|Title of Invention||
TURPENTINE BLEND COMPOSITION WITH DIESEL OIL
|Abstract||Pinus product (Turpentine) has been proposed as an alternate to petro fuels since the invention of S.I. engine. In general, due to higher volatility, turpentine has been used only in the S.I. engine. But the present work proves that based on the property of turpentine, it is a very good substitute for diesel. The low cetane number of turpentine oil had prevented the use of 100% turpentine oil in diesel engine. The present work explores the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of turpentine diesel blends and its suitability with C.I. engine. The 20% turpentine 80% diesel blend has an equal combustion and performance characteristics with that of diesel fuel. The experimental results show that some of the toxic gases like CO, UBHC and soot are decreased compared to diesel baseline. In particular around 30% to 40% smoke reduction is obtained with higher turpentine blends. Also it proves that 20% addition of turpentine into conventional diesel fuel improve the performance, combustion, and emission to a considerable limit.|
Description of the invention
Field of invention
This invention related to alternate fuel for diesel oil.
Objective of Invention
To prove Turpentine as an alternate fuel for diesel oil and to prove 30%turpentine 70%diesel blend could be a good substitute for diesel oil.
The use of vegetable oil in diesel engine has been identified well before the exploration of the other promising alternative fuels. In the year 1900, the inventor of diesel engine, Rudalf Diesel, used peanut oil to energies his engine at the Paries Exposition. However, despite the technical feasibility, vegetable oils as fuel could not get acceptance, as they were more expensive than petroleum fuels. Also, the vegetable oils were all extremely viscous, with viscosities ranging 10-20 times greater than diesel fuel. This leads to the retardation in scientific efforts to investigate the further acceptability of vegetable oil as fuel.
In diesel engine, straight chain paraffin fuels are preferred for better ignition quality. But due to the large molecular mass and complex chemical structure, vegetable oils are not directly suitable for diesel engine application. This intern leads to problems related to combustion and atomization in the injector systems of a diesel engine. Due to the high viscosity, the long-term operation of the engine with vegetable oils normally introduces the development of gumming, the formation of injector deposits, ring sticking and problems related to the lubricating oils. That is the reason why the diesel oil cannot be replaced by neat vegetable oil without engine modifications.
The problem of high viscosity of vegetable oils can be reduced in several ways, such as transesterification, micro emulsification, preheating the oils and blending with other fuels such as diesel, oxygenated organic compounds and methanol. However, these methods are energy consuming, expensive and these methods require some engine modification.
Bio diesel is another best substitute for petro diesel but they are more expensive, energy consuming and requiring fuel processing. Usually, bio diesels are the monoesters of the oil obtained from plant seeds. Generally plant seeds occupy 5% -10% of the total tree biomass. Also they are obtained once in a year or two. This small quantity biomass usually consists of 30% - 40% of oil. This is once again a very small bio mass; also during esterification around 75% - 85% of oil is being converted into bio diesel. Hence as a whole, 1% - 3% of the tree biomass is converted into diesel substitute. This is a very small quantity and this will never displaces the diesel completely. In addition to that, these fuels are offering 2 to 3 fold higher viscosity than that of diesel fuel. Hence, it is a partial substitute for diesel fuel.
Another biological fuel; alcohol is also tested successfully in diesel engine. But due to some undesirable properties they do not have an ability to displace diesel completely. Superiority of present invention
Turpentine is a fluid substance consisting of resin dissolved in a volatile oil. This Pinus resin contains 25% turpentine and remainder is solid rosin. The distillation of pinus resin yields two products - turpentine and rosin. Pine tree has resin ducts through out its body, when the tree surface is injured; the tree discharges the resin towards the injury. This is the basic principle involved in resin collection from the Pine tree. The resin tapping is similar to that of rubber latex collection the only difference is the collection rate of resin is slower than rubber tapping.
Turpentine is comes under the Essential oil category. Usually, these oils are available in all parts of the tree particularly a large quantity of oil is spread over the leaf and therefore leaves alone cut from the tree and put under the distillation still to extract oil.
The various properties of turpentine are quite comparable with the properties of conventional diesel fuel except few properties. The calorific vale of turpentine is almost equal or slightly higher than the diesel fuel. Among the Bio fuels the turpentine is the only fuel. Which has the high calorific vale equal to that of diesel. The self-ignition of turpentine almost equal to that of diesel fuel and
hence it is the best suitable fuel for C.I. Engine. Another appreciable property of this fuel is low viscosity, which reduces the injection pressure and improves the spray performance. Thinning vegetable oils by Turpentine is the easiest method of reducing viscosity of vegetable oil. In this method turpentine is used to thin vegetable oil by simple mixing the desired proportions of turpentine with vegetable oil to bring down its viscosity more or less equal to diesel fuel.
The heating value of mixture is increased with respect to increased proportions of turpentine. But it is not possible by alcohol thinner. The performance of the thinned vegetable oil is better than the other forms of vegetable oil. (Raw vegetable oil, vegetable oil diesel blend, esterified vegetable oil) The emission performance is also quite appreciable than other forms of vegetable oil
This invention, explains how essential oils are superior to bio diesel and Neat vegetable oil and the method of deriving the blended diesel fuel for CI engines using the Turpentine (Essential Oil).
Essential oils are usually available in all parts of the tree. Particularly a large quantity of oil is spread over the leaf. Therefore leaves alone cut from the tree and put under the steam distillation still to extract oil. The leaves removed trees, will produce the leaves within 15 days. Hence the raw material required for the oil production is available abundantly through out the year, which helps to run the industry through out the year. Also lot of people will get employment by this industry. This type of essential oils production industry can be built at all the places of the country.
Since, some of the properties of essential oil are close to diesel, it can directly blend with diesel oil to a particular extent. These types of blends are performing well without any deterioration of engine performance.
Details of Turpentine production and its source
Pine tree is generally under the plant class of conifers. The conifers receive their name from the shape of fruit or cones. Conifers include the world
oldest known tree and the world most massive tree. Most of the conifers will exude resin if wounded other will exude resin spontaneously from branches. Resin is the one of the most important non-wood products from conifers.
Turpentine is a fluid substance consisting of resin dissolved in a volatile oil. The distillation of pinus resin yields two products - turpentine and rosin. Oil of turpentine is a colorless, oily, odorous, flammable, water-immiscible liquid with a hot, disagreeable taste. It is a good solvent for sulphur, phosphorus, resins, waxes, oils, and natural rubber.
Pine tree has resin ducts through out its body, when the tree surface is injured; the tree discharges the resin towards the injury. This is the basic principle involved in resin collection from the Pine tree. The resin tapping is similar to that of rubber latex collection the only difference is the collection rate of resin is slower than rubber tapping.
The conventional method of oleoresin production, known as bark chipping, involves removing strips of bark up to 5 cm wide along one-third the tree's circumference. The exudates are collected in open cups affixed to the tree. The borehole method of oleoresin tapping was developed in attempt to overcome some of the limitations of bark chipping. The borehole method involves drilling holes into the sapwood xylem. Boreholes are made 2.5 to 3.8 cm diameter and 10 to 18 cm deep, at intervals of 10 to 30 cm around the tree's circumference, at a height of 100 cm above ground. Oleoresin collection is done with plastic bags or recycled plastic beverage bottles obtained from local sources.
Global production of gum rosin and turpentine is about 5 Million Mega litres annually, with China accounting for about half of this amount. The United States was formerly a large producer of gum rosin and turpentine in the southeastern coastal plain region, but production has declined due to increased costs, foreign competition, and changes in management of the pine forest resource. Demand for gum rosin and turpentine has remained strong over the past two decades, in spite of competition from petroleum hydrocarbons, and tall oil rosin and crude sulfate turpentine recovered at softwood pulp mills.
The table-1 provides information about worldwide production of turpentine and rosin.
Fuel properties of Turpentine
The various properties of turpentine are quite comparable with the properties of conventional diesel fuel except few properties. The calorific vale of turpentine is almost equal or slightly higher than the diesel fuel. Among the Bio fuels the turpentine is the only fuel. Which has the high calorific vale equal to that of diesel. The self-ignition of turpentine almost equal to that of diesel fuel and hence it is the best suitable fuel for C.I. Engine. Another appreciable property of this fuel is low viscosity, which reduces the injection pressure and improves the spray performance. The boiling point of this fuel is also equal to diesel fuel.
The Present invention aims at arriving a Blend fuel containing Commercial Petro diesel and Turpentine (Essential Oil) as a substitute for the Petro Diesel in CI Direct Ignition Diesel Engines.
Summary of the Invention:
The invention aims at Processing a blend of turpentine and diesel is being used as an alternative fuel to Dl diesel engine comprising essentially of Diesel Fuel of Hydrocarbon Origin and 10 - 40% by volume of the Turpentine oil extracted from the Pinus Tree bark which forms the group of essential oil, having the similar characteristics of the commercial diesel oil and can be fueled through conventional fueling system without any engine modifications.
Another optional Objective of the Present Invention aims at using the Turpentine as Thinning agent for Vegetable oils, which can also be used as a substitute Blend in Diesel fuels.
Description of the Invention:
Fuel preparation and blend behavior.
The bio fuel turpentine extracted from pine tree having said properties, can be utilized in the Dl diesel engine in the form of turpentine-commercial diesel oil blend. This invention has been proved in the Dl diesel engine experimental setup having configuration explained in the description of figure-1.
Turpentine is not a pure substance but a complex mixture of terpenes particularly large proportion of pinene (bicyclic monoterpenic hydrocarbon), a compound from which camphor is manufactured. Terpene is a class of naturally occurring unsaturated hydrocarbons whose carbon skeletons are composed exclusively of isoprene C5 units of formula (CH2= C (CH3)-CH=CH2). Hence it is miscible in all proportions with the petroleum feed stocks as the distillation temperature range lies between 155 -185 deg C. The solubility of the turpentine oil with diesel petroleum oil is improved by homogenously blending by making use of the commercially existing blending methods known in the art.
The test fuel is prepared in four ratios of turpentine and commercial diesel oil blends. They are 10T, 20T, 30T and 40T 10T means 10% Turpentine 90% commercial Diesel oil 20T means 20% Turpentine 80% commercial Diesel oil 30T means 30% Turpentine 70% commercial Diesel oil 40T means 40% Turpentine 60% commercial Diesel oil
The maximum allowable turpentine proportion in the blend is 40T (40%turpentine and 60%commercial Diesel oil). The blends containing more than 40% turpentine is not having sufficient self-ignition temperature and poor cetane number, which is not suitable for normal CI engine operation. Hence, Blends above 40% turpentine is not suggested for engine suitable for commercial diesel oil application.
Also, a fewer misfire and poor cold starting was observed with 40T blend in the engine setup having compression ratio lower than 18:1. Hence, 30T blend is more suitable blend for all CI engine with compression ratio ranging from 17:1 to 22:1.
As the higher turpentine blends like 40T blend has lower cetane number and higher self-ignition temperature, they are not capable of providing cold starting at an ambient temperature below 30 degree centigrade.
Normally, 40T blend has more smoke reduction characteristics than that of other blends, which is ranging from 30% to 45% depends upon the engine configuration. The preferable ambient temperature suitable for above said character is in the range of 25-35 degree centigrade.
The highlighting behavior of these blends is constant calorific value. As the calorific value of Turpentine and commercial Diesel oil is same, it does not affect the calorific value of the blend. Hence, almost same amount of fuel was consumed during testing, which is almost same as commercial diesel oil consumption in the same engine.
Detailed description of the drawing
Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the experimental set up. The test engine (4) is Kirloskar TAF 1, single cylinder, direct injection, with a bore of 87.5 mm and a stroke of 110 mm. The rated output of the engine is 4.4kw at 1500rpm. The compression ratio is 17.5: 1 and injection timing and injection pressure are 26deg before TDC. The combustion chamber is direct injection with a bowl-in piston. The engine is coupled to eddy current dynamometer (3) to provide a brake load and being monitored by the control panel (1). The turpentine diesel blends (5) are injected through the existing conventional injection system. An antipulsating drum (6) provided in the suction side meters the inflow of air.
For emission analysis an MRU 4 gas analyzer (2) is used to measure CO, C02 and UBHC. Canmayo gas analyzer is used to measure Nox and Bosch smoke meter is used to measure smoke intensity.
Figure 2 shows the decrease of Bosch smoke number with respect to increase in turpentine fractions in the blends. A maximum 30% to 40% of smoke reduction is obtained with 40T blend at 75% and 100% load.
As explained in the invention, the diesel blends with Turpentine (10T, 20T, 30T, 40T) are tested in the standard Engine setup as explained in Figure 1. The experiment is conducted with the Low sulfur Diesel as the Baseline Fuel (Comparative example)
5. The whole test is conducted for the standard engine injection pressure and injection timing.
6. The first test has been conducted using 100% low sulphur diesel fuel to establish base line for emission, fuel consumption and performance.
7. The various turpentine diesel blends are prepared (10T, 20T, 30T, 40T&50T) and fueled into the engine one by one.
8. The maximum turpentine blend proportion has been identified (40T blend) beyond which the engine will not start.
9. The emission and the performance of the blends are compared with the base line readings.
10. Based on the improved performance and lower emission the optimum blend has been identified (20T blend).
Performance analysis of the example:
Figure 2 shows the decrease of Bosch smoke number with respect to increase in turpentine fractions in the blends. The reasons for the reduced smoke emission of higher turpentine blends are higher heat release rate during the diffusing combustion phase, higher mean gas temperature and higher volatility. A maximum of 45% smoke reduction is obtained with 40T blend at 100% load.
Fig 3 shows the variation of brake thermal efficiency of various turpentine diesel blend with respect to load. From the figure it is seen that the brake thermal efficiency increases with respect to increase in turpentine fraction in the blend. This is due to increased calorific value, improved spray performance due to deduced viscosity and increased volatility of blends with respect to increase in turpentine proportion. The maximum brake thermal efficiency obtained with 40T blend is 31.5%, which is fairly higher than that of diesel baseline operation.
Fig 4 shows the variation of SFC of various turpentine diesel blends with respect to load. The SFC of blends decreases with respect to increase in turpentine fraction in the blend. The main reason for the above said improvement is increased calorific value and improved volatility and better spray performance with respect to increase in turpentine proportion in the blends.
Table 3: Blend properties and results of engine test
The detailed engine test provides the above result (given in the table-3) for various turpentine-diesel blends. From the above result it is concluded that, when the turpentine proportion increases in the blend will decrease the cetane number, decreases the viscosity, increases the calorific value and increases the self-ignition temperature.
The cetane number is one of the very important properties of CI engine fuel, which limits the blend proportion. The 40T blend is the last blend beyond which the cetane number of blend decreases below the cetane requirement of CI engine. Also, the self-ignition temperature of the blend will increases with respect to turpentine proportion. Hence, the 40T is the maximum blend beyond which the blend provides higher self-ignition temperature, which is not suitable for CI engine operation.
Based on emission, the 40T blend provides more Nox emission than that of diesel baseline operation and a few miss firings were observed during lower load condition. Hence, the 30T blend is suitable blend for CI engine operation based on emission performance and combustion characteristics.
1. A Blend of turpentine and diesel is being used as an alternative fuel to Dl diesel engine comprising essentially of Diesel Fuel of Hydrocarbon Origin and 10 - 40% by volume of the Turpentine oil extracted from the Pinus Tree bark which forms the group of essential oil having the similar characteristics of the commercial diesel oil and can be fueled through conventional fueling system without any engine modifications.
2. The Blend of Turpentine and diesel as claimed in claim 1 wherein the Maximum ratio of turpentine diesel blend usable in Dl diesel engine without any engine modification is the range of 10 - 40%Turpentine and rest commercial Diesel Fuel.
3. The blend as claimed in claim 1 wherein the blend ratio suggested for low compression ratio (17:1) Dl diesel engines is to a maximum 30%Turpentine and 70% Commercial Diesel Fuel.
4. The blend as claimed in claim 1 where in the suitable blend for all Dl diesel engine of compression ratio (18:1) is 20%Turpentine and 80% Commercial Diesel fuel.
5. The blend as claimed in claim 1 wherein the higher turpentine diesel blends are not proposed as an optimum blend for Dl diesel engine, because they do not have cold starting property at low ambient temperature.
6. The blend ratio as claimed in claim 2 wherein the maximum blend ratio of 40%Turpentine and 60% Commercial Diesel at 30°C ambient temperature offers maximum smoke reduction of 30% in Dl diesel engine.
7. The blend ratio as claimed in claim 1 wherein the fuel consumption of blend is almost equal to that of fuel consumption of a regular diesel fueled engine and with equivalent calorific value to that of Commercial Diesel fuel.
8. The blend of turpentine and diesel is being used as an alternative fuel to Dl diesel engine substantially as herein described with reference to the accompanying drawing.
|Indian Patent Application Number||1951/CHE/2005|
|PG Journal Number||02/2008|
|Date of Filing||29-Dec-2005|
|Name of Patentee||R. KARTHIKEYAN|
|Applicant Address||23, STAFF QUARTERS (INSIDE LADIES HOSTEL CAMPUS), APEC, MELMARUVATHUR, KANCHIPURAM DISTRICT - 603 319|
|PCT International Classification Number||C 10 L 1/08|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|