|Title of Invention||
A METHOD AND AN APPARATUS FOR REDUCING THE PRESSURE DROP
|Abstract||The present invention relates to a method for reducing the pressure for drop, increasing the capacity and improving the degree of separation in dry cleansing plants for exhaust gas from aluminium reduction furnaces, in which at least partly selectively to separate fme grain particular fluoride from the recycled alumina in the process. A device comprises one or more inclined planes for gravimetric down flow of alumina, and that the devices are provided to lead an ascending air or gas stream to blow fme grained particular fluoride out of the stream of alumina.|
Method and device for a dry cleansing plant for aluminium reduction furnaces exhaust_ _ga s.
The present invention relates to a method and a device to increase the capacity, reduce the pressure drop and improve the degree of separation in dry cleansing plants for exhaust gas from aluminium reduction furnaces.
The exhaust gas from aluminium reduction furnaces contains among other things strongly polluting fluorine com¬pounds, substantially as a gas (HF) but also in a form of fluorine containing dust. The dust consists of very small particles of fluoride which evaporates from the smelting bath in the furnace and sublimates in the exhaust gas.
The exhaust gas must be cleansed for fluoride and there are today very strictly reguirements to the cleansing effect. The so called dry cleansing method is at present pretty universal in this area. This is known technology, and there are several different pipes. The cleansing technology in these plants are based on the condition that the raw materials for aluminium production, aluminium oxide or alumina, which are powder materials, have the property of dry absorption of HF. The exhaust gas is therefore brought in contact with alumina which can absorb the HF contents. The dust form fluorides must be removed by filtering.
Practically all dry cleansing plants of this type of exhaust gas are arranged in such a way that the exhaust gas first comes into a reactor where it is brought in more or less intensive contact with alumina for the adsorption of HF, whereupon the gas passes to a bag filter (textile filter) for separation of particular material. Most of the fine fluorine containing dust and at least a part of the alumina from the reactor will accompany the exhaust gas into the filter.
The removal of fluorides, both as gas and dust, from the aluminium furnaces, is a loss in the production process. But used alumina from the dry cleansing process, which has absorbed HF from the exhaust gas, and the fluorine dust containing dust that has been separated' out in the bag filter, is led as raw material back to the furnaces. Hereby is a substantial part of
the fluorine loss from the furnaces recovered. Both the high efficiency in the economy in the fluorine recovery has made the dry cleansing system universal in this area.
In practice is a greater part of the alumina, which the aluminium work use in the production, about two k of produced aluminium, first used as an absorbent for HF in the dry cleansing plant, and then led back to the furnaces, particular fluorTde which is separated in the bag filter. The fresh alumina shall in the following be referred to as primary alumina, while the fluorine containing alumina from the cleansing plant will be referred to as secondary alumina.
The quantities of exhaust gas from the furnaces in the aluminium industry are very large.
The dry cleansing plants are therefore usually divided into sections, where each sections comprises a substantially vertical reactor with a discharge into the bag filter. Adsorption of a HF occurs mainly in the reactor in that the even flow of primary alumina is blended in the exhaust gas at the input to reactor. Alumina is a powder with a grain size substantially in the area of 40 to 150 }jm. Such powder easily is spread like a cloud of dust in the exhaust gas, and provides a good contact for the adsorption of HF, but the powder is also coarse enough to be easily separated out the stream of gas by a dynamic effect, for example by deflection of the gas stream (cyclone effect). In most embodiments the mixture of exhaust gas and alumina is led straight into the bag filter. Here, a part of the alumina will be separated and fall down in the bottom of the filter as a result of dynamic forces, while a part will follow the gas stream further to the filter bags and be separated there. The fine fluorine containing dust in the exhaust gas has a particle size down in the area 0.1 to 1. Q ]im. It is hardly effected by the dynamic forces, but follow substantially the gas stream further to the filter bags.
The bag filters in these plants are for the most part of the type with rows of stretch out textile bags, where the dust settles on the outside of the bag cloth. The bags are cleaned on row at the time in operation with internal pulses of pressurized air. A layer of dust on the bags will then fall off and down in the bottom hopper of the filter. There it is mixed with alumina
which has passed the reactor and has been separated by dynamic forces.
The necessary filter area which filter out the dust and alumina from the exhaust gas, determines the size of such dry cleansing plants. The pressure drop over the dust covered filter surface also constitutes the greater part of the pressure drop through the cleansing plant, and is therefore a determining fact for the plants power requirements.
The pressure drop over the dust covered filter surface is for the most part dependent on the consistency of the dust layer. In this connection the coarse grained alumina provides a porous dust layer with a low pressure drop which provides a great throughput of gas and a great filter capacity.
The fine fluorine containing dust, on the contrary, will close the spaces between the alumina grains, increase the power drop through the dust layer and reduce the capacity. The fine dust will also easy penetrate the filter cloth and give a certain content of fluorine carrying dust in the cleansed gas.
Most critical for the plant's cleansing effect for total fluorine is the adsorption of HF in the reactor. The quantity of alumina in contact with the exhaust gas in the reactor is essential for the effective contact and absorption. To increase the quantity of alumina in the reactor and to increase separation of HF it is usual to recycle the separated alumina from the bottom hopper of the filter back into the reactor together with primary alumina. Modern high requirement to the cleansing effect, far above 99 %, makes it necessary to recycle much alumina through the reactor, that is many times recycling before the alumina is tapped out of the plant as secondary alumina and transferred to the furnaces. Separated fine particular fluoride accompanies the recycling alumina. The more alumina is recycled, the more fine dust will remain in the system. Fine dust continuous to the filter bags, closest the dust layer there, increases the pressure drop, limits the capacity and give increased dust penetration. These effects set a limit to how great recycling of alumina you can have in such plants.
The present invention relates to a method to limit these effects of recycling of alumina in dry cleansing plants. The method consists of separating out at least a part of the fine
dust that accompanies the recycling alumina before this is injected back in the reactor, and to lead the separated fine dust out of the system together with secondary alumina, which is tapped out the cleansing plant in steady stream to be led back to the furnaces. Even a partial, but continuous separating or removal of fine dust from alumina which is recycled in the reactor-filter-system gives a substantial reduction of T;he quantity of fine dust in the system and of the negative effect for the filtering process.
To separate fine dust from a mixture of fine and coarse particles, the inventors have made use of differences in natural drop velocity and flow properties for fine and coarse particles in motion. Several apparatus that make use these principles to separate and lead away fine dust from the recycled alumina that flows in a dry cleansing plant according to the description, have been constructed and tested with good results.
The above mentioned advantages are reached with the method according to the invention, as it is defined in claim 1, by means of devices with the features stated in the following claims.
The invention is in the following described in more detail with reference to the drawings, in which figure 1 shows a schematic section of the device according to the invention, figures 2, 3 and 4 show an another device in two sections and in detail, and figure 5 shows are third device for off-dusting of recycled alumina.
A device which is placed in the recycling system for alumina in a dry cleansing system and that gives dust removal according to the invention is shown on figure 1, which is a schematic section of the system. Recycling alumina 1 forms a little basin in the bottom hopper 2 of the filter, in that secondary alumina going to the furnaces runs out in the overflow 3.
Recycled alumina is measured out and transported with ■ a feeding screw 4 and a gravimetric trough 17 to the reactor 6, where recycled alumina is mixed in the up going flow of uncleaned exhaust gas. An even flow of primary alumina (not shown) is also injected in the reactor. To achieve the desired dust removal of the recycled alumina, is according to the invention a small
stream of exhaust gas sucked up through the gravimetric trough 17 as a counter-stream to the alumina that slides down a sloping bottom of the trough. The rising gas stream will to a certain degree rip up the stream of alumina, and pull out the fine dust particles that have a far lower drop velocity and the velocity of the rising gas. The now dust bearing gas is sucked through the open end of the transport screw 4 through a pipe system 7 to a small extra filter, not shown on figure 1, where the fine dust is filtered out and mixed into the secondary alumina which is going to the furnaces. The velocity of the gas stream up through the trough 17 is adjusted so that the dust removal is as effective as possible without having the gas also tear out alumina particles in any great degree.
The dust removal effect can be improved by having the bottom of the trough 17 equipped with crossing irregularities 8 that rips out the sending stream of alumina particles and give the dust removal gas better access to the whole stream of alumina.
Another device for the dust removal from recycled alumina, and which also makes use of gravimetric flow on an inclined plane, is shown on figure 2, 3 and 4. Figures 2 and 3 show the filter bottom hopper 2 in two views, and figure 4 shows the device in detail.
Reacted exhaust gas from the reactor with primary and recycled alumina plus dust comes into the inlet 12 and turns up towards the depending filter bags 13 of which figures 2 and 3 only show the bottom part. Some alumina will be separated from the entering gas stream as a result of dynamic forces and continue down in the basin with fluidized alumina 1, which flows like quicksand.
Remaining alumina and fine dust follow the gas stream upward and are filtered on the filter bags. By cleansing of the filter bag the alumina and dust will fall down in the bottom hopper. On this side wall of the bottom hopper 2 is according to the invention mounted one or more slanting trough 5, shown in perspective and in detail on figure 4. In the preferred embodi¬ment of the invention it is used an angle which project from the planting surface of the bottom hopper. A similar effect can be achieved with a slanting trough which has sunken down in the side
surface of the bottom hopper, but this is a more expensive solution.
The purpose of the slanting trough 5 is to utilize the difference in drop velocity and flow properties of the coarser alumina particles and the finer dust particles that fall down from the filter bags when these are cleaned, in order to separate dust from alumina and to lead the dust part out of the system together with secondary alumina out of the outlet 3. The mode of operation is as follows: heavier alumina particles that arrive with the cleansing of the filter bags, fall quickly down towards the gas stream and slides in the most gravimetric direction down the bottom hoppers slanting side surface.
These particles are collected by the slanting trough 5 and form a relatively concentrated stream in the innermost part of the trough. When this stream of alumina reaches the basin of fluidized alumina 1, it continues down to the bottom of the basin as a result of its own velocity and inertia, and is thereby substantially mixed into the stream of recycled alumina, which is tapped from the bottom of the basin.
The lighter particles of fine dust from the filter bags floats and are spread by the ascending gas stream, and are distributed of the bottom hoppers slanting side wall, where it floats rather than slides down, and then floats out of the surface of the basin.
A great part of this separated, fine dust on the surface of the basin, will then naturally be tapped out of the system through the outlet 3 which drains secondary alumina out of the system by the overflow principle.
This device does not fundamentally separate alumina and dust as effectively as the device in figure 1, but this is partly compensated by the fact that there has been a presepara-tion of the alumina-dust-mixture as a device according to the invention is working with, in that much alumina, especially coarser fractions, are separated and ended in the basin as a result of dynamic forces at the gas inlet.
A device according to the invention has also the advantage that it does not require a special suction and filtering system for the separated fine dust.
A device that is also provided in the recycling system
for alumina, and which also gives a dust removal effect according to the invention is shown on figure 5, which is a schematic section of the system. Alumina 1 to be recycled is fed down from the bottom hopper of the filter with a dozing apparatus which could be rotating sluice feeder 15 down to a pneumatic separator 16.
This works in principle in the same way as a fluidized trough, in that alumina flows over an air permeable cloth with a flow-through of pressurized air which is applied from the underside 14. For a pneumatic separator according to the invention should work according to the purpose and separates and blow out fine dust reasonably effectively from the alumina-dust-mixture, this mixture must be exposed for a much more powerful flow-through of air and what is used with usual fluidizing and which only is to make alumina and similar powder material to flow as a somewhat viscous fluid- With pneumatic separation the stream of recycled alumina will boil and bubble violently while fine dust is transferred to the air stream. The top of the separator 18 must be fashioned as a high hood so that substantially only air with fine dust and not a spray of alumina can reach the outlet and be sucked out of the outlet 9 and further through a piping system to a small extra filter, not shown on figure 5, where the fine dust is filtered out and mixed in with secondary alumina which is going to the furnaces.
A mount of air which blows to the separator must also be adjusted so that as much as possible of the fine dust is separator from the recycled alumina, while not too much of the alumina is brought along. Out feeding of secondary alumina should mainly occur through the overflow pipe 3 which controls the level on the basin in the bottom hopper.
Alumina with reduced content of fine fluorine bearing* dust flows further down the gravimetric trough 17 and is injected in the ascending stream of exhaust gas in the reactor 16.
The apparatus described above has been invented, constructed and tested by the inventors, and have proved to be effective for separating of fine dust from recycled alumina in dry cleansing plants, which has led to substantial operational improvements for such plants in the form of improved capacity and reduced pressure drop even with increased recycling of alumina,
and improved degree of separation both for HF and particular fluorides in the exhaust gas.
1. Method for reduction of the pressure drop, increasing the capacity and
improving the degree of separation in dry cleansing plants for exhaust gases from
aluminium reduction furnaces, characterized in selective at least partly to separate fine
grain particular fluoride from the recycled alumina in the process.
2. Method according to claim I, characterized in the utilization of difference in natural fall velocity for fine and course particles in air or gas at the separation of fine grain particular fluoride from alumina.
3. Device for carrying out the method according to the previous claims, characterized in that it comprises one or more inclined plane for gravimetric down flow of alumina and that the devices are provided to lead an ascending air or gas stream to blow fine grained particular fluoride out of the stream of alumina.
4. Device according to claim 3, characterized in that it comprises an inclined plane for gravimetric down flow of alumina, where segregating between fine and course particles occurs as a result of different flow properties, in that it includes slanting trough for selective collection and recycling of the course alumina particles.
5. Device according to claim 3, characterized in that it comprises a trough or a basin for flow-through of alumina, and the trough or the basin has an air or gas penneable bottom, thereby to coarse that fine grained particular fluoride is driven off from the flow of alumina by a powerful blowing-through with the fluidizing air or gas.
6. A method and device for reduction of the pressure drop, substantially as hereinabove j described and illustrated with reference tot the accompanying drawings.
|Indian Patent Application Number||IN/PCT/2001/499/CHE|
|PG Journal Number||02/2008|
|Date of Filing||09-Apr-2001|
|Name of Patentee||M/S. ABB FLAKT AB|
|Applicant Address||S-120 86 Stockholm,|
|PCT International Classification Number||C25C 3/22|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/NO99/0284|
|PCT International Filing date||1999-09-16|