|Title of Invention||
COTTON STALK COMPACTING MACHINE
|Abstract||MACHINE FOR COMPACTING COTTON STALK USING HYDRAULIC SYSTEM A machine has been fabricated from mild steel sheets for compacting cotton plant stalks. The machine consists of a sturdy platform (150 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm) housed at the bottom with side doors opening from top. There is a sturdy pressing plate (144 cm x 42 cm x 1 cm) held by four guide rods. A three phase, 2HP hydraulic pump is provided (1440 rpm) the pressure of which is transmitted to hydraulic cylinders 32 strokes/min through flexible rubber hose pipes. Limiting switches are provided to control the motion of pressing plate both before and after compaction. Vertical slits are provided to introduce ropes in the beginning and to tie the compacted stalks after pressing. It is possible to prepare about 250 bales of cotton stalks weighing about 15 kg each in a day of six hours by two persons.|
THE PATENTS ACT, 1970
COMPLETE SPECIFICATION (SECTION-10)
COTTON STALK COMPACTING MACHINE,
CENTRAL INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH ON COTTON TECHNOLOGY, INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, ADENW ALA ROAD, MATUNGA,
MUMBAI-400 019 GOVT OF INDIA
The following specification particularly describes and ascertains the nature of this invention and the manner in which it is to be performed.
The invention relates to a compacting machine, more particularly compacting machine for cotton stalk
Cotton, the king of natural fibers is mainly cultivated for its lint which is the most sought after textile fiber till date due to its inherent ecofriendly and comfort characteristics. It is also one of the important cash crops of many of the Afro-Asian countries like India, Iran, Egypt, Sudan,Uzbekistan, Tanzania, etc. and plays a major role in their economic development. However, of late, cotton cultivation in general and especially in these countries is becoming non-remunerative on account of higher cost of inputs by way of plant protection measures, low productivity in rain fed cultivation, etc. As a result, the cultivators are not able to get adequate returns commensurate with their inputs. Hence, there is an urgent need to explore alternative means of increasing the returns from cotton farming. While efficient use of available resources, good quality seeds,organic cultivation, transgenic cotton etc. could reduce the cost of cultivation and enhance productivity, a judicious approach to promote the use of by¬products from cotton cultivation through value addition route offers an attractive proposition to generate additional income to the farming community. At the same time, cotton stalks being a renewable and naturally available lignocellulosic material, its promotion as a substitute for forest timber is likely to have significant impact in arresting the environmental degradation caused by the fast depletion of
forest resources in developing countries. Utilisation of Cotton Plant Stalks
Cotton is one of the important cash crops popularly know as "White Gold".In India, all the four cultivated species, viz., G. arboreum, G. herbaceum. G. hirsutum and G. barbadense are grown on a commercial scale apart from hybrids. The current total area under cotton cultivation
during 2003-04 was about 7.6 million hectares with the production of around 16.8 million bales of 170 kg each.
In India cotton is cultivated during the period July to December and the crop is harvested from January to March. Following table gives information about the area and production of cotton and availability of stalks in various parts of the country.
Table 1: Area Under Cultivation, Production of Indian Cotton & Availability of Cotton Stalks (State-wise) 2002-2003
States Area (M. ha) Cotton production (M. bales) Availability
of Stalks (M. tonnes)
1. Andhra Pradesh 0.900 2.00 2.70
2. Gujarat 1.498 3.050 4.49
3. Haryana 0.535 0.85 1.61
4. Karnataka 0.362 0.600 1.09
5. Madhya Pradesh 0.55 1.800 1.65
6. Maharashtra 2.800 2.400 8.40
7. Punjab 0.425 0.800 1.28
8. Rajasthan 0.335 0.450 1.01
9. Tamil Nadu 0.115 0.400 0.35
10. Others 0.053 0.100 0.16
Total 7.573 12.45 22.74
.CAB estimate excluding loose cotton of 1.15 million bales
The yield of biomass varies from species to species, it is highest in the case of hybrids and lowest in the case of G. arboreum species. However, on an average about 3 tonnes of cotton
plant stalks are available in one hectare of land. Depending upon the
variety and the crop condition the sticks are 1 to 1.75 meter long and their diameter just above the ground may vary from 1 to 2.5 cm. The specific weight of short chopped stick is about 160 kg/m3. The calorific value of cotton stalks is equivalent to poor quality wood and is about 17.40 (MJ/kg). About 23 million tonnes of cotton stalks are generated in India with an average production of 3 tonnes per hectare of land.
Most of the stalk produced is treated as waste though a small part of it is used as domestic fuel. The bulk of the stalk is burnt off in the fields after the harvest of cotton crop. On an average cotton plant stalk contains about 68 % holocellulose, 26% lignin and 7% ash.
It is interesting to note that in contrast to other agricultural crop residues, cotton stalks possess fibre dimension comparable to most commonly available species of hardwood.
It can therefore be used for the manufacture of particle boards, preparation of pulp and paper, hard board, corrugated boards and boxes, as a source of cellulose for the manufacture of micro-crystalline cellulose and cellulose derivatives, etc. Cotton stalks can also be used to grow edible oyster mushrooms.
Presently, boards are mainly made from wood particles. The increase in demand for sawn wood and panel materials in the country cannot be met from the existing forest resources. The regeneration of forest takes considerable time and therefore it is unlikely that timber alone can serve as the raw material required by the wood product industries.
Cotton stalk is light, bulky and occupies more space. In order to enthuse prospective entrepreneurs to use cotton plant stalks in addition to already available biomass viz., bagasse, a knowledge on logistics of collection, methodology for compaction and transportation becomes very important. Presently, in India no particle board or binderless board factory is using cotton stalks for the simple reason that no agency has taken up on a
systematised way to collect, compact and transport cotton stalks to the factory gate. In this direction an effort has been made in Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology to collect stalks, compact them and
transport the compacted bales to a factory where chipping facility is there or chip them in a decentralised place and then transport to the factory. It has already been observed that baled cotton stalks produce uniform chips in view of near parellelisation of stalks during compacting.
A number of baling machines for bagasse, straw, cattle feed etc. are available in the market all of which mostly work on hydraulic principle in which case some times bale breakers are needed before using them as raw materials.
The aim of compacting cotton stalks is to reduce its volume, increase the bulk density by retaining the original structure and near parellelising the branchy nature of the plant. This enables transportation of more material in unit space and aids in obtaining uniform chips when fed to chippers of appropriate type.
The present invention describes the engineering details of a Compacting Machine for Cotton Stalks by using a Hydraulic System and its functioning.
OBJECTIVE OF THE INVENTION
The main objective of the invention is to compact the stalk of cotton in very reliable and economical way by this machine.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Accordingly the present invention provide .A cotton stalk compacting
machine comprising main body having sturdy bottom platform with side walls with a front and rear doors with hinges provided to the said bottom platform; the said front door is provided with a pair of split openings at distant for placing a rope for tying he compacted stalk; a pressing plate guided by four number of guide rods is provided over the open top the said main body; an hydraulic cylinder is provided to the said pressing plate for moving up and down of said pressing plate by hydraulic pressure created in the said cylinder by means hydraulic pump supplying pressurized oil through pipe means to both side of said cylinder; and the up and down movement is controlled by means limit switches provided to the main body.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING
Fig-1 of the drawing is showing the front view of the machine
Fif-2 of the drawing shows the side view of the drawing
Fig-3 of the drawing shows the top view of the drawing
DETAIL DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The present Cotton Stalk Compacting Machine has been fabricated from mild steel. The machine has got a sturdy platform (1) of dimension 150 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm with side doors (2)opening from top. door locks(3) are provided to lock the door There is a sturdy pressing plate (4) of dimension 144 cm x 42 cm x 1 cm held by four fixed guide rods (5) with suitable bushes (6). A three phase, 2HP hydraulic pump is provided, the force of which is transmitted to the two vertical hydraulic cylinders (8) of capacity 350 strokes/min through flexible hose pipes (1.25 cm), one connected at the top and another at the bottom of the cylinders. The piston
moves up and down due to hydraulic pressure. The rpm of motor is 1440.
Door Limiting switches is denoted by numerical (13).upward limit switch (14)is provided, one on top and downward limit switch (15) is provided at the bottom to control the motion of the hydraulic cylinders after compaction to the set level and also when the pressing plate reaches the top position of the side door. Vertical slits are provided on the doors on either side to introduce ropes before placing cotton stalks and for tying after compaction. Control panel (9) is provided in the machine. racks(10).pinion(ll) and bearings (12) of the machine is shown in fig l.For movement purpose of the machine it is connected with fiber wheels (7)
WORKING OF THE INVENTION
Cotton stalks are kept horizontally in the space after opening one side door to a height of 18" followed by closing the door. When the unit is switched on, the pressing plate starts moving down due to the compression of hydraulic cylinders to the desired level which is controlled by the limiting switches at which stage the bales are manually tied and by switching on the unit again, the hydraulic cylinders are made to move up lifting the pressing plate the movement of which is again controlled by the limiting switch. The process is repeated. The entire operation takes about 14 seconds (7 seconds to come down and same time to go up). It is possible to make
about 250 bales weighing 15 kg each in a day of 6 hours by two skilled persons.
Specification of Machine for Compacting Cotton Stalk Using Hydraulic System
Main Body Doors - two
3 Door Locks - four
4 Pressing Plate-one
5 Guide Rods - four
6 Guide Bush - four
7 Fibre Wheels - four ( 6" x 2" teeth) Hydraulic Cylinders - two (75 NB,
350 stroke) 9 Power pack - one l0 Racks - two (6 DP-450 LG) 11 Pinion - two (6 DP- 25 teeth) 12 Bearings - two (UCP 206)
13 Door Limit Switch - two (Kayee Type KLS 066 x OA)
14 Upward Limit Switch - one (10A, 500 v)
15 Downward Limit Switch - one
1.A cotton stalk compacting machine comprising main body having sturdy bottom platform with side walls with a front and rear doors with hinges provided to the said bottom platform; the said front door is provided with a pair of split openings at distant for placing a rope for tying he compacted stalk; a pressing plate guided by four number of guide rods is provided over the open top the said main body; an hydraulic cylinder is provided to the said pressing plate for moving up and down of said pressing plate by hydraulic pressure created in the said cylinder by means hydraulic pump supplying pressurized oil through pipe means to both side of said cylinder; and the up and down movement is controlled by means limit switches provided to the main body.
2 A cotton stalk compacting machine as claimed in claim and here in described with reference to figures of accompanying drawings.
Dated this3rd day of august 2004
|Indian Patent Application Number||826/MUM/2004|
|PG Journal Number||43/2007|
|Date of Filing||03-Aug-2004|
|Name of Patentee||THE CENTRAL INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH ON COTTON TECHNOLOGY|
|Applicant Address||ADENWALA ROAD, MATUNGA, MUMBAI-400019.|
|PCT International Classification Number||F26B019/00|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|