|Title of Invention||
A COMPOSITION FOR THE TREATMENTOF UNSOWN SEED
|Abstract||"A composition for the treatment of unsown seed" The present invention relates to a composition for the treatment of unsown seed comprising at least one pyrethrin or synthetic pyrethroid and an organophosphate insecticide, wherein the ratio of pyrethrin or synthetic pyrethroid to the organophosphate insecticide is from 1:1000 to 1000:1 by weight.|
SEED TREATMENT WITH COMBINATIONS OF INSECTICIDES
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED PATENTS AND PATENT APPLICATIONS
This application is a non-provisional of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 60/238,485, filed October 6, 2000, and claims priority thereto. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
(1) Field of the Invention
This invention relates generally to the control of plant pests and more particularly to the provision of protection against insect damage to seeds and plant parts by the treatment of plant seeds with combinations of pesticides.
(2) Description of the Related Art
The control of insects and related arthropods is of extreme importance to the agricultural industry. Every year, these pests destroy an estimated 15% of agricultural crops in the United States and even more than that in developing countries. Some of this damage occurs in the soil when plant pathogens, insects and other such soil borne pests attack the seed after planting. Much of the rest of the damage is caused by rootworms; plant pathogens that feed upon or otherwise damage the plant roots; and by cutworms, European corn borers, and other pests that feed upon or damage the above ground parts of the plant. General descriptions of the type and mechanisms of attack of pests on agricultural crops are provided by, for example, Metcalf, in Destructive and Useful Insects, (1962); and Agrios, in Plant Pathology, 3rd Ed., Academic Press (1988).
The period during germination of the seed, sprouting and initial growth of the plant is particularly critical because the roots and shoots of the growing plant are small and even a small amount of damage can kill the entire plant. Moreover, some natural plant defenses are not fully developed at this stage and the plant is vulnerable to attack. Not surprisingly, the control of pests that attack the seed and the above
ground plant parts during this early stage of plant growth is a well developed area of agriculture.
Currently, the control of pests that attack post emergent crops primarily involves the application of synthetic organic pesticides to the soil, or to the growing plants by foliar spraying. Because of concern about the impact of chemical pesticides on public health and the environment, there has been much effort to reduce the amount of chemical pesticides that are used. A significant portion of this effort has been expended in developing transgenic crops engineered to express insect toxicants from microorganisms. For example, U.S. Patent No. 5,877,012 to Estruch et a/, discloses the cloning and expression of proteins from such organisms as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Clavibacter and Rhlzobium into plants to obtain transgenic plants with resistance to such pests as black cutworms, armyworms, several borers and other insect pests. Publication WO/EP97/07089 by Privalle ef al. teaches the transformation of monocotyledons, such as corn, with a recombinant DNA sequence encoding peroxidase for the protection of the plant from feeding by corn borers, earworms and cutworms. Jansens etal., in Crop Sci., 37(5^:1616 -1624 (1997), reported the production of transgenic corn containing a gene encoding a crystalline protein from Bacillus thuringiensis that controlled both generations of the European corn borer. U. S. Patent Nos. 5,625,136 and 5,859,336 to Koziel et al. reported that the transformation of corn with a gene from B. thuringiensis that encoded for delta-endotoxins provided the transgenic corn with improved resistance to European corn borer.
A comprehensive report of field trials of transgenic corn that expresses an insecticidal protein from B. thuringiensis has been provided by Armstrong et al., in Crop Science, 35(2,):550 - 557 (1995).
At the present state of plant cellular engineering, however, transgenic crops are typically resistant only to specific pests for that crop, e.g., transgenic corn expressing a Bt toxin against the corn
rootworm. It is frequently necessary to apply synthetic pesticides to such transgenic plants to control damage by other pests.
Insecticides such as synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates and carbamates; fungicides such as azoles and anilopyrimidines; and acaricides such as pyrazoles; and the like, are very effective against certain above ground plant pests when applied at the proper time and with proper procedures. Appropriate pesticides may be applied at the time of planting as surface bands, "T"-bands, or in-furrow, but these applications require the additional operation of applying the pesticide at the same time as the seeds are being sown. This complicates the planting operation and the additional equipment required for pesticide application is costly to purchase and requires maintenance and attention during use. Moreover, care must be taken to incorporate the pesticides properly into the topmost soil layer for optimal activity. (See, for example, the application requirements and precautions for use of tefluthrin that are described in the brochure titled Force 3G Insecticide, published by Zeneca Ag Products, Wilmington, DE (1998)).
The activity of pesticides that have been applied as in-furrow applications at the time of sowing is usually directed to the protection of the seed or the roots of the plant. Some protection against above ground pests such as corn borers has been reported, however, for such treatments with insecticides known to be systemic. Keaster and Fairchild, J. Econ. Entomoi, 61(2):367 - 369 (1968). Since such pesticide chemicals are complex molecules that are expensive to produce, purchase and use, it is desirable that their activity is not diluted or lost by migration away from the desired site of action by moisture seepage or by vaporization.
After the plant has emerged from the soil, foliar spraying of pesticides is most often used to control those pests that attach the shoots and foliage of the plant. However, a foliar spray must be applied at a certain time that coincides with the presence and activity of the pest in order to have the most beneficial effect. Application at this time may be difficult or impossible if, for example, weather conditions
limit access to the field. Moreover, the plants must be monitored closely to observe early signs of pest activity in order to apply the pesticide at a time when the pests are most vulnerable.
Synthetic pyrethroids have been found to give excellent control of pests of the order of Lepidoptera, such as cutworms, when applied as foliar spray or as surface-incorporated granules at the time of planting. However, since this class of insecticides has very high toxicity to fish, for example, great care must be taken to limit the runoff of the insecticide from either granules or spray into surface waters. Moreover, any foliar spraying must be done at times when there is little wind, and then only with proper equipment that is carefully monitored during use.
It has also been found in some cases with particular pesticides and application techniques that when two or more of such pesticides are used in particular combination greater efficacy results than when any one of such pesticides is used alone. Such benefits of combining pesticides has been reported for combinations of phosmet with diflubenzuron (U.S. Patent No. 4,382,927); 0-ethyl-0-[4-(methylthio)-phenyl]-S-propyl phosphodithioate and N,-(4-chloro-o-tolyl)-N,N-dimethylformamidine (U.S. Patent No. 4,053,595); bacillus thuringiensis and chlordimeform (U.S. Patent No. 3,937,813); decamethrine and dichlorvos with propoxur, if desired, (U.S. Patent No. 4,863,909); fenvalerate and phosmet (U.S. Patent No. 4,263,287); and phosalone and malathion (U.S. Patent No. 4.064,237). However, each of these combinations was applied directly to the growing plant as described above in the form of sprays or dusts, or applied to the soil around the plant in the form of, for example, granules.
WO9740692 discloses combinations of any one of several oxadiazine derivatives with one of a long list of other insecticides. Although the application mentions that the combinations can be applied to plant propagation material for its protection, as well as to plant shoots and leaves, no examples are provided to demonstrate that any one of the combinations listed is actually efficacious. More pesticide
combinations are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 4,415,561, 5,385,926, 5,972,941 and 5,952,358. However, in the existing art, little or no guidance has been found as methods for predicting which combinations of pesticides will result in such unexpectedly superior efficacy and which combinations will not.
The control of pests by applying insecticides directly to plant seed is well known. For example, U.S. Patent No. 5,696,144 discloses that the European corn borer caused less feeding damage to corn plants grown from seed treated with a 1-arylpyrazole compound at a rate of 500 g per quintal of seed than control plants grown from untreated seed. In addition, U.S. Patent No. 5,876,739 to Turnblad et a/, (and its parent, U. S. Patent No. 5,849,320) disclose a method for controlling soil-borne insects which involves treating seeds with a coating containing one or more polymeric binders and an insecticide. This reference provides a list of insecticides that it identifies as candidates for use in this coating and also names a number of potential target insects. However, while the 5,876,739 patent states that treating corn seed with a coating containing a particular insecticide protects corn roots from damage by the corn rootworm, it does not indicate or otherwise suggest that treatment of corn seed with any particular combinations of insecticides provides the seed or the plant with synergistic protection, or with any other unexpected advantage.
Thus, although the art of protecting the shoots and foliage — as well as the seed and roots — of a plant from damage by pests has been advancing rapidly, several problems still remain. For example, it would be useful to provide a method for the control of pest damage to shoots and foliage of plants without the requirement of applying a pesticide at the time of sowing the seed, either as a surface incorporated band, or in-furrow, for example, or requiring a later field application of a pesticide during plant growth. It would also be useful if the method for pest control reduced the amount of pesticide that was required to provide a certain level of protection to the plant. Furthermore, it would be useful if such a method could be coupled with the biopesticidal
activity of transgenic plants, or with the insecticidal activity of other active materials to provide a broader scope of protection than is provided by the transgenic elements, or the insecticidal actives alone. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Briefly, therefore, the present invention is directed to a novel method for preventing damage by a pest to a seed and/or shoots and foliage of a plant grown from the seed, the method comprising treating the unsown seed with a composition comprising at least one pyrethrin or synthetic pyrethroid and at least one other insecticide selected from the group consisting of an oxadiazine derivative, a chloronicotinyl, a nitroguanidine, a pyrrol, a pyrazone, a diacylhydrazine, a triazole, a biological/fermentation product, a phenyl pyrazole, an organophosphate and a carbamate. It is preferred that when the other insecticide is an oxadizine derivative, the pyrethroid is selected from the group consisting of taufluvalinate, flumethrin, trans-cyfluthrin, kadethrin, bioresmethrin, tetramethrin, phenothrin, empenthrin, cyphenothrin, prallethrin, imiprothrin, allethrin and bioallethrin. Seeds that have been treated by this method are also provided.
The invention is also directed to a novel composition for the treatment of unsown seed comprising at least one pyrethrin or synthetic pyrethroid and at least one other insecticide selected from the group consisting of an oxadiazine derivative, a chloronicotinyl, a nitroguanidine, a pyrrol, a pyrazone, a diacylhydrazine, a triazole, a biological/fermentation product, a phenyl pyrazole, an organophosphate and a carbamate. It is preferred that when the other insecticide is an oxadizine derivative, the pyrethroid is selected from the group consisting of taufluvalinate, flumethrin, trans-cyfluthrin, kadethrin, bioresmethrin, tetramethrin, phenothrin, empenthrin, cyphenothrin, prallethrin, imiprothrin, allethrin and bioallethrin.
The invention is also directed to a novel method for preventing damage by a pest to a seed and/or shoots and foliage of a plant grown from the seed, the method comprising treating the unsown seed with a composition comprising a nitroguanidine and at least one other
insecticide selected from the group consisting of a chloronicotinyi, a pyrrol, a pyrazone, a diacylhydrazine, a triazole, a biological/fermentation product, a phenyl pyrazole, an organophosphate and a carbamate. Seeds that have been treated by this method are also provided.
The invention is also directed to a novel composition for treatment of unsown seed, the composition comprising a nitroguanidine and at least one other insecticide selected from the group consisting of a chloronicotinyi, a pyrrol, a pyrazone, a diacylhydrazine, a triazole, a biological/fermentation product, a phenyl pyrazole, an organophosphate and a carbamate.
The invention is also directed to a novel seed that is protected against multiple pests comprising a seed having at least one heterologous gene encoding for the expression of a protein that is active against a first pest and, in addition, having adhered thereto a composition comprising at least one pyrethrin or synthetic pyrethroid and at least one other insecticide selected from the group consisting of an oxadiazine derivative, a chloronicotinyi, a nitroguanidine, a pyrrol, a pyrazone, a diacylhydrazine, a triazole, a biological/fermentation product, a phenyl pyrazole, an organophosphate and a carbamate, where the composition is present in an amount effective to provide protection to the shoots and foliage of the plant against damage by at least one second pest.
The invention is also directed to a novel method for treating an unsown seed to prevent damage by a pest to the seed and/or shoots and foliage of a plant grown from the seed, the method comprising contacting the unsown seed with a composition comprising at least one pyrethrin or synthetic pyrethroid and at least one other insecticide selected from the group consisting of an oxadiazine derivative, a chloronicotinyi, a nitroguanidine, a pyrrol, a pyrazone, a diacylhydrazine, a triazole, a biological/fermentation product, a phenyl pyrazole, an organophosphate and a carbamate, provided that when the other insecticide is an oxadizine derivative, the pyrethroid is
selected from the group consisting of taufluvalinate, flumethrin, trans-cyfluthrin, kadethrin, bioresmethrin, tetramethrin, phenothrin, empenthrin, cyphenothrin, prallethrin, imiprothrin, allethrin and bioallethrin.
Among the advantages found to be achieved by the present invention, therefore, may be noted the provision of a method for the control of pest damage to seeds and/or shoots and foliage of plants without the requirement of applying a pesticide at the time of sowing the seed, either as a surface incorporated band, or in-furrow, for example, or requiring a later field application of a pesticide during plant growth; the provision of a method for pest control that reduces the amount of pesticide that is required for the provision of a certain level of protection to the plant; and the provision of method that can be coupled with the biopesticidal activity of transgenic plants to selectively broaden the scope of protection that is provided for the shoots and foliage of the transgenic. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFFERED EMBODIMENTS
In accordance with the present invention, it has been discovered that treatment of unsown plant seeds with a composition that includes a specific combination of insecticides not only protects the seeds themselves, but -- surprisingly -- also provides post-emergent control of pests that feed on or otherwise damage the shoots and/or foliage of the plant. The combination of insecticides that has been found to achieve such results is a combination of a pyrethrin or synthetic pyrethroid as one component, and with another component comprising one or more of certain other insecticides selected from the group consisting of an oxadiazine derivative, a chloronicotinyl, such as imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and nitenpyram; a nitroguanidine; a pyrrol, such as chlorfenapyr; a pyrazole, such as tebufenpyrad; a diacylhydrazine, such as tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide, and halofenozide; a triazole, such as triazamate; a biological/fermentation product, such as avermectin and spinosad; a phenyl pyrazole, such as fipronil; an organophosphate, such as acephate, fenamiphos, diazinon,
chlorpyrifos, chiorpyrifon-methyi and malathion; and a carbamate, such as carbaryl, aldicarb, carbofuran, thiodicarb and oxamyl. It is preferred, however, that if the other insecticide is an oxadiazine derivative, the pyrethroid should be selected from the group consisting of taufluvalinate, flumethrin, trans-cyfluthrin, kadethrin, bioresmethrin, tetramethrin, phenothrin, empenthrin, cyphenothrin, prallethrin, imiprothrin, allethrin and bioallethrin.
In preferred embodiments, the combination of the insecticides provides unexpectedly superior protection in that the combination of the insecticides provides a level of protection to the seed and/or the plant that is superior to the level of protection that -- based on the current state of the art -- would be predicted from the protection provided by the individual components applied separately. This synergistic activity reduces the total amount of pesticide that is required to provide a certain level of protection. In addition to being more economical to use, the ability to use a reduced amount of pesticide for a given level of protection is advantageous in that seed treatments with reduced amounts of insecticides are less phytotoxic to the seed than when the insecticides are used separately.
Another advantage of the novel treatment is that it can be used with transgenic seeds of the type having a heterologous gene encoding for the expression of a pesticidal protein in the transgenic plant that grows from the seed. Treating such a seed with a pesticide provides the ability to protect against one pest with the transgenic trait and to provide surprisingly enhanced protection against the same pest, and/or to protect against other pests with the subject combination of insecticides.
As used herein, the terms "pesticidal effect" and "pesticidal activity" mean any direct or indirect action on the target pest that results in reduced feeding damage on the seeds, roots, shoots and foliage of plants grown from treated seeds as compared to plants grown from untreated seeds. The terms "active against a (first or second) pest", also have the same meaning. Such direct or indirect
actions include inducing death of the pest, repelling the pest from the plant seeds, roots, shoots and/or foliage, inhibiting feeding of the pest on, or the laying of its eggs on, the plant seeds, roots, shoots and/or foliage, and inhibiting or preventing reproduction of the pest. The term "insecticidal activity" has the same meaning as pesticidal activity, except it is limited to those instances where the pest is an insect. When the term "pesticide" is used herein, it is not meant to include pesticides that are produced by the particular seed or the plant that grows from the particular seed that is treated with the pesticide.
As used herein, the "shoots and foliage" of a plant are to be understood to be the shoots, stems, branches, leaves and other appendages of the stems and branches of the plant after the seed has sprouted, but not including the roots of the plant. It is preferable that the shoots and foliage of a plant be understood to be those non-root parts of the plant that have grown from the seed and are located a distance of at least one inch away from the seed from which they emerged (outside the region of the seed), and more preferably, to be the non-root parts of the plant that are at or above the surface of the soil. As used herein, the "region of the seed" is to be understood to be that region within about one inch of the seed.
Pesticides suitable for use in the invention include pyrethrins and synthetic pyrethroids; oxadizine derivatives; chloronicotinyls; nitroguanidine derivatives; triazoles; organophosphates; pyrrols; pyrazoles; phenyl pyrazoles; diacylhydrazines; biological/fermentation products; and carbamates. Further information about pesticides of the types listed above can be found in The Pesticide Manual, 11th Ed., C. D. S. Tomlin, Ed., British Crop Protection Council, Farnham, Surry, UK (1997).
Pyrethroids that are useful in the present composition include pyrethrins and synthetic pyrethroids. The pyrethrins that are preferred for use in the present method include, without limitation, 2-allyl-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1 -one ester of 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2methyl propenyl)-cyclopropane carboxylic acid, and/or (2-methyl-1-propenyl)-
2-methoxy-4-oxo-3-(2 propenyl)-2-cyclopenten-1-yl ester and mixtures of cis and trans isomers thereof (Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number ("CAS RN") 8003-34-7).
Synthetic pyrethroids that are preferred for use in the present invention include (s)-cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 4-chloro alpha (I-methylethyl)benzeneacetate (fenvalerate; CAS RN 51630-58-1); (S)-cyano (3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl (S)-4-chloro-alpha-(1-methylethyl) benzeneacetate (esfenvalerate; CAS RN 66230-04-4); (3-phenoxyphenyl)-methyl(+)cis-trans-3-(2,2-dichoroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate (permethrin; CAS RN 52645-53-1); (±) alpha-cyano-(3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl(+)-cis,trans-3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylate (cypermethrin; CAS RN 52315-07-8); (beta-cypermethrin; CAS RN 65731-84-2); (theta cypermethrin; CAS RN 71697-59-1); S-cyano (3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl (±) cis/trans 3-(2p2-dichloroethenyl) 2,2 dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate (zeta-cypermethrin; CAS RN 52315-07-8); (s)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (IR,3R)-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2l2-dimethyl cyclopropanecarboxylate (deltamethrin; CAS RN 52918-63-5); alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl 2,2,3,3,-tetramethyl cyclopropoanecarboxytate (fenpropathrin; CAS RN 64257-84-7); (RS)-aipha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl(R)-2-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)anilino]-3-methylbutanoate (tau-fluvalinate; CAS RN 102851-06-9); (2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-methylphenyl)-methyl-(1 alpha, 3 alpha)-(Z)-(±)-3-(2-chloro-3,3(3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate (tefluthrin; CAS RN 79538-32-2); (±)-cyano (3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl (±)-4-(difluoromethoxy)-alpha-(1-methyl ethyl) benzeneacetate (flucythrinate; CAS RN 70124-77-5); cyano(4-fluoro-3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 3-[2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethenyl]-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate (flumethrin; CAS RN 69770-45-2); cyano(4-fluoro-3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropanedarboxylate (cyfluthrin; CAS RN 68359-37-5); (beta cyfluthrin; CAS RN 68359-37-5); (transfluthrin; CAS RN 118712-89-3); (S)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl(Z)-(IR-cis)-2,2-dimethyl-3-[2-
(2,2,2-triftuoro-trifluoromethyl-ethoxycarbonyl)vinyl]cyclopropane carboxylate (acrinathrin; CAS RN 101007-06-1); (IR cis) S and (IS cis) R enantiomer isomer pair of alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-3-(2,2dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate (alpha-cypermethrin; CAS RN 67375-30-8); [IRI3S)3(1,RS)(rt2,,2,t2'-tetrabromoethyl)]-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (s)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl ester (tralomethrin; CAS RN 66841-25-6); cyano-(3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl 2,2-dichloro-1- (4-ethoxyphenyl)cyclopropane carboxylate (cycloprothrin; CAS RN 63935-38-6); [1a, 3a(Z)]-(±)-cyano-(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2,2-cimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate (cyhalothrin; CAS RN 68085-85-8); [1 alpha (s), 3 alpha(z)]-cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl-3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate (lambda cyhalothrin; CAS RN 91465-08-6); (2-methyl [1(1'-biphenyl]-3-yl) methyl 3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropanecarboxylate (bifenthrin; CAS RN 82657-04-3); 5-1-benzyl-3-furylmethyl-d-cis(1Rl3S,E)2,2-dimethyl-S-^-oxo.^AStetrahydro
thiophenylidenemethyl)cyclopropane carboxylate (kadethrin, RU15525; CAS RN 58769-20-3); [5-(phenyl methyl)-3-furanyl]-3-furanyl 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methyl-1-propenyl) cyclopropane carboxylate (resmethrin; CAS RN 10453-86-8); (1R-trans)-[5-(phenylmethyl)-3-furanyl]methyl 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methyl-1 -
propenyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate (bioresmethrin; CAS RN 28434-01-7); 3,4,5,6-tetra hydro-phthalimidomethyl-(IRS)-cis-trans-chrysanthemate (tetramethrin; CAS RN 7696-12-0); 3-phenoxybenzyl-d,l-cisftrans 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylpropenyl) cyclopropane carboxylate (phenothrin; CAS RN 26002-80-2); (empenthrin; CAS RN 54406-48-3); (cyphenothrin; CAS RN 39515-40-7); (prallethrin; CAS RN 23031-36-9); (imiprothrin; CAS RN 72963-72-5); (RS)-3-allyl-2-methyl-4-oxcyclopent-2-enyl-(1A,3R; 1R,3S)-2,2-dimethyl-3- (2-methylprop-1-enyl) cyclopropane carboxylate (allethrin; CAS RN 584-79-2); (bioallethrin; CAS RN 584-79-2); and (ZXI8901; CAS RN
160791-64-0). It is believed that mixtures of one or more of the aforementioned synthetic pyrethroids can also be used in the present invention.
In one embodiment of the present invention, particularly preferred synthetic pyrethroids are tefluthrin, lambda cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, permethrin and cyfluthrin. Even more preferred synthetic pyrethroids are tefluthrin and lambda cyhalothrin.
In another embodiment of the invention -- where an oxadiazine derivative is used as one of the combination of insecticides - the preferred synthetic pyrethroid is selected from the group consisting of taufluvalinate, flumethrin, trans-cyfluthrin, kadethrin, bioresmethrin, tetramethrin, phenothrin, empenthrin, cyphenothrin, prallethrin, imiprothrin, allethrin and bioallethrin.
The pyrethrins and synthetic pyrethroids that are useful in the present compositions can be of any grade or purity that pass in the trade as pyrethrins and synthetic pyrethroids. Other materials that accompany the pyrethrins and synthetic pyrethroids in commercial preparations as impurities can be tolerated in the subject compositions, as long as such other materials do not destabilize the composition or significantly reduce or destroy the activity of any of the insecticide components against the target pest. One of ordinary skill in the art of the production of insecticides can readily identify those impurities that can be tolerated and those that cannot.
Insecticides that are oxadiazine derivatives are useful as one of the components of the subject composition. Oxadizine derivatives that are preferred for use in the present invention include 5-(2-chloropyrid-S-ylmethyO-S-methyl^-nitroiminoperhydro-I.S^-oxadiazine; 3-methyl-4-nitroimino-5-(1 -oxido-3-pyridinomethyl) perhydro-1,3,5-oxadiazine; 5-(2-chloro-1-oxido-5-pyridiniomethyl)-3-methyl-4-nitroiminoperhydro-1,3,5-oxidiazine; and 3-methyl-5-(2-methylpyrid-5-ylmethyl)-4-nitroiminoperhydro-1,3,5-oxadiazine.
Chloronicotinyl insecticides are also useful as one of the components of the subject composition. Chloronicotinyls that are
preferred for use in the subject composition include acetamiprid ((E)-N« [(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)methyl]-N'-cyano-N-methyleneimidamide; CAS RN 135410-20-7); imidacloprid (1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)methol]-N-nitro-2-imidazolidinimime; CAS RN 138261-41-3); and nitenpyram (N-[(6-chloro-S-pyridinyOmethylj-N-ethyl-N'-methyl^-nitro-IJ-ethenediamine; CASRN 120738-89-8).
Nitroguanidine insecticides are useful as one of the components of the present combination. Nitroguanidines that are preferred for use in the present invention include MTI 446 (nidinotefuran).
Pyrrols, pyrazoles and phenyl pyrazoles that are useful in the present composition include those that are described in U.S. Patent 5,952,358. Preferred pyrazoles include chlorfenapyr (4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-ethoxymethyl-5-trifluoromethylpyrrole-3-carbonitrile; CAS RN 122453-73-0); fenpyroximate ((E)-1,1-dimethylethyl-4[[[[(1,3-dimethyl-5-phenoxy-1H-pyrazole-4~
yl)methylene]amino]oxy]methyl]benzoate; CAS RN 111812-58-9); and tebufenpyrad (4-chloro-N[[4-1,1-dimethylethyl)phenyl]methyl]-3-ethyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide; CAS RN 119168-77-3). A preferred phenyl pyrazole is fipronil (5-amino-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-[(1R,S)-(trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl]-1H-pyrazole-3-carbonitrile; CAS RN 120068-37-3).
Diacylhydrazines that are useful in the present invention include halofenozide (4-chlorobenzoate-2-benzoyl-2-(1 J-dimethylethyl)-hydrazide; CAS RN 112226-61-6); methoxyfenozide (RH-2485; N-tert-butyl-N'-(3-methoxy-o-toluoyl)-3,5-xylohydrazide; CAS RN 161050-58-4); and tebufenozide (3,5-dimethylbenzoic acid 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2,(4-ethylbenzoyl)hydrazide; CAS RN 112410-23-8).
Triazoles, such as amitrole (CAS RN 61-82-5) and triazamate are useful in the composition of the present invention. A preferred triazole is triazamate (ethyl [[1-[(dimethylamino)carbonyl]-3-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl]thio]acetate; CAS RN 112143-82-5).
Biological/fermentation products, such as avermectin (abamectin; CAS RN 71751-41-2) and spinosad (XDE-105, CAS RN 131929-60-7) are useful in the present composition.
Organophosphate insecticides are also useful as one of the components of the composition of the present invention. Preferred organophophate insecticides include acephate (CAS RN 30560-19-1); chlorpyrifos (CAS RN 2921-88-2); chlorpyrifos-methyl (CAS RN 5598-13-0); diazinon (CAS RN 333-41-5); fenamiphos (CAS RN 22224-92-6); and malathion (CAS RN 121-75-5).
In addition, carbamate insecticides are useful in the subject composition. Preferred carbamate insecticides are aldicarb (CAS RN 116-06-3); carbaryl (CAS RN 63-25-2); carbofuran (CAS RN 1563-66-2); oxamyl (CAS RN 23135-22-0) and thiodicarb (CAS RN 59669-26-
When an insecticide is described herein, it is to be understood
that the description is intended to include salt forms of the insecticide as well as any isomeric and/or tautomeric form of the insecticide that exhibits the same insecticidal activity as the form of the insecticide that is described.
One embodiment of this invention comprises treating a seed with a composition comprising at least one pyrethrin or synthetic pyrethroid and at least one other insecticide selected from the group consisting of a chloronicotinyl, a nitroguanidine, a pyrrol, a pyrazole, a diacylhydrazine, a triazole, a biological/fermentation product, a phenyl pyrazole, an organophosphate and a carbamate. The treatment is applied to the seed prior to sowing the seed so that the sowing operation is simplified. In this manner, seeds can be treated, for example, at a central location and then dispersed for planting. This permits the person who plants the seeds to avoid the handling and use of insecticides -- some of which can be toxic - and to merely handle and plant the treated seeds in a manner that is conventional for regular untreated seeds. It is preferred, in some combinations that at least one of the pyrethroid and the other insecticide is a systemic insecticide.
In this embodiment, a seed can be treated with any one of the combinations of insecticides that are shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Combinations of pyrethroids and other non-pyrethroid insecticides that provide synergistic insecticidal activity3.
COMPOSITION PYRETHROID OTHER INSECTICIDE
1 lambda-cyhalothrin acetamiprid
2 lambda-cyhalothrin imidacloprid
3 lambda-cyhalothrin nitenpyram
4 lambda-cyhalothrin nidinotefuran
5 lambda-cyhalothrin chlorfenapyr
6 lambda-cyhalothrin fenpyroximate
7 lambda-cyhalothrin tebufenpyrad
8 lambda-cyhalothrin fipronil
9 lambda-cyhalothrin tebufenozide
10 lambda-cyhaiothrin methoxyfenozide
11 iambda-cyhalothrin halofenozide
12 lambda-cyhalothrin triazamate
13 lambda-cyhalothrin avermectin
14 lambda-cyhalothrin spinosad
15 lambda-cyhalothrin acephate
16 lambda-cyhalothrin fenamiphos
17 lambda-cyhalothrin diazinon
18 lambda-cyhalothrin chlorpyrifos
19 lambda-cyhalothrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
20 lambda-cyhalothrin malathion
21 lambda-cyhalothrin carbaryl
22 lambda-cyhalothrin aldicarb
23 lambda-cyhalothrin carbofuran
24 lambda-cyhalothrin thiodicarb
25 lambda-cyhalothrin oxamyl
26 tefluthrin acetamiprid
27 tefluthrin imidacloprid
28 tefluthrin nitenpyram
29 tefluthrin nidinotefuran
30 tefluthrin chlorfenapyr
31 tefluthrin fenpyroximate
32 tefluthrin tebufenpyrad
33 tefluthrin fipronil
34 tefluthrin tebufenozide
35 tefluthrin methoxyfenozide
36 tefluthrin halofenozide
37 tefluthrin triazamate
38 tefluthrin avermectin
39 tefluthrin spinosad
40 tefluthrin acephate
41 tefluthrin fenamiphos
42 tefluthrin diazinon
43 tefluthrin chlorpyrifos
44 tefluthrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
45 tefluthrin malathion
46 tefluthrin carbaryl
47 tefluthrin aldicarb
48 tefluthrin carbofuran
49 tefluthrin thiodicarb
50 tefluthrin oxamyl
51 cyfluthrin acetamiprid
52 cyfluthrin imidacloprid
53 cyfluthrin nitenpyram
54 cyfluthrin nidinotefuran
55 cyfluthrin chlorfenapyr
56 cyfluthrin fenpyroximate
57 cyfluthrin tebufenpyrad
58 cyfluthrin fipronil
59 cyfluthrin tebufenozide
60 cyfluthrin methoxyfenozide
61 cyfluthrin halofenozide
62 cyfluthrin triazamate
63 cyfluthrin avermectin
64 cyfluthrin spinosad
65 cyfluthrin acephate
66 cyfluthrin fenamiphos
67 cyfluthrin diazinon
68 cyfluthrin chlorpyrifos
69 cyfluthrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
70 cyfluthrin malathion
71 cyfluthrin carbaryl
72 cyfluthrin aldicarb
73 cyfluthrin carbofuran
74 cyfluthrin thiodicarb
75 cyfluthrin oxamyl
76 bifenthrin acetamiprid
77 bifenthrin imidacloprid
78 bifenthrin nitenpyram
79 bifenthrin nidinotefuran
80 bifenthrin chlorfenapyr
81 bifenthrin fenpyroximate
82 bifenthrin tebufenpyrad
83 bifenthrin fipronil
84 bifenthrin tebufenozide
85 bifenthrin methnyvfpnn7irliP
86 bifenthrin halofenozide
87 bifenthrin triazamate
88 bifenthrin avermectin
89 bifenthrin spinosad
90 bifenthrin acephate
91 bifenthrin fenamiphos
92 bifenthrin diazinon
93 bifenthrin chlorpyrifos
94 bifenthrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
95 bifenthrin malathion
96 bifenthrin carbaryl
97 bifenthrin aldicarb
98 bifenthrin carbofuran
99 bifenthrin thiodicarb
100 bifenthrin oxamyl
101 fenvalerate acetamiprid
102 fenvalerate imidacloprid
103 fenvalerate nitenpyram
104 fenvalerate nidinotefuran
105 fenvalerate chlorfenapyr
106 fenvalerate fenpyroximate
107 fenvalerate tebufenpyrad
108 fenvalerate fipronil
109 fenvalerate tebufenozide
110 fenvalerate methoxyfenozide
111 fenvalerate halofenozide
112 fenvalerate triazamate
113 fenvalerate avermectin
114 fenvalerate spinosad
115 fenvalerate acephate
116 fenvalerate fenamiphos
117 fenvalerate diazinon
118 fenvalerate chlorpyrifos
119 fenvalerate chlorpyrifos-methyl
120 fenvalerate malathion
121 fenvalerate carbaryl
122 fenvalerate aldicarb
123 fenvalerate carbofuran
124 fenvalerate thiodicarb
125 fenvalerate oxamyl
126 esfenvalerate acetamiprid
127 esfenvalerate imidacloprid
128 esfenvalerate nitenpyram
129 esfenvalerate nidinotefuran
130 esfenvalerate chlorfenapyr
131 esfenvalerate fenpyroximate
132 esfenvalerate tehufennvrad
133 esfenvalerate fipronil
134 esfenvalerate tebufenozide
135 esfenvalerate methoxyfenozide
136 esfenvalerate halofenozide
137 esfenvalerate triazamate
138 esfenvalerate avermectin
139 esfenvalerate spinosad
140 esfenvalerate acephate
141 esfenvalerate fenamiphos
142 esfenvalerate diazinon
143 esfenvalerate chlorpyrifos
144 esfenvalerate chlorpyrifos-methyl
145 esfenvalerate malathion
146 esfenvalerate carbaryl
147 esfenvalerate aldicarb
148 esfenvalerate carbofuran
149 esfenvalerate thiodicarb
150 esfenvalerate oxamyl
151 permethrin acetamiprid
152 permethrin imidacloprid
153 permethrin nitenpyram
154 permethrin nidinotefuran
155 permethrin chlorfenapyr
156 permethrin fenpyroximate
157 permethrin tebufenpyrad
158 permethrin fipronil
159 permethrin tebufenozide
160 permethrin methoxyfenozide
161 permethrin halofenozide
162 permethrin triazamate
163 permethrin avermectin
164 permethrin spinosad
165 permethrin acephate
166 permethrin fenamiphos
167 permethrin diazinon
168 permethrin chlorpyrifos
169 permethrin chlorpynfos-methyl
170 permethrin malathion
171 permethrin carbaryl
172 permethrin aldicarb
173 permethrin carbofuran
174 permethrin thiodicarb
175 permethrin oxamyl
176 cypermethrin acetamiprid
177 cypermethrin imidacloprid
178 cypermethrin nitenpyram
179 cypermethrin nidinotefuran
180 cypermethrin chlorfenapyr
181 cypermethrin fenpyroximate
182 cypermethrin tebufenpyrad
183 cypermethrin fipronil
184 cypermethrin tebufenozide
185 cypermethrin methoxyfenozide
186 cypermethrin haiofenozide
187 cypermethrin triazamate
188 cypermethrin avermectin
189 cypermethrin spinosad
190 cypermethrin acephate
191 cypermethrin fenamiphos
192 cypermethrin diazinon
193 cypermethrin chlorpyrifos
194 cypermethrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
195 cypermethrin malathion
196 cypermethrin carbaryl
197 cypermethrin aldicarb
198 cypermethrin carbofuran
199 cypermethrin thiodicarb
200 cypermethrin oxamyl
201 beta-cypermethrin acetamiprid
202 beta-cypermethrin imidacloprid
203 beta-cypermethrin nitenpyram
204 beta-cypermethrin nidinotefuran
205 beta-cypermethrin chlorfenapyr
206 beta-cypermethrin fenpyroximate
207 beta-cypermethrin tebufenpyrad
208 beta-cypermethrin fipronil
209 beta-cypermethrin tebufenozide
210 beta-cypermethrin methoxyfenozide
211 beta-cypermethrin haiofenozide
212 beta-cypermethrin triazamate
213 beta-cypermethrin avermectin
214 beta-cypermethrin spinosad
215 beta-cypermethrin acephate
216 beta-cypermethrin fenamiphos
217 beta-cypermethrin diazinon
218 beta-cypermethrin chlorpyrifos
219 beta-cypermethrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
220 beta-cypermethrin malathion
221 beta-cypermethrin carbaryl
222 beta-cypermethrin aldicarb
223 beta-cypermethrin carbofuran
224 beta-cypermethrin thiodicarb
225 beta-cypermethrin oxamyl
226 theta-cvDermethrin anptaminrid
227 theta-cypermethrin imidacloprid
228 theta-cypermethrin nitenpyram
229 theta-cypermethrin nidinotefuran
230 theta-cypermethrin chlorfenapyr
231 theta-cypermethrin fenpyroximate
232 theta-cypermethrin tebufenpyrad
233 theta-cypermethrin fipronil
234 theta-cypermethrin tebufenozide
235 theta-cypermethrin methoxyfenozide
236 theta-cypermethrin halofenozide
237 theta-cypermethrin triazamate
238 theta-cypermethrin avermectin
239 theta-cypermethrin spinosad
240 theta-cypermethrin acephate
241 theta-cypermethrin fenamiphos
242 theta-cypermethrin diazinon
243 theta-cypermethrin chiorpyrifos
244 theta-cypermethrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
245 theta-cypermethrin maiathion
246 theta-cypermethrin carbaryl
247 theta-cypermethrin aldicarb
248 theta-cypermethrin carbofuran
249 theta-cypermethrin thiodicarb
250 theta-cypermethrin oxamyl
251 zeta-cypermethrin acetamiprid
252 zeta-cypermethrin imidacloprid
253 zeta-cypermethrin nitenpyram
254 zeta-cypermethrin nidinotefuran
255 zeta-cypermethrin chlorfenapyr
256 zeta-cypermethrin fenpyroximate
257 zeta-cypermethrin tebufenpyrad
258 zeta-cypermethrin fipronil
259 zeta-cypermethrin tebufenozide
260 zeta-cypermethrin methoxyfenozide
261 zeta-cypermethrin halofenozide
262 zeta-cypermethrin triazamate
263 zeta-cypermethrin avermectin
264 zeta-cypermethrin spinosad
265 zeta-cypermethrin acephate
266 zeta-cypermethrin fenamiphos
267 zeta-cypermethrin diazinon
268 zeta-cypermethrin chiorpyrifos
269 zeta-cypermethrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
270 zeta-cypermethrin maiathion
271 zeta-cypermethrin carbaryl
272 zeta-cypermethrin aldicarb
273 zeta-cypermethrin carbofuran
274 zeta-cypermethrin thiodicarb
275 zeta-cypermethrin oxamyl
276 deltamethrin acetamiprid
277 deltamethrin imidacloprid
278 deltamethrin nitenpyram
279 deltamethrin nidinotefuran
280 deltamethrin chlorfenapyr
281 deltamethrin fenpyroximate
282 deltamethrin tebufenpyrad
283 deltamethrin fipronil
284 deltamethrin tebufenozide
285 deltamethrin methoxyfenozide
286 deltamethrin halofenozide
287 deltamethrin triazamate
288 deltamethrin avermectin
289 deltamethrin spinosad
290 deltamethrin acephate
291 deltamethrin fenamiphos
292 deltamethrin diazinon
293 deltamethrin chlorpyrifos
294 deltamethrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
295 deltamethrin malathion
296 deltamethrin carbaryl
297 deltamethrin aldicarb
298 deltamethrin carbofuran
299 deltamethrin thiodicarb
300 deltamethrin oxamyl
301 fenpropathrin acetamiprid
302 fenpropathrin imidacloprid
303 fenpropathrin nitenpyram
304 fenpropathrin nidinotefuran
305 fenpropathrin chlorfenapyr
306 fenpropathrin fenpyroximate
307 fenpropathrin tebufenpyrad
308 fenpropathrin fipronil
309 fenpropathrin tebufenozide
310 fenpropathrin methoxyfenozide
311 fenpropathrin halofenozide
312 fenpropathrin triazamate
313 fenpropathrin avermectin
314 fenpropathrin spinosad
315 fenpropathrin acephate
316 fenpropathrin fenamiphos
317 fenpropathrin diazinon
318 fenpropathrin chlorpyrifos
319 fenpropathrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
320 fenpropathrin malathion
321 fenpropathrin carbaryl
322 fenpropathrin aldicarb
323 fenpropathrin carbofuran
324 fenpropathrin thiodicarb
325 fenpropathrin oxamyl
326 taufluvalinate acetamiprid
327 taufluvalinate imidacloprid
328 taufluvalinate nitenpyram
329 taufluvalinate nidinotefuran
330 taufluvalinate chlorfenapyr
331 taufluvalinate fenpyroximate
332 taufluvalinate tebufenpyrad
333 taufluvalinate fipronil
334 taufluvalinate tebufenozide
335 taufluvalinate methoxyfenozide
336 taufluvalinate halofenozide
337 taufluvalinate triazamate
338 taufluvalinate avermectin
339 taufluvalinate spinosad
340 taufluvalinate acephate
341 taufluvalinate fenamiphos
342 taufluvalinate diazinon
343 taufluvalinate chlorpyrifos
344 taufluvalinate chlorpyrifos-methyl
345 taufluvalinate malathion
346 taufluvalinate carbaryl
347 taufluvalinate aldicarb
348 taufluvalinate carbofuran
349 taufluvalinate thiodicarb
350 taufluvalinate oxamyl
351 flucythrinate acetamiprid
352 flucythrinate imidacloprid
353 flucythrinate nitenpyram
354 flucythrinate nidinotefuran
355 flucythrinate chlorfenapyr
356 flucythrinate fenpyroximate
357 flucythrinate tebufenpyrad
358 flucythrinate fipronil
359 flucythrinate tebufenozide
360 flucythrinate methoxyfenozide
361 flucythrinate halofenozide
362 flucythrinate triazamate
363 flucythrinate avermectin
364 flucythrinate spinosad
365 flucythrinate acephate
366 flucythrinate fenamiphos
367 flucythrinate diazinon
368 flucythrinate chlorpyrifos
369 flucythrinate chlorpyrifos-methyl
370 flucythrinate malathion
371 flucythrinate carbaryl
372 flucythrinate aldicarb
373 flucythrinate carbofuran
374 flucythrinate thiodicarb
375 flucythrinate oxamyl
376 flumethrin acetamiprid
377 flumethrin imidacloprid
378 flumethrin nitenpyram
379 flumethrin nidinotefuran
380 flumethrin chlorfenapyr
381 flumethrin fenpyroximate
382 flumethrin tebufenpyrad
383 flumethrin fipronil
384 flumethrin tebufenozide
385 flumethrin methoxyfenozide
386 flumethrin halofenozide
387 flumethrin triazamate
388 flumethrin avermectin
389 flumethrin spinosad
390 flumethrin acephate
391 flumethrin fenamiphos
392 flumethrin diazinon
393 flumethrin chlorpyrifos
394 flumethrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
395 flumethrin malathion
396 flumethrin carbaryl
397 flumethrin aldicarb
398 flumethrin carbofuran
399 flumethrin thiodicarb
400 flumethrin oxamyl
401 beta-cyfluthrin acetamiprid
402 beta-cyfluthrin imidacloprid
403 beta-cyfluthrin nitenpyram
404 beta-cyfluthrin nidinotefuran
405 beta-cyfluthrin chlorfenapyr
406 beta-cyfluthrin fenpyroximate
407 beta-cyfluthrin tebufenpyrad
408 beta-cyfluthrin fipronil
409 beta-cyfluthrin tebufenozide
410 beta-cyfluthrin methoxyfenozide
411 beta-cyfluthrin halofenozide
412 beta-cyfluthrin triazamate
413 beta-cyfluthrin avermectin
414 beta-cyfluthrin spinosad
415 beta-cyfluthrin acephate
416 beta-cyfluthrin fenamiphos
417 beta-cyfluthrin diazinon
418 beta-cyfluthrin chlorpyrifos
419 beta-cyfluthrin chlorpyrifos-methyi
420 beta-cyfluthrin malathion
421 beta-cyfluthrin carbaryl
422 beta-cyfluthrin aldicarb
423 beta-cyfluthrin carbofuran
424 beta-cyfluthrin thiodicarb
425 beta-cyfluthrin oxamyl
426 trans-cyfluthrin acetamiprid
427 trans-cyfluthrin imidacloprid
428 trans-cyfluthrin nitenpyram
429 trans-cyfluthrin nidinotefuran
430 trans-cyfluthrin chlorfenapyr
431 trans-cyfluthrin fenpyroximate
432 trans-cyfluthrin tebufenpyrad
433 trans-cyfluthrin fipronil
434 trans-cyfluthrin tebufenozide
435 trans-cyfluthrin methoxyfenozide
436 trans-cyfluthrin halofenozide
437 trans-cyfluthrin triazamate
438 trans-cyfluthrin avermectin
439 trans-cyfluthrin spinosad
440 trans-cyfluthrin acephate
441 trans-cyfluthrin fenamiphos
442 trans-cyfluthrin diazinon
443 trans-cyfluthrin chlorpyrifos
444 trans-cyfluthrin chlorpyrifos-methyi
445 trans-cyfluthrin malathion
446 trans-cyfluthrin carbaryl
447 trans-cyfluthrin aldicarb
448 trans-cyfluthrin carbofuran
449 trans-cyfluthrin thiodicarb
450 trans-cyfluthrin oxamyl
451 acrinathrin acetamiprid
452 acrinathrin imidacloprid
453 acrinathrin nitenpyram
454 acrinathrin nidinotefuran
455 acrinathrin chlorfenapyr
456 acrinathrin fenpyroximate
457 acrinathrin tebufenpyrad
458 acrinathrin fipronil
459 acrinathrin tebufenozide
460 acrinathrin methoxyfenozide
461 acrinathrin halofenozide
462 acrinathrin triayamatp
463 acrinathrin avermectin
464 acrinathrin spinosad
465 acrinathrin acephate
466 acrinathrin fenamiphos
467 acrinathrin diazinon
468 acrinathrin chlorpyrifos
469 acrinathrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
470 acrinathrin malathion
471 acrinathrin carbaryl
472 acrinathrin aldicarb
473 acrinathrin carbofuran
474 acrinathrin thiodicarb
475 acrinathrin oxamyl
476 alphacypermethrin acetamiprid
477 alphacypermethrin imidacloprid
478 alphacypermethrin nitenpyram
479 alphacypermethrin nidinotefuran
480 alphacypermethrin chlorfenapyr
481 alphacypermethrin fenpyroximate
482 alphacypermethrin tebufenpyrad
483 alphacypermethrin fipronil
484 alphacypermethrin tebufenozide
485 alphacypermethrin methoxyfenozide
486 alphacypermethrin halofenozide
487 alphacypermethrin triazamate
488 alphacypermethrin avermectin
489 alphacypermethrin spinosad
490 alphacypermethrin acephate
491 alphacypermethrin fenamiphos
492 alphacypermethrin diazinon
493 alphacypermethrin chlorpyrifos
494 alphacypermethrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
495 alphacypermethrin malathion
496 alphacypermethrin carbaryl
497 alphacypermethrin aldicarb
498 alphacypermethrin carbofuran
499 alphacypermethrin thiodicarb
500 alphacypermethrin oxamyl
501 tralomethrin acetamiprid
502 tralomethrin imidacloprid
503 tralomethrin nitenpyram
504 tralomethrin nidinotefuran
505 tralomethrin chlorfenapyr
506 tralomethrin fenpyroximate
507 tralomethrin tebufenpyrad
508 tralomethrin fipronil
509 tralomethrin tebufenozide
510 tralomethrin methoxyfenozide
511 tralomethrin halofenozide
512 tralomethrin triazamate
513 tralomethrin avermectin
514 tralomethrin spinosad
515 tralomethrin acephate
516 tralomethrin fenamiphos
517 tralomethrin diazinon
518 tralomethrin chlorpyrifos
519 tralomethrin chlorpyrifos-methy
520 tralomethrin malathion
521 tralomethrin carbaryl
522 tralomethrin aldicarb
523 tralomethrin carbofuran
524 tralomethrin thiodicarb
525 tralomethrin oxamyl
526 cycloprothrin acetamiprid
527 cycloprothrin imidacloprid
528 cycloprothrin nitenpyram
529 cycloprothrin nidinotefuran
530 cycloprothrin chlorfenapyr
531 cycloprothrin fenpyroximate
532 cycloprothrin tebufenpyrad
533 cycloprothrin fipronil
534 cycloprothrin tebufenozide
535 cycloprothrin methoxyfenozide
536 cycloprothrin halofenozide
537 cycloprothrin triazamate
538 cycloprothrin avermectin
539 cycloprothrin spinosad
540 cycloprothrin acephate
541 cycloprothrin fenamiphos
542 cycloprothrin diazinon
543 cycloprothrin chlorpyrifos
544 cycloprothrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
545 cycloprothrin malathion
546 cycloprothrin carbaryl
547 cycloprothrin aldicarb
548 cycloprothrin carbofuran
549 cycloprothrin thiodicarb
550 cycloprothrin oxamyl
551 kadethrin acetamiprid
552 kadethrin imidacloprid
553 kadethrin nitenpyram
554 kadethrin nidinotefuran
555 kadethrin chlorfenapyr
556 kadethrin fenpyroximate
557 kadethrin tebufenpyrad
558 kadethrin fipronil
559 kadethrin tebufenozide
560 kadethrin methoxyfenozide
561 kadethrin halofenozide
562 kadethrin triazamate
563 kadethrin avermectin
564 kadethrin spinosad
565 kadethrin acephate
566 kadethrin fenamiphos
567 kadethrin diazinon
568 kadethrin chlorpyrifos
569 kadethrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
570 kadethrin malathion
571 kadethrin carbaryl
572 kadethrin aldicarb
573 kadethrin carbofuran
574 kadethrin thiodicarb
575 kadethrin oxamyl
576 resmethrin acetamiprid
577 resmethrin imidacloprid
578 resmethrin nitenpyram
579 resmethrin nidinotefuran
580 resmethrin chlorfenapyr
581 resmethrin fenpyroximate
582 resmethrin tebufenpyrad
583 resmethrin fipronil
584 resmethrin tebufenozide
585 resmethrin methoxyfenozide
586 resmethrin halofenozide
587 resmethrin triazamate
588 resmethrin avermectin
589 resmethrin spinosad
590 resmethrin acephate
591 resmethrin fenamiphos
592 resmethrin diazinon
593 resmethrin chlorpyrifos
594 resmethrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
595 resmethrin malathion
596 resmethrin carbaryl
597 resmethrin aldicarb
598 resmethrin carbofuran
599 resmethrin thiodicarb
600 resmethrin oxamyl
601 bioresmethrin acetamiprid
602 bioresmethrin imidacloprid
603 bioresmethrin nitenpyram
604 bioresmethrin nidinotefuran
605 bioresmethrin chlorfenapyr
606 bioresmethrin fenpyroximate
607 bioresmethrin tebufenpyrad
608 bioresmethrin fipronil
609 bioresmethrin tebufenozide
610 bioresmethrin methoxyfenozide
611 bioresmethrin halofenozide
612 bioresmethrin triazamate
613 bioresmethrin avermectin
614 bioresmethrin spinosad
615 bioresmethrin acephate
616 bioresmethrin fenamiphos
617 bioresmethrin diazinon
618 bioresmethrin chlorpyrifos
619 bioresmethrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
620 bioresmethrin malathion
621 bioresmethrin carbaryl
622 bioresmethrin aidicarb
623 bioresmethrin carbofuran
624 bioresmethrin thiodicarb
625 bioresmethrin oxamyl
626 tetramethrin acetamiprid
627 tetramethrin imidacloprid
628 tetramethrin nitenpyram
629 tetramethrin nidinotefuran
630 tetramethrin chlorfenapyr
631 tetramethrin fenpyroximate
632 tetramethrin tebufenpyrad
633 tetramethrin fipronil
634 tetramethrin tebufenozide
635 tetramethrin methoxyfenozide
636 tetramethrin halofenozide
637 tetramethrin triazamate
638 tetramethrin avermectin
639 tetramethrin spinosad
640 tetramethrin acephate
641 tetramethrin fenamiphos
642 tetramethrin diazinon
643 tetramethrin chlorpyrifos
644 tetramethrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
645 tetramethrin malathion
646 tetramethrin carbaryl
647 tetramethrin aidicarb
648 tetramethrin carbofuran
649 tetramethrin thiodicarb
650 tetramethrin oxamyl
651 phenothrin acetamiprid
652 phenothrin imidacloprid
653 phenothrin nitenpyram
654 phenothrin nidinotefuran
655 phenothrin chlorfenapyr
656 phenothrin fenpyroximate
657 phenothrin tebufenpyrad
658 phenothrin fipronil
659 phenothrin tebufenozide
660 phenothrin methoxyfenozide
661 phenothrin halofenozide
662 phenothrin triazamate
663 phenothrin avermectin
664 phenothrin spinosad
665 phenothrin acephate
666 phenothrin fenamiphos
667 phenothrin diazinon
668 phenothrin chlorpyrifos
669 phenothrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
670 phenothrin malathion
671 phenothrin carbaryl
672 phenothrin aldicarb
673 phenothrin carbofuran
674 phenothrin thiodicarb
675 phenothrin oxamyl
676 empenthrin acetamiprid
677 empenthrin imidacloprid
678 empenthrin nitenpyram
679 empenthrin nidinotefuran
680 empenthrin chlorfenapyr
681 empenthrin fenpyroximate
682 empenthrin tebufenpyrad
683 empenthrin fiproni!
684 empenthrin tebufenozide
685 empenthrin methoxyfenozide
686 empenthrin halofenozide
687 empenthrin triazamate
688 empenthrin avermectin
689 empenthrin spinosad
690 empenthrin acephate
691 empenthrin fenamiphos
692 empenthrin diazinon
693 empenthrin chlorpyrifos
694 empenthrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
695 empenthrin malathion
696 empenthrin carbaryl
697 empenthrin aldicarb
698 empenthrin carbofuran
699 empenthrin thiodicarb
700 empenthrin oxamyl
701 cyphenothrin acetamiprid
702 cyphenothrin imidacloprid
703 cyphenothrin nitenpyram
704 cyphenothrin nidinotefuran
705 cyphenothrin chlorfenapyr
706 cyphenothrin fenpyroximate
707 cyphenothrin tebufenpyrad
708 cyphenothrin fipronil
709 cyphenothrin tebufenozide
710 cyphenothrin methoxyfenozide
711 cyphenothrin halofenozide
712 cyphenothrin triazamate
713 cyphenothrin avermectin
714 cyphenothrin spinosad
715 cyphenothrin acephate
716 cyphenothrin fenamiphos
717 cyphenothrin diazinon
718 cyphenothrin chlorpyrifos
719 cyphenothrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
720 cyphenothrin malathion
721 cyphenothrin carbaryl
722 cyphenothrin aldicarb
723 cyphenothrin carbofuran
724 cyphenothrin thiodicarb
725 cyphenothrin oxamyl
726 prallethrin acetamiprid
727 prallethrin imidacloprid
728 prallethrin nitenpyram
729 prallethrin nidinotefuran
730 prallethrin chlorfenapyr
731 prallethrin fenpyroximate
732 prallethrin tebufenpyrad
733 prallethrin fipronil
734 prallethrin tebufenozide
735 prallethrin methoxyfenozide
736 prallethrin halofenozide
737 prallethrin triazamate
738 prallethrin avermectin
739 prallethrin spinosad
740 prallethrin acephate
741 prallethrin fenamiphos
742 prallethrin diazinon
743 prallethrin chlorpyrifos
744 prallethrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
745 prallethrin malathion
746 prallethrin carbaryl
747 prallethrin aldicarb
748 prallethrin carbofuran
749 prallethrin thiodicarb
750 prallethrin oxamyl
751 imiprothrin acetamiprid
752 imiprothrin imidacloprid
753 imiprothrin nitenpyram
754 imiprothrin nidinotefuran
755 imiprothrin chlorfenapyr
756 imiprothrin fenpyroximate
757 imiprothrin tebufenpyrad
758 imiprothrin fipronil
759 imiprothrin tebufenozide
760 imiprothrin methoxyfenozide
761 imiprothrin halofenozide
762 imiprothrin triazamate
763 imiprothrin avermectin
764 imiprothrin spinosad
765 imiprothrin acephate
766 imiprothrin fenamiphos
767 imiprothrin diazinon
768 imiprothrin chlorpyrifos
769 imiprothrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
770 imiprothrin malathion
771 imiprothrin carbaryl
772 imiprothrin aldicarb
773 imiprothrin carbofuran
774 imiprothrin thiodicarb
775 imiprothrin oxamyl
776 allethrin acetamiprid
777 allethrin imidacloprid
778 allethrin nitenpyram
779 allethrin nidinotefuran
780 allethrin chlorfenapyr
781 allethrin fenpyroximate
782 allethrin tebufenpyrad
783 allethrin fipronil
784 allethrin tebufenozide
785 allethrin methoxyfenozide
786 allethrin halofenozide
787 allethrin triazamate
788 allethrin avermectin
789 allethrin spinosad
790 allethrin acephate
791 allethrin fenamiphos
792 allethrin diazinon
793 allethrin chlorpyrifos
794 allethrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
795 allethrin malathion
796 allethrin carbaryl
797 allethrin aldicarb
798 allethrin carbofuran
799 allethrin thiodicarb
800 allethrin oxamyl
801 bioallethrin acetamiprid
802 bioallethrin imidacloprid
803 bioallethrin nitenpyram
804 bioallethrin nidinotefuran
805 bioallethrin chlorfenapyr
806 bioallethrin fenpyroximate
807 bioallethrin tebufenpyrad
808 bioallethrin fipronil
809 bioallethrin tebufenozide
810 bioallethrin methoxyfenozide
811 bioallethrin halofenozide
812 bioallethrin triazamate
813 bioallethrin avermectin
814 bioallethrin spinosad
815 bioallethrin acephate
816 bioallethrin fenamiphos
817 bioallethrin diazinon
818 bioallethrin chlorpyrifos
819 bioallethrin chlorpyrifos-methyl
820 bioallethrin malathion
821 bioallethrin carbaryl
822 bioallethrin aldicarb
823 bioallethrin carbofuran
824 bioallethrin thiodicarb
825 bioallethrin oxamyl
a. The composition comprises the two insecticides that appear on the same line as the number of the composition.
When the other insecticide is an oxadiazine derivative, it has been found that it is preferred that the at least one pyrethroid be selected from the group consisting of taufluvalinate, flumethrin, trans-cyfluthrin, kadethrin, bioresmethrin, tetramethrin, phenothrin, empenthrin, cyphenothrin, prallethrin, imiprothrin, allethrin and bioallethrin.
In another embodiment, the subject method comprises treating a seed prior to sowing with a composition comprising a nitroguanidine and at least one other insecticide selected from the group consisting of a chloronicotinyl, a pyrrol, a pyrazone, a diacylhydrazine, a triazole, a biological/fermentation product, a phenyl pyrazole, an organophosphate and a carbamate.
It has also been found that a transgenic seed can be protected against multiple pests when the seed has at least one heterologous gene encoding for the expression of a protein that is active against a first pest and, in addition, having adhered thereto a composition comprising at least one pyrethrin or synthetic pyrethroid and at least one other insecticide selected from the group consisting of an oxadiazine derivative, a chloronicotinyl, a nitroguanidine, a pyrrol, a pyrazone, a diacylhydrazine, a triazole, a biological/fermentation product, a phenyl pyrazole, an organophosphate and a carbamate. It is preferred that the composition containing the synergistic combination of insecticides is present in an amount effective to provide protection to the shoots and foliage of the plant against damage by at least one second pest.
When the transgenic seed has at least one heterologous gene encoding for the expression of a protein that is active against a first pest, the seed can be treated with a combination of insecticides, which combination has activity against at least one second pest. The present method can be used when the first pest and the second pest are the same, for the purpose, for example, to obtain effective control of a particularly resistant or highly damaging pest. But in a separate embodiment, the transgenic trait protects the seed and/or plant from a first pest and the composition of the combination of insecticides is selected to control a second pest that is different from the first pest. This method is particularly advantageous when an expressed transgenic gene provides a gene product that can protect a transgenic plant from one pest, but has no activity against a second, different pest. In this case, a combination of insecticides of the present invention can
be selected that has activity against the second pest, thus providing the seed and plant with protection from both pests. By way of explanation, when a "first" pest and a "second" pest are referred to herein, it should be understood that each of the terms can include only one pest, or can include two or more pests.
It is contemplated that the present method can be used to protect the seeds, roots and/or the above-ground parts of field, forage, plantation, glasshouse, orchard or vineyard crops, ornamentals, plantation or forest trees. The seeds that are useful in the present invention can be the seeds of any species of plant. However, they are preferably the seeds of plant species that are agronomically important. In particular, the seeds can be of corn, peanut, canola/rapeseed, soybean, curcubits, crucifers, cotton, beets, rice, sorghum, sugar beet, wheat, barley, rye, sunflower, tomato, sugarcane, tobacco, oats, as well as other vegetable and leaf crops. It is preferred that the seed be corn, soybeans, or cotton seed; and more preferred that the seeds be corn seeds.
In one embodiment of the invention, as mentioned above, the seed is a transgenic seed from which a transgenic plant can grow. The transgenic seed of the present invention is engineered to express a desirable characteristic and, in particular, to have at least one heterologous gene encoding for the expression of a protein that is pesticidally active and, in particular, has insecticidal activity. The heterologous gene in the transgenic seeds of the present invention can be derived from a microorganism such as Bacillus, Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Trichoderma, Clavibacter, Glomus, Gllocladium and mycorrhizal fungi. In particular, it is believed that the present method would be especially beneficial when the heterologous gene is one that is derived from a Bacillus sp. microorganism and the protein is active against corn rootworm. It is also believed that the present method would be especially beneficial when the heterologous gene is one that is derived from a Bacillus sp. microorganism and the protein is active against European corn borer. A preferred Bacillus sp.
microorganism is Bacillus thuringiensis. it is particularly preferred when the heterologous gene encodes a modified Cry3Bb delta-endotoxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis, as disclosed, for example, in U.S. Patent No. 6,063,597.
The target pest for the present invention is an adult or larvae of any insect or other pest that feeds on the seed, roots and/or shoots and foliage of the plant that is to be protected by the subject method. Such pests include but are not limited to: from the order Lepidoptera, for example,
Acleris spp., Adoxophyes spp., Aegeria spp., Agrotis spp., Alabama argillaceae, Amylois spp., Anticarsia gemmatalis, Archips spp, Argyrotaenia spp., Autographa spp., Busseola fusca, Cadra cautella, Carposina nipponensis, Chilo spp., Choristoneura spp., Clysia ambiguella, Cnaphalocrocis spp., Cnephasia spp., Cochylis spp., Coieophora spp., Crocidolomia binotalis, Cryptophlebia leucotretat Cydia spp., Diatraea spp., Diparopsis castanea, Earias spp., Ephestia spp., Eucosma spp., Eupoecilia ambiguella, Euproctis spp., Euxoa spp., Grapholita spp., Hedya nubiferana, Heliothis spp., Hellula undalis, Hyphantria cunea, Keiferia lycopersicella, Leucoptera scitella, Lithocollethis spp., Lobesia botrana, Lymantria spp., Lyonetia spp., Malacosoma spp., Mamestra brassicae, Manduca sexta, Operophtera spp., Ostrinia Nubilalis, Pammene spp., Pandemis spp., Panolis flammea, Pectinophora gossypiella, Phthorimaea opercuiella, Pieris rapae, Pieris spp., Plutella xylostella, Prays spp., Scirpophaga spp., Sesamia spp., Sparganothis spp., Spodoptera spp., Synanthedon spp., Thaumetopoea spp., Tortrix spp., Trichoplusia ni and Yponomeuta spp.; from the order Coleoptera, for example,
Agriotes spp., Anthonomus spp., Atomaria linearis, Chaetocnema tibialis, Cosmopolites spp., Curculio spp., Dermestes spp., Diabrotica spp., Epilachna spp., Eremnus spp., Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Lissorhoptrus spp., Melolontha spp., Orycaephilus spp., Otiorhynchus spp., Phlyctinus spp., Popillia spp., Psylliodes spp.,
Rhizopertha spp., Scarabeidae, Sitophilus spp., Sitotroga spp., Tenebrio spp., Tribolium spp. and Trogoderma spp.; from the order Orthoptera, for example,
Blatta spp., Blattella spp., Gryllotalpa spp., Leucophaea maderae, Locusta spp., Periplaneta ssp., and Schistocerca spp.; from the order Isoptera, for example,
Reticulitemes ssp; from the order Psocoptera, for example,
Liposcelis spp.; from the order Anoplura, for example,
Haematopinus spp., Linognathus spp., Pediculus spp., Pemphigus spp. and Phylloxera spp.; from the order Maliophaga, for example,
Damalinea spp. and Trichodectes spp.; from the order Thysanoptera, for example,
Franklinella spp., Hercinothrips spp., Taeniothrips spp., Thrips palmi, Thrips (abaci and Scirtothrips aurantii] from the order Heteroptera, for example,
Cimex spp., Distantiella theobroma, Dysdercus spp., Euchistus spp., Eurygaster spp., Leptocorisa spp., Nezara spp., Piesma spp., Rhodnius spp., Sahlbergella singularis, Scotinophara spp. and Triatoma spp.; from the order Homoptera, for example,
Aleurothrixus floccosus, Aleyrodes brassicae, Aonidiella spp., Aphididae, Aphis spp., Aspidiotus spp., Bemisia tabaci, Ceroplaster spp., Chrysomphalus aonidium, Chrysomphalus dictyospermi, Coccus hesperidum, Empoasca spp., Eriosoma larigerum, Erythroneura spp., Gascardia spp., Laodelphax spp., Lacanium corni, Lepidosaphes spp., Macrosiphus spp., Myzus spp., Nehotettix spp., Nilaparvata spp., Paratoria spp., Pemphigus spp., Planococcus spp., Pseudaulacaspis spp., Pseudococcus spp., Psylla ssp., Pulvinaria aethiopica, Quadraspidiotus spp., Rhopalosiphum spp., Saissetia spp.,
Scaphoideus spp., Schizaphis spp., Sitobion spp., Trialeurodes vaporariorum, Trioza erytreae and Unaspis citri] from the order Hymenoptera, for example,
Acromyrmex, Atta spp., Cephus spp., Diprion spp., Diprionidae, Gilpinia polytoma, Hoplocampa spp., Lasius sppp., Monomorium pharaonis, Neodiprion spp, Solenopsis spp. and Vespa ssp.; from the order Diptera, for example,
Aedes spp., Antherigona soccata, Bibio hortuianus, Calliphora erythrocephala, Ceratitis spp., Chrysomyia spp., Cuiex spp., Cuterebra spp., Dacus spp., Drosophila melanogaster, Fannia spp., Gastrophilus spp., Glossina spp., Hypoderma spp., Hyppobosca spp., Liriomysa spp., Lucilia spp., Melanagromyza spp., Musca ssp., Oestrus spp., Orseolia spp., Oscinella frit, Pegomyia hyoscyami, Phorbia spp., Rhagoletis pomonella, Sciara spp., Stomoxys spp., Tabanus spp., Tannia spp. and Tipula spp., from the order Siphonaptera, for example,
Ceratophyllus spp. und Xenopsylla cheopis and from the order Thysanura, for example,
In each embodiment of the invention, it is preferred that a combination of two or more insecticides is applied to a seed in an effective amount; that is, an amount sufficient to provide protection to the seed and/or shoots and foliage of the plant that grows from the seed. As used herein, "protection" is achieved if the percent of feeding damage to the seed and/or the shoots and foliage at 10 days after infestation (DAI) with the pest is reduced for treated seeds or plants grown from treated seeds as compared to untreated seeds or plants grown from untreated seeds. In a preferred embodiment, an unexpected advantage of the compositions of the present invention is that the component insecticides of the composition operate synergistically. As used here, when it is said that a combination demonstrates "synergy", what is meant is that the degree of protection that is provided to a seed and/or the shoots and foliage of a plant that
grows from a seed, by treatment of the seed by the present method (using a combination of insecticides), is superior to the degree of protection that would be expected on the basis of the protection provided by each of the components of the composition applied separately.
Methods for the calculation of whether a particular insecticide combination provides synergy are described in detail in the Examples. Briefly stated, however, whether a combination of insecticides provided synergy in protection against cutworm damage can be calculated as described by Colby, Robert. S., in Weeds, 15(1 ):20 - 22 (1967). The threshold value (stated as % of control) for synergy of a combination was calculated as = (% of control for treatment A)*(% of control for treatment B)/100(n-1); where n = number of active ingredients in the combination. A measured % of control value that is less than the calculated threshold value indicates synergy of the combination.
When the "degree of protection" is mentioned herein, it is meant to include the amount of damage caused by the target insect to seeds that have been treated with a given amount of insecticide (and the plants that sprout therefrom) relative to the amount of damage caused to untreated seeds and plants. But "degree of protection" can also refer to the number of different types of target pests that are affected by the treatment and the length of the period of protection. In other words, a synergistic degree of protection can include unexpectedly effective protection at reduced levels of active ingredient, as well as protection against an unexpectedly wide variety of pests, or protection for an unexpectedly long (or otherwise particularly effective) period of time.
The amount of the insecticidal composition of the present invention that will provide protection to plant shoots and foliage will vary depending on the particular pesticide combination, the concentration of active ingredients in the composition, the nature of the formulation in which it is applied, the seed type, and the target pest(s). As used herein, an amount of the composition effective to provide
protection to the seed and/or shoots and foliage of the plant against damage by the pest is the lowest amount of such pesticide that will provide such protection. Assuming that the composition is comprised of 100% active ingredients, then, in general, the amount of the subject composition used will range from about 0.005% to 25% of the weight of the seed, and more preferably, from about 0.01% to about 10%. A yet more preferred range is 0.01% to 1% of the active ingredients relative to the weight of the seed, and an even more preferred range is 0.05% to 0.5%.
The subject compositions are each composed of at least two insecticidal compounds, such as the combinations described in Table 1, and in the surrounding text. When two components are used, the relative amounts of the two insecticides can range from 1:1000 to 1000:1, by weight. It is preferred, however, that the weight ratio of the two insecticides range from 1:100 to 100:1, more preferred is a ratio of 1:10 to 10:1, and yet more preferred is a ratio of 1:3 to 3:1.
In the method of the present invention, the combination of pesticides is applied to a seed. Although it is believed that the present method can be applied to a seed in any physiological state, it is preferred that the seed be in a sufficiently durable state that it incurs no damage during the treatment process. Typically, the seed would be a seed that had been harvested from the field; removed from the plant; and separated from any cob, stalk, outer husk, and surrounding pulp or other non-seed plant material. The seed would preferably also be biologically stable to the extent that the treatment would cause no biological damage to the seed. In one embodiment, for example, the treatment can be applied to seed corn that has been harvested, cleaned and dried to a moisture content below about 15% by weight. In an alternative embodiment, the seed can be one that has been dried and then primed with water and/or another material and then re-dried before or during the treatment with the pesticide. Within the limitations just described, it is believed that the treatment can be applied to the seed at any time between harvest of the seed and sowing of the seed.
As used herein, the term "unsown seed" is meant to include seed at any period between the harvest of the seed and the sowing of the seed in the ground for the purpose of germination and growth of the plant.
When it is said that unsown seed is "treated" with the composition, such treatment is not meant to include those practices in which the pesticide is applied to the soil, rather than to the seed. For example, such treatments as the application of the pesticide in bands, "T"-bands, or in-furrow, at the same time as the seed is sowed are not considered to be included in the present invention.
The composition comprising a combination of pesticides can be applied "neat", that is, without any diluting or additional components present. However, the composition is typically applied to the seeds in the form of a pesticide formulation. This formulation may contain one or more other desirable components including but not limited to liquid diluents, binders to serve as a matrix for the pesticide, fillers for protecting the seeds during stress conditions, and plasticizers to improve flexibility, adhesion and/or spreadability of the coating. In addition, for oily pesticide formulations containing little or no filler, it may be desirable to add to the formulation drying agents such as calcium carbonate, kaolin or bentonite clay, perlite, diatomaceous earth or any other adsorbent material. Use of such components in seed treatments is known in the art. See, e.g., U.S. Patent No. 5,876,739. The skilled artisan can readily select desirable components to use in the pesticide formulation depending on the seed type to be treated and the particular pesticide that is selected. In addition, readily available commercial formulations of known pesticides may be used, as demonstrated in the examples below.
The seeds may also be treated with one or more of the following ingredients: other pesticides, including compounds which act only below the ground; fungicides, such as captan, thiram, metalxyl, fludioxonil, oxadixyl, and isomers of each of those materials, and the like; herbicides, including compounds selected from carbamates, thiocarbamates, acetamides, triazines, dinitroanilines, glycerol ethers,
pyridazinones, uracils, phenoxys, ureas, and benzoic acids; herbicidal safeners such as benzoxazine, benzhydryl derivatives, N.N-diallyl dichloroacetamide, various dihaloacyl, oxazolidinyl and thiazolidinyl compounds, ethanone, naphthalic anhydride compounds, and oxime derivatives; fertilizers; and biocontrol agents such as naturally-occurring or recombinant bacteria and fungi from the genera Rhizobium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Serratla, Trichoderma, Glomus, Gliocladium and mycorrhizal fungi. These ingredients may be added as a separate layer on the seed or alternatively may be added as part of the pesticide composition.
Preferably, the amount of the novel composition or other ingredients used in the seed treatment should not inhibit generation of the seed, or cause phytotoxic damage to the seed.
The composition of the present invention can be in the form of a suspension; emulsion; slurry of particles in an aqueous medium (e.g., water); wettable powder; wettable granules (dry flowable); and dry granules. If formulated as a suspension or slurry, the concentration of the active ingredient in the formulation is preferably about 0.5% to about 99% by weight (w/w), preferably 5-40%.
As mentioned above, other conventional inactive or inert ingredients can be incorporated into the formulation. Such inert ingredients include but are not limited to: conventional sticking agents, dispersing agents such as methylcellulose (Methocel A15LV or Methocel A15C, for example, serve as combined dispersant/sticking agents for use in seed treatments), polyvinyl alcohol (e.g., Elvanol 51-05), lecithin (e.g., Yelkinol P), polymeric dispersants (e.g., polyvinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate PVPA/A S-630), thickeners (e.g., clay thickeners such as Van Gel B to improve viscosity and reduce settling of particle suspensions), emulsion stabilizers, surfactants, antifreeze compounds (e.g., urea), dyes, colorants, and the like. Further inert ingredients useful in the present invention can be found in McCutcheon's, vol. 1, "Emulsifiers and Detergents," MC Publishing Companv. Glen Rock. New Jersev. U.S.A.. 1996. Additional insr*
ingredients useful in the present invention can be found in McCutcheon's, vol. 2, "Functional Materials," MC Publishing Company, Glen Rock, New Jersey, U.S.A., 1996.
The pesticides, compositions of pesticide combinations, and formulations of the present invention can be applied to seeds by any standard seed treatment methodology, including but not limited to mixing in a container (e.g., a bottle or bag), mechanical application, tumbling, spraying, and immersion. Any conventional active or inert material can be used for contacting seeds with pesticides according to the present invention, such as conventional film-coating materials including but not limited to water-based film coating materials such as Sepiret (Seppic, Inc., Fairfield, NJ) and Opacoat (Berwind Pharm. Services, Westpoint, PA).
The subject combination of pesticides can be applied to a seed as a component of a seed coating. Seed coating methods and compositions that are known in the art are useful when they are modified by the addition of one of the embodiments of the combination of pesticides of the present invention. Such coating methods and apparatus for their application are disclosed in, for example, U.S. Patent Nos. 5,918,413, 5,891,246, 5,554,445, 5,389,399, 5,107,787, 5,080,925, 4,759,945 and 4,465,017. Seed coating compositions are disclosed, for example, in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,939,356, 5,882,713, 5,876,739, 5,849,320, 5,834,447, 5,791,084, 5,661,103, 5,622,003, 5,580,544, 5,328,942, 5,300,127, 4,735,015, 4,634,587, 4,383,391, 4,372,080, 4,339,456, 4,272,417 and 4,245,432, among others.
Useful seed coatings contain one or more binders and at least one of the subject combinations of pesticides.
Binders that are useful in the present invention preferably comprise an adhesive polymer that may be natural or synthetic and is without phytotoxic effect on the seed to be coated. The binder may be selected from polyvinyl acetates; polyvinyl acetate copolymers; polyvinyl alcohols; polyvinyl alcohol copolymers; celluloses, including ethylcelluloses, methylcelluloses, hydroxymethylcelluloses,
hydroxypropylcelluloses and carboxymethylcellulose; polyvinylpyrolidones; polysaccharides, including starch, modified starch, dextrins, maltodextrins, alginate and chitosans; fats; oils; proteins, including gelatin and zeins; gum arables; shellacs; vinylidene chloride and vinylidene chloride copolymers; calcium lignosulfonates; acrylic copolymers; polyvinylacrylates; polyethylene oxide; acrylamide polymers and copolymers; polyhydroxyethyl acrylate, methylacrylamide monomers; and polychloroprene.
It is preferred that the binder be selected so that it can serve as a matrix for the subject combination of pesticides. While the binders disclosed above may all be useful as a matrix, the specific binder will depend upon the properties of the combination of pesticides. The term "matrix", as used herein, means a continuous solid phase of one or more binder compounds throughout which is distributed as a discontinuous phase one or more of the subject combinations of pesticides. Optionally, a filler and/or other components can also be present in the matrix. The term matrix is to be understood to include what may be viewed as a matrix system, a reservoir system or a microencapsulated system. In general, a matrix system consists of a combination of pesticides of the present invention and filler uniformly dispersed within a polymer, while a reservoir system consists of a separate phase comprising the subject combination of pesticides, that is physically dispersed within a surrounding, rate-limiting, polymeric phase. Microencapsulation includes the coating of small particles or droplets of liquid, but also to dispersions in a solid matrix.
The amount of binder in the coating can vary, but will be in the range of about 0.01 to about 25% of the weight of the seed, more preferably from about 0.05 to about 15%, and even more preferably from about 0.1% to about 10%.
As mentioned above, the matrix can optionally include a filler. The filler can be an absorbent or an inert filler, such as are known in the art, and may include woodflours, clays, activated carbon, sugars, diatomaceous earth, cereal flours, fine-grain inorganic solids, calcium
carbonate, and the like. Clays and inorganic solids which may be used include calcium bentonite, kaolin, china ciay, talc, perlite, mica, vermiculite, silicas, quartz powder, montmorillonite and mixtures thereof. Sugars which may be useful include dextrin and maltodextrin. Cereal flours include wheat flour, oat flour and barley flour.
The filler is selected so that it will provide a proper microclimate for the seed, for example the filler is used to increase the loading rate of the active ingredients and to adjust the control-release of the active ingredients. The filler can aid in the production or process of coating the seed. The amount of filler can vary, but generally the weight of the filler components will be in the range of about 0.05 to about 75% of the seed weight, more preferably about 0.1 to about 50%, and even more preferably about 0.5% to 15%.
The pesticides that are useful in the coating are those combinations of pesticides that are described herein. The amount of pesticide that is included in the coating will vary depending upon the type of seed and the type of active ingredients, but the coating will contain an amount of the combination of pesticides that is pesticidally effective. When insects are the target pest, that amount will be an amount of the combination of insecticides that is insecticidally effective. As used herein, an insecticidally effective amount means that amount of insecticide that will kill insect pests in the larvae or pupal state of growth, or will consistently reduce or retard the amount of damage produced by insect pests. In general, the amount of pesticide in the coating will range from about 0.005 to about 50% of the weight of the seed. A more preferred range for the pesticide is from about 0.01 to about 40%; more preferred is from about 0.05 to about 20%.
The exact amount of the combination of pesticides that is included in the coating is easily determined by one of skill in the art and will vary depending upon the size of the seed to be coated. The pesticides of the coating must not inhibit germination of the seed and should be efficacious in protecting the seed and/or the plant during that time in the target insect's life cycle in which it causes injury to the seed
or plant. In general, the coating will be efficacious for approximately 0 to 120 days after sowing.
The coating is particularly effective in accommodating high pesticidal loads, as can be required to treat typically refractory pests, such as corn root worm, while at the same time preventing unacceptable phytotoxicity due to the increased pesticidal load.
Optionally, a plasticizer can be used in the coating formulation. Plasticizers are typically used to make the film that is formed by the coating layer more flexible, to improve adhesion and spreadability, and to improve the speed of processing. Improved film flexibility is important to minimize chipping, breakage or flaking during storage, handling or sowing processes. Many plasticizers may be used, however, useful plasticizers include polyethylene glycol, glycerol, butylbenzylphthalate, glycol benzoates and related compounds. The range of plasticizer in the coating layer will be in the range of from bout 0.1 to about 20% by weight.
When the combination of pesticides used in the coating is an oily type formulation and little or no filler is present, it may be useful to hasten the drying process by drying the formulation. This optional step may be accomplished by means will known in the art and can include the addition of calcium carbonate, kaolin or bentonite clay, perlite, diatomaceous earth, or any absorbent material that is added preferably concurrently with the pesticidal coating layer to absorb the oil or excess moisture. The amount of calcium carbonate or related compounds necessary to effectively provide a dry coating will be in the range of about 0.5 to about 10% of the weight of the seed.
The coatings formed with the combination of pesticides are capable of effecting a slow rate of release of the pesticide by diffusion or movement through the matrix to the surrounding medium.
The coating can be applied to almost any crop seed that is described herein, including cereals, vegetables, ornamentals and fruits.
In addition to the coating layer, the seed may be treated with one or more of the following ingredients: other pesticides including
fungicides and herbicides; herbicidal safeners; fertilizers and/or biocontrol agents. These ingredients may be added as a separate layer or alternatively may be added in the pesticidal coating layer.
The pesticide formulation may be applied to the seeds using conventional coating techniques and machines, such as fluidized bed techniques, the roller mill method, rotostatic seed treaters, and drum coaters. Other methods, such as spouted beds may also be useful. The seeds may be presized before coating. After coating, the seeds are typically dried and then transferred to a sizing machine for sizing. Such procedures are known in the art.
The pesticide-treated seeds may also be enveloped with a film overcoating to protect the pesticide coating. Such overcoatings are known in the art and may be applied using conventional fluidized bed and drum film coating techniques.
In another embodiment of the present invention, a pesticide can be introduced onto or into a seed by use of solid matrix priming. For example, a quantity of the pesticide can be mixed with a solid matrix material and then the seed can be placed into contact with the solid matrix material for a period to allow the pesticide to be introduced to the seed. The seed can then optionally be separated from the solid matrix material and stored or used, or the mixture of solid matrix material plus seed can be stored or planted directly. Solid matrix materials which are useful in the present invention include polyacrylamide, starch, clay, silica, alumina, soil, sand, polyurea, polyacrylate, or any other material capable of absorbing or adsorbing the pesticide for a time and releasing that pesticide into or onto the seed. It is useful to make sure that the pesticide and the solid matrix material are compatible with each other. For example, the solid matrix material should be chosen so that it can release the pesticide at a reasonable rate, for example over a period of minutes, hours, or days.
The present invention further embodies imbibition as another method of treating seed with the pesticide. For example, plant seed can be combined for a period of time with a solution comDrisinn from
about 1% by weight to about 75% by weight of the pesticide in a solvent such as water. Preferably the concentration of the solution is from about 5% by weight to about 50% by weight, more preferably from about 10% by weight to about 25% by weight. During the period that the seed is combined with the solution, the seed takes up (imbibes) a portion of the pesticide. Optionally, the mixture of plant seed and solution can be agitated, for example by shaking, rolling, tumbling, or other means. After imbibition, the seed can be separated from the solution and optionally dried, for example by patting or air drying.
In yet another embodiment, a powdered pesticide can be mixed directly with seed. Optionally, a sticking agent can be used to adhere the powder to the seed surface. For example, a quantity of seed can be mixed with a sticking agent and optionally agitated to encourage uniform coating of the seed with the sticking agent. The seed coated with the sticking agent can then be mixed with the powdered pesticide. The mixture can be agitated, for example by tumbling, to encourage contact of the sticking agent with the powdered pesticide, thereby causing the powdered pesticide to stick to the seed.
The present invention also provides a seed that has been treated by the method described above.
The treated seeds of the present invention can be used for the propagation of plants in the same manner as conventional treated seed- The treated seeds can be stored, handled, sowed and tilled in the same manner as any other pesticide treated seed. Appropriate safety measures should be taken to limit contact of the treated seed with humans, food or feed materials, water and birds and wild or domestic animals.
Preferred embodiments of the invention are described in the following examples. Other embodiments within the scope of the claims herein will be apparent to one skilled in the art from consideration of the specification or practice of the invention as disclosed herein. It is intended that the specification, together with the examples, be
considered exemplary only, with the scope and spirit of the invention being indicated by the claims which follow the examples.
REFERENCE EXAMPLE 1
This example compares the efficacy of seed treatment with lambda-cyhalothrin (CAS# 91465-08-6) to soil granular treatments with tefluthrin (CAS # 79538-32-2) against feeding damage by black cutworm larvae on shoots and foliage.
A lambda-cyhalothrin seed treatment formulation was prepared by diluting the WARRIOR® T insecticide (Zeneca Ag Products, Wilmington, DE), which contains 11.4% lambda-cyhalothrin as the active ingredient, into water as a carrier. This formulation was applied for one minute at room temperature to twenty-five grams of Pioneer corn seed (Cultivar PN3394) in a rotostatic seed treater at a rate of 125 g, 250 g or 500 g active ingredient (Al) to 100 kg seed. The treated seeds were allowed to sit uncapped for four to twenty-four hours before planting.
Treated and untreated seeds (Pioneer hybrid PN3394) were planted in a soil mix consisting of Dupo silt loam, 30% Perlite, 20% coarse sand (WB-10 grade) in six groups of tubs (20 in. L X 15 in. WX 8 in. D). Twelve seeds were planted per tub and three tubs were planted for each treatment regimen. Soil applications of FORCE® 3GR, which contains 3% tefluthrin granule as the active ingredient, were used for two sets of tubs containing untreated seeds. The FORCE 3GR was applied either in-furrow or incorporated into a 5 inch band on the soil surface at the time of planting. The tubs were overhead irrigated until the plants were infested with black cutworm larvae.
The rate of application for the FORCE 3GR was reported in units of grams of the active ingredient per hectare (g/ha), while the rate of application of the WARRIOR T to the seeds was reported in units of grams of the active ingredient per 100 kilograms of the seeds (g/100 kg). Although the conversion of one of these units to the other will vary somewhat according to the type of seed that is being used, the size
and weight of the seed, and the density of planting that is used --among other things - an approximate conversion for corn seed can be carried out as follows. Assuming a seed application rate of lambda cyhalothrin of, for example, 125g/100 kg of seed and a planting density of 15 lbs seed/ac, about 14.7 acres can be planted with 100 kg of the seed. This is an effective application rate of about 8.5g of lambda cyhalthrin per acre. At 2.47 ac/ha, the seed treatment level of 125g/ 100 kg is approximately equivalent to a surface banding treatment at about 21g/ha.
At twelve days after planting (DAP) but before infestation, the overall health of each plant was rated by looking at emergence, height and appearance. This vigor rating gives an indication of any phytotoxicity from the seed or soil treatment. A rating of 1 indicates extremely low vigor while 10 is the highest vigor rating.
The com plants were infested at 12 DAP, which corresponds to late growth stage V1 by placing two black cutworm larvae at 3/4 instar on the soil surface near the base of the plant. Plants were rated 3, 7 and 10 days after infestation (DAI) for the number of cut plants, as well as damage from leaf feeding. The percent stand reduction due to plant cutting was calculated by dividing the number of cut plants into the number of plants present at infestation. The foliar feeding injury was evaluated using a rating scale of 1 = no damage and 10 = complete defoliation. The mean results for the three tubs for each treatment regimen are presented in Table 2 below.
Table 2. Efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin seed-treatment against black cutworm feeding damage on corn.
These results demonstrate that seed treatment with lambda-cyhalothrin prior to planting provides significant protection of corn plants against shoot/foliar feeding damage by black cutworm. For example, at 7 DAI with the lowest rate tested (125 g/kg seed), a significant reduction was observed for both plant cutting (16.7% for seed treatment vs. 94% for untreated control) and foliar feeding injury (5.0 for seed treatment vs. 9.3 rating for untreated control) In addition, tubs planted with seed treated with lambda-cyhalothrin at rates of 250 and 500 g/100 kg seed, showed essentially no stand reduction from plant cutting (3% and 0% for 250 and 500 g, respectively) and only low levels of foliar injury (2.7 and 2.3 rating for 250 and 500 g, respectively). This level of protection was equal to the tefluthrin soil band treatment and superior to tefluthrin in-furrow treatment. When the tubs were evaluated at 10 DAI, no increase in plant cutting and only
slightly higher ratings for foliar feeding injury were observed with lambda-cyhalothrin seed treatments as compared to evaluations at 7 DAI. In contrast, the untreated control tubs exhibited 100% plant cutting and complete defoliation by 10 DAI.
This example illustrates the efficacy of corn seed treatment with a combination of tefluthrin and acephate against plant damage by black cutworm.
Seed treatment formulations were prepared from tefluthrin (available from Wilbur Ellis Co. under the trade name of RAZE® 2.5 FS) and acephate (N-[methoxy(methylthio)phosphinoyl]acetamide; CAS Registry No, 30560-19-1); available from Tomen Agro Inc., San Francisco, CA, or Valent USA Corp., Walnut Creek, CA, under the trade name of ORTHENE®.
In addition, separate seed treatment formulations were prepared from each of the two insecticides alone and a sample of untreated seed was also prepared. Corn seed was prepared and treated as described in Example 1, except that the treatment levels of the active ingredients on the seeds was as shown in Table 3. Treated and untreated seeds were planted in tubs and cultivated as described in Example 1. The tubs were overhead irrigated until the plants were infested with black cutworm larvae.
The corn plants were infested as 12 DAP, as described in Example 1. Plants were rated at 10 DAI for the number of cut plants. The percent stand reduction due to plant cutting was calculated by dividing the number of cut plants into the number of plants present at infestation. The mean results for each of the seed treatment regimens is presented in Table 3.
Whether a combination of insecticides provided synergy in protection against cutworm damage was calculated as described by Colby, Robert. S., in Weeds, 15(1):2Q - 22 (1967). The threshold value (stated as % of control) for synergy of a combination was calculated as = (% of control for treatment A)*(% of control for treatment B)/100(n-1);
where n = number of active ingredients in combination. A measured % of control value that is less than the threshold value indicates synergy of the combination. Threshold values for synergy were calculated for each of the combinations of Table 3, and the threshold values for synergy of combinations of the active ingredients at various levels are shown in Table 4.
The results of this test showed that the pyrethroid/organophosphorous-insecticide combinations of tefluthrin and acephate were synergistic against damage of the plant by black cutworm for all levels of tefluthrin when levels of acephate were 200 gm/100 kg of seed (or about 0.3% by weight of the seed).
In view of the above, it will be seen that the several advantages of the invention are achieved and other advantageous results attained.
As various changes could be made in the above methods and compositions without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description and shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
The discussion of references herein is intended merely to summarize the assertions made by their authors and no admission is made that any reference constitutes prior art. Applicants reserve the right to challenge the accuracy and pertinency of the cited references.
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. A method for preventing damage by a pest to a seed and/or shoots and foliage of a plant grown from the seed, the method comprising treating an unsown seed with a composition comprising at least one pyrethrin or synthetic pyrethroid and at least one other insecticide selected from the group consisting of an oxadiazine derivative, a chloronicotinyl, a nitroguanidine, a pyrrol, a pyrazone, a diacylhydrazine, a triazole, a biological/fermentation product, a phenyl pyrazole, an organophosphate and a carbamate.
2. The method as set forth in claim 1, wherein the at least one other insecticide comprises an oxadizine derivative, and the pyrethroid is selected from the group consisting of taufluvalinate, flumethrin, trans-cyfluthrin, kadethrin, bioresmethrin, tetramethrin, phenothrin, empenthrin, cyphenothrin, prallethrin, imiprothrin, allethrin and bioallethrin.
3. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein the at least one pyrethrin or synthetic pyrethroid is selected from the group consisting of (s)-cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 4-chloro alpha (I-methylethyl)benzeneacetate (fenvalerate); (S)-cyano (3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl (S)-4-chloro-alpha-(1-methylethyl) benzeneacetate (esfenvalerate); (3-phenoxyphenyl)-methyl(+)cis-trans-3-(2I2-dichoroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate (permethrin); (±) alpha-cyano-(3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl(+)-cis,trans-3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylate (cypermethrin); (beta-cypermethrin); (theta cypermethrin); S-cyano (3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl (±) cis/trans 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl) 2,2 dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate (zeta-cypermethrin); (s)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (IR,3R)-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropanecarboxylate (deltamethrin); alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl 2,2,3,3,-tetramethyl cyclopropoanecarboxylate (fenpropathrin); (RS)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl(R)-2-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)anilino]-3-methylbutanoate (tau-fluvalinate); (2,3I5,6-tetrafluoro-4-methylphenyl)-methyl-(1 alpha, 3 alpha)-(Z)-(±)-3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-
trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyciopropanecarboxylate (tefluthrin); (±)-cyano (3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl (±)-4-(difluoromethoxy)-alpha-(1-methyl ethyl) benzeneacetate (flucythrinate); cyano(4-fluoro-3~ phenoxyphenyl)methyl 3-[2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethenyl]-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate (flumethrin); cyano(4-ffuoro-3-pbenoxyphenyl) methyl 3-(2f2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropanedarboxylate (cyfluthrin); (beta cyfluthrin); (transfluthrin); (S)-a)pha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyi(Z)-(IR-cis)-2)2-dimethyl-3-[2-(2,2,2-trifluoro-trifluoromethyl-ethoxycarbonyl)vinyl]cyclopropane carboxylate (acrinathrin); (IR cis) S and (IS cis) R enantiomer isomer pair of alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-3-(2,2dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate (alphacypermethrin); [IR,3S)3(1,RS)(1,,2\2\2*-tetrabromoethyl)]-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (s)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl ester (tralomethrin); cyano-(3-phenoxyphenyl) methy) 2,2-dichloro-1- (4-ethoxyphenyl)cyclopropane carboxylate (cycloprothrin); [1a, 3a(Z)]-(±)-cyano-(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 3-(2-
chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2,2-cimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate (cyhalothrin); [1 alpha (s), 3 alpha(z)]-cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl-3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2l2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate (lambda cyhalothrin); (2-methyl [1(r-biphenyl]-3-yl) methyl S^-chloro-S^^-trifluoro-l-propenyO^^-dimethyl-cyclopropanecarboxylate (bifenthrin); 5-1 -benzyl-3-furylmethyl-d-cis(1 R,3S,E)2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-oxo)-2,2,4,5 tetrahydro thiophenylidenemethyl)cyclopropane carboxylate (kadethrin, RU15525); [5-(phenyl methyl)~3-furanyl]-3-furanyl 2,2-dimethy!-3-(2-methyl-1-propenyl) cyclopropane carboxylate (resmethrin); (1R-trans)-[5-(phenylmethy!)-3-furanyl]methyl2t2-dimethyl-3-(2-methyl-1-propenyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate (bioresmethrin); 3,4,5,6-tetra hydro-phthalimidomethyl-(IRS)-cis-trans-chrysanthemate (tetramethrin); 3-phenoxybenzyl-d,l-cis,trans 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methyipropenyl) cyclopropane carboxylate (phenothrin); (empenthrin); (cyphenothrin); (prallethrin); (imiprothrin); (RS)-3-alIyl-2-methyl-4-oxcyclopent-2-enyl-
(1A.3R; 1R,3S)-2,2-dimethyl-3- (2-methylprop-1-enyl) cyclopropane carboxylate (allethrin); (bioallethrin); and (ZXI8901).
4. The method as set forth in claim 3, wherein the synthetic pyrethroid is selected from the group consisting of tefluthrin, lambda cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin and bifenthrin.
5. The method according to claim 2, wherein the pesticide comprises an oxadiazine derivative.
6. The method according to claim 5, wherein the oxadizine derivative comprises an insecticide selected from the group consisting of 5-(2-chloropyrid-5-ylmethyl)-3-methyl-4-nitroiminoperhydro-1,3,5-oxadiazine, 3-methyl-4-nitroimino-5-(1-oxido-3-pyridinomethyl) perhydro-1,3,5-oxadiazine, 5-(2-chloro-1 -oxido-5-pyridiniomethyl)-3-methyl-4-nitroiminoperhydro-1,3,5-oxidiazine, and 3-methyl-5-(2-methylpyrid-S-ylmethylM-nitroiminoperhydro-l^^-oxadiazine.
7. The method as set forth in claim 2, wherein the other insecticide comprises a chloronicotinyl.
8. The method as set forth in claim 7, wherein the chloronicotinyl is selected from the group consisting of imidacloprid, acetamiprid and nitenpyram.
9. The method as set forth in claim 2, wherein the other insecticide comprises a nitroguanidine.
10. The method as set forth in claim 9, wherein the nitroguanidine comprises nidinotefuran.
11. The method as set forth in claim 2, wherein the other insecticide comprises a pyrrol.
12. The method as set forth in claim 9, wherein the pyrrol comprises chlorfenapyr.
13. The method as set forth in claim 2, wherein the other insecticide comprises a pyrazone.
14. The method as set forth in claim 13, wherein the pyrazone comprises tebufenpyrad.
15. The method as set forth in claim 2, wherein the other insecticide comprises a diacylhydrazine.
16. The method as set forth in claim 15, wherein the diacylhydrazine is selected from the group consisting of tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide and halofenozide.
17. The method as set forth in claim 2, wherein the other insecticide comprises a triazole.
18. The method as set forth in claim 17, wherein the triazole comprises triazamate.
19. The method as set forth in claim 2, wherein the other insecticide comprises a biological/fermentation product.
20. The method as set forth in claim 19, wherein the biological/fermentation product comprises avermectin or spinosad.
21. The method as set forth in claim 2, wherein the other insecticide comprises a phenyl pyrazone.
22. The method as set forth in claim 21, wherein the phenyl pyrazone comprises fiprinol.
23. The method as set forth in claim 2, wherein the other insecticide comprises an organophosphate.
24. The method as set forth in claim 23, wherein the organophosphate is selected from the group consisting of acephate, fenamiphos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifon-methyl and malathion.
25. The method as set forth in claim 2, wherein the other insecticide comprises a carbamate.
26. The method as set forth in claim 25, wherein the carbamate is selected from carbaryl, aldicarb, carbofuran, thiodicarb and oxamyl.
27. The method as set forth in claim 2, wherein the composition is included in a seed coating.
28. The method as set forth in claim 2, wherein at least one of the pyrethroid and the other insecticide is a systemic insecticide.
29. The method as set forth in claim 2, wherein the seed is treated with the composition of the pyrethroid and the other insecticide in an amount effective to provide protection to the seed and/or the shoots and foliage of the plant against damage by the pest.
30. The method as set forth in claim 2, wherein the seed is treated with the pyrethroid at the same time that it is treated with the other insecticide.
31. The method as set forth in claim 2. wherein the seed is treated with the pyrethroid as a different time than it is treated with the other insecticide.
32. The method as set forth in claim 29, wherein the composition is included in a seed coating.
33. A seed that has been treated with the method as set forth in claim 1.
34. The seed as set forth in claim 33, wherein the seed is selected from the group consisting of corn, soybean, cotton, rice, sorghum, sugar beet, wheat, barley, rye, sunflower, tomato, sugarcane, tobacco, rape and oats.
35. The seed as set forth in claim 34, wherein the seed is selected from the group consisting of com, soybean and cotton seed.
36. The seed as set forth in claim 35, wherein the seed is com seed.
37. The seed as set forth in claim 33, wherein the seed is a transgenic seed.
38. The seed as set forth in claim 37, wherein the transgenic seed is a transgenic corn seed containing a heterologous Bacillus thuringiensis gene.
39. The seed as set forth in claim 38, wherein the heterologous Bacillus thuringiensis gene is one that encodes for the production of a modified Cry3Bb delta-endoxin.
40. A composition for the treatment of unsown seed comprising at least one pyrethrin or synthetic pyrethroid and at least one other insecticide selected from the group consisting of an oxadiazine derivative, a chloronicotinyl, a nitroguanidine, a pyrrol, a pyrazone, a diacylhydrazine, atriazole, a biological/fermentation product, a phenyl pyrazole, an organophosphate and a carbamate.
41. The composition as set forth in claim 40, wherein the at least one other insecticide is an oxadizine derivative, and the pyrethroid is selected from the group consisting of taufluvalinate, flumethrin, trans-cyfluthrin, kadethrin, bioresmethrin, tetramethrin, phenothrin, empenthrin, cyphenothrin, prallethrin, imiprothrin, allethrin and bioallethrin.
42. A method for preventing damage by a pest to a seed and/or shoots and foliage of a plant grown from the seed, the method comprising treating the unsown seed with a composition comprising a nitroguanidine and at least one other insecticide selected from the group consisting of a chloronicotinyl, a pyrrol, a pyrazone, a diacylhydrazine, a triazole, a biological/fermentation product, a phenyl pyrazole, an organophosphate and a carbamate.
43. A seed that has been treated by the method as set forth in claim 42.
44. The seed as set forth in claim 43, wherein the seed is selected from the group consisting of com, soybean, cotton, rice, sorghum, sugar beet, wheat, barley, rye, sunflower, tomato, sugarcane, tobacco, rape and oats.
45. The seed as set forth in claim 44, wherein the seed is corn seed.
46. The seed as set forth in claim 43, wherein the seed is a transgenic seed.
47. A composition for seed treatment prior to sowing comprising a nitroguanidine and at least one other insecticide selected from the group consisting of a chloronicotinyl, a pyrrol, a pyrazone, a diacylhydrazine, a triazole, a biological/fermentation product, a phenyl pyrazole, an organophosphate and a carbamate.
48. A seed that is protected against multiple pests comprising a seed having at least one heterologous gene encoding for the expression of a protein that is active against a first pest and, in addition, having adhered thereto a composition comprising at least one pyrethrin or synthetic pyrethroid and at least one other insecticide
selected from the group consisting of an oxadiazine derivative, a chloronicotinyl, a nitroguanidine, a pyrrol, a pyrazone, a diacylhydrazine, a triazole, a biological/fermentation product, a phenyl pyrazole, an organophosphate and a carbamate, where the composition is present in an amount effective to provide protection to the shoots and foliage of the plant against damage by at least one second pest.
49. The seed as set forth in claim 48, wherein the at least one heterologous gene encodes for the expression of a protein that is insecticidally active.
50. The seed as set forth in claim 49, wherein the gene is one originally derived from a microorganism selected from the group consisting of Bacillus, Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Trichoderma, Glomus, Gliocladium and mycorrhizal fungi.
51. The seed as set forth in claim 50, wherein the protein is active against corn root worm.
52. The seed as set forth in claim 50, wherein the protein is active against european corn borer.
53. The seed as set forth in claim 52 wherein the gene is one originally derived from Bacillus thuringiensis.
54. The seed as set forth in claim 50, wherein the seed is selected from the group consisting of corn, soybean, cotton, rice, sorghum, sugar beet, wheat, barley, rye, sunflower, tomato, sugarcane, tobacco, rape and oats.
55. A method for treating an unsown seed to prevent damage by a pest to the seed and/or shoots and foliage of a plant grown from the seed, the method comprising contacting the unsown seed with a composition comprising at least one pyrethrin or synthetic pyrethroid and at least one other insecticide selected from the group consisting of a chloronicotinyl, a nitroguanidine, a pyrrol, a pyrazone, a diacylhydrazine, a triazole, a biological/fermentation product, a phenyl pyrazole, an organophosphate and a carbamate.
56. A method for preventing damage by a pest to a seed substantially as herein described and exemplified.
57. A method for treating an unsown seed to prevent damage by a pest to the seed substantially as herein described and exemplified.
|Indian Patent Application Number||472/CHENP/2003|
|PG Journal Number||02/2008|
|Date of Filing||03-Apr-2003|
|Name of Patentee||M/S. MONSANTO TECHNOLOGY, LLC|
|Applicant Address||800 North Lindbergh Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri 63167|
|PCT International Classification Number||A01N 51/00|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/US2001/042444|
|PCT International Filing date||2001-10-02|