may also be regenerated .after use, e.g. by treating th«m with hot water or vapour, by washing or by some other suitable treatment .
If desirable, the wooden particles and/or similar particles used a3 filler can be subjected to a treatment prior to immobilisation. The particles can be e.g. washed or treated in some other way as desired.
The continuous maturation reactor of the invention is an upright column in which the liquid flows through the column from bottom to top or from top to bottom. The diameter of the reactor is of the order of l.5±l-2.5±lm and its height is of the order of
2 ."5 - 10 m. The column may be provided with one or more sieves, intermediate bottoms or flanges to keep the. filler particles in the reactor. The column is filled mainly with wooden particles and/or similar particles with yeast immobilised on them.
As compared with prior art, the advantages of the invention are based on the use of a cheaper carrier material, which gives the same final result as more expensive carrier materials.
The low price of the wooden particles and/or similar particles also makes it unnecessary to regenerate the particles. When expensive carriers are used, regeneration is necessary to prolong the service life
of the carrier. Regeneration causes direct and indirect, additional coots.
Wood and/or similar material also has the advantage that, beinq a natural material, it is free of
The invention will now be described in detail via the following examples.
Rauchergold KLl beech chips (5 litres) were cooked in ion-exchanged water (5.5 litres) for an hour. The water was removed and the chips were cooked for 4 hours in ethanol containing 10 % alcohol by volume. The alcohol solution was removed and finally the chips were cooked for 1 hour in ion-exchanged water.
The reactor was filled with the wet chips up to the 5.1 1 mark. The reactor was assembled and auto-claved at 121 °C for 21 minutes together with the connections and hoses. After cooling.; 3 litres of yeast suspension was pumped into the reactor in 6 hours by using a hose pump. Air was supplied into the reactor at the rate of SO ml/min and wort at the rate of 100 ml7h overnight at 20 °C. After this, the supply of materials was stopped and the reactor was cooled to 10
The unmatured beer fed into the process was unmatured beer produced via immobilised main fermentation, in which the total content of visinal diketones was about 0.8 - 0,3 mg/ml. After the main farmenta-r.ion, the unmatured beer was filtered through Seit2 K filter paper into an autoclaved (121 °C, 20 min) restaurant container, which was used as a supply con-tainer for the secondary £armentation reactor.
uescription or r.ne process :
The process comprises heat treatment of unma-tur£d beer, its cooling to 10 °C, secondary fermentation (maturation) wi th immobilised yeast, and recep-t ion of the product; .
From the supply container, the unmatured beer is pumped into heat treatment using a diaphragm ' pump ^Prominent Mini Gamma) . The heat treatment (30 °C, about 60 mi.n) takes place in a thin-walled metal retention pipe immersed in a water bath at about 30 °C. The beer removed■from the heat treatment flows into a cooling jacket mad© of glass, where it is cooled to the secondary fermentation temperature of 10 °C. The cooled beer flows through the reactor from bottom to top. From the top of the reactor, the beer flows via a separating funnel into a receiving container. The receiving container used is a 50-1 restaurant container.
From the unmatured beer fed in, from the heat treated unmaturad beer and from the post-fermented beer, the total amounts of visinal diketones (total VOK), free diketones (free VDK), aromatic substances and apparent extract concentration were analysed. The retention time in the reactor was estimated based on the flow rate. In addition, the beer colour was analysed twice during the test period.
The retention times in the reactor are presented in Table 1. with the reactor filled up to the 5.1 1 mark; the liquid volume in the reactor was 3.6 litres. The internal amount of liquid within the chips, which is very smal 1 a3 the chips are wet all the time, was not taken into account, nor WAS the liquid remaining on the surface of the chips.
Table 5 presents the average change3 in the aromatic substances in the process as a percentage of the initial value. Table 5 shows that only the acetal-dehyde concentration has changed significantly during the process. Thi s is In fact a favourable change because an excessive acetaldehyde content would give the beer a solvent-like flavour. The results are the average values for three determinations at different flow rates.
Table 6 presents the results of the determinations of apparent extract concentration and colour. The apparent extract concentration and colour of the beer were determined twice during the test period to make sure that no changes occurred in the fermentation and that the darkish wood imparted no colour to the beer.
ThE InvEnt ion is not restricted to The eXAM-pl es of it3 embodiments described above, but : many variations ar‹* possible within the scope of the inventive idea defined by the claims.
Continuous method for the maturation of beer after main fermentation, in which method the un~ matured beer, after removal of yeast and a heat treatment, is passed into a bio-reactor filled with a carrier material with yeast immobilised on it, characterised in that the carrier material mainly consists of wooden particles and/or similar particles.
2. Method as defined in claim 1, char
acterised in that said particles are chip-like
or stick-like particles or particles shaped like any
regulat or irregular bodies, whose dimension is of the
nrder of 1 - 100 mm, advantageously 1 - 50 mm, pref
erably 2 20 mm.
3. Method as defined in any one of claims 1 -2, characterised in that the wooden parti-cles have been produced from deciduous wood.
4. Method as defined in any one of claims 1 -2, characterised in that the wooden particles have been produced from coniferous wood,
5. Method as defined in any one of claims 1 -
2, characterised in that the wooden parti
cles have been produced from tropical gramineous
6. Method as defined in any one of claims 1 -
5, characterised in that the yeast used in
the" reactor is conventional brewing yeast and/or
highly flocculable yeast.
7. Method as defined in any one of claims 1 -
6, characterised in that the amount of yeast
in the reactor is 106 - 109 cells/1 cm3 of particles.
8. Method as defined in ^ny one of claims l -
7, characterised in that the temperature in
the reactor is 5 - 25 °C, preferably 5 - 20 °C.
9. Method as defined in any one of claims 1 -
3, characterised in that the flow rate of
unmatured beer through the reactor is of the order of 0.05 - 2 times the reactor volume / h, preferably 0.5 1 reactor volume / h.
10. Method as defined in any one of claim?; 1
5 -9, characterised in that the particles are
regenerated, preferably using hot water or steam.
11. Method as defined in any one of claims 1
- 10, characterised in that the particles
are subjected to a treatment, preferably a water cook-
10 i ng treatment or ethanol extraction treatment, prior to immobilisation.
12. Method as defined in claim 11, char
acterised in that that the particles are washed.
13. Continuous beer maturation reactor, which
15 is ^n upright column-type flow-through reactor con
taining one or more sieves, intermediate bottoms or
f1angtf›s and which is filled with a carrier material
with yeast immobilised on it, characterised
in that the carrier material mainly consists of wooden
20 particles and/or similar particles.
14. Maturation r«actor as defined in claim
13, characterised in that said particles are
chip-like or stick-like particles or particles shaped
like any regular or irregular bodies, whose dimension
25 is" mainly of the order of 1 - 100 mm, preferably 1 -50 mm.
15- Continuous method for the maturation of beer after main fermentation substantially as hereinbefore described.
'6• Continuous beer maturation reactor substantially as here i nhefore descr i bed.
17' Maturat ion reactor suhstant ial ly as hereinbefore
|Indian Patent Application Number||2178/MAS/1998|
|PG Journal Number||07/2008|
|Date of Filing||28-Sep-1998|
|Name of Patentee||OY PANIMOLABORATORIO-BRYGGERILABORATORIUM AB|
|Applicant Address||PL 16 FIN-02151 ESPOO,|
|PCT International Classification Number||C 12 C 11/07|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|