|Title of Invention||
VARIABLE GEOMETRY TURBOCHARGER WITH SLIDING PISTON
|Abstract||The invention concerns a turbocharger with a variable geometry turbine comprising a mobile cylindrical piston (70) to modify the cross-section of the input nozzle to the turbine. Vanes (90) extending from a heat shield (92) for adjusting the flow of the nozzle are contacted by the piston in a first closed position. In a second open position, the piston is spaced apart from the vanes, thereby increasing the input nozzle cross-section.|
VARIABLE GEOMETRY TURBOCHARGER WITH SLIDEVG PISTON
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the Invention:
The present invention relates generally to variable geometry turbochargers. More particularly, a turbocharger is provided having a sliding piston creating a variable nozzle turbine inlet with vanes extending across the nozzle in a closed position of the piston.
Description of the Related Art:
High efficiency turbochargers employ variable geometry systems for turbine nozzle inlets to increase performance and aerodynamic efficiency. Variable geometry systems for turbochargers have typically been of two types; rotating vane and piston. The rotating vane type exemplified by US Patent number 5,947,681 entitled PRESSURE BALANCED DUAL AXLE VARIABLE NOZZLE TURBOCHARGER provide a plurality of individual vanes placed in the turbine inlet nozzle which are rotatable to decrease or increase nozzle area and flow volume. The piston type, which is exemplified by US Patent numbers 5,214,920 and 5,231,831 both entitled TURBOCHARGER APPARATUS, and US Patent number 5,441,383 entitled VARIABLE EXHAUST DRIVEN TURBOCHARGERS, employs a cylindrical piston or wall which is movable concentric with the axis of rotation of the turbine to reduce the area of the nozzle inlet. In most cases, the piston type variable geometry turbocharger incorporates vanes with fixed angle of attack with respect to the airflow, which are either mounted to the piston or a stationary nozzle wall opposite the piston and are received in slots in the opposing surface during motion of the piston.
In piston type variable geometry turbochargers in the prior art, the challenge has been maximizing aerodynamic performance balanced with tolerancing of mating surfaces, particularly of vanes and receiving slots that are employed in most designs which are subjected to extreme temperature variation and mechanical stress, as well as providing means for actuating the piston in a readily manufacturable configuration.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
A turbocharger incorporating the present invention has a case having a turbine housing receiving exhaust gas from an exhaust manifold of an internal combustion engine at an inlet and having an exhaust outlet, a compressor housing having an air inlet and a first volute, and a center housing intermediate the turbine housing and compressor housing. A turbine wheel is carried within the turbine housing for extracting energy from the exhaust gas. The turbine wheel is connected to a shaft extending from the turbine housing through a shaft bore in the center housing and the turbine wheel has a substantially full back disc and multiple blades. A bearing carried in the shaft bore of the center housing supports the shaft for rotational motion and a compressor impeller is connected to the shaft opposite the turbine wheel and enclosed within the compressor housing.
A substantially cylindrical piston is concentric to the turbine wheel and movable parallel to an axis of rotation of the turbine wheel. A plurality of vanes extend substantially parallel to the axis of rotation from a heat shield which is engaged at its outer circumference between the turbine housing and center housing and extends radially inward toward the axis of rotation. An actuator is provided for moving the piston from a first position proximate the heat shield to a second position is distal the heat shield. In the first position, a radial surface of the piston engages the end of the vanes. In the second position, the piston is spaced from the vanes creating a larger cross section nozzle with partial flow of exhaust gas from the turbine volute through the vanes and partial flow through an open annulus directly into the turbine.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The details and features of the present invention will be more clearly understood wdth respect to the detailed description and drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a cross-section elevation view of a turbocharger employing an embodiment of the invention with the piston in the closed position;
FIG. 2 a cross-section elevation view of the turbocharger of Fig. 1 with the piston in the open position;
FIG. 3 is a cross section partial elevation view of a second embodiment of the invention with a staggered joint seal forthe piston, with the piston in the closed
FIG. 4 is a cross section partial elevation view of the embodiment of FIG. 3
with the piston in the open position.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Referring to the drawings, FIG. 1 shows an embodiment of the invention for a turbocharger 10 which incorporates a turbine housing 12, a center housing 14 and a compressor housing 16. Turbine wheel 18 is connected through shaft 20 to compressor wheel 22. The turbine wheel converts energy from the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine provided from an exhaust manifold (not shown) to a volute 24 in the turbine housing. The exhaust gas is expanded through the turbine and exits the turbine housing through outlet 26.
The compressor housing incorporates an inlet 28 and an outlet volute 30. A backplate 32 is connected by bolts 34 to the compressor housing. The backplate is, in turn, secured to the center housing using bolts (not shown) or cast as an integral portion of the center housing. A V-band clamp 40 and alignment pins 42 connect the turbine housing to the center housing.
A bearing 50 mounted in the shaft bore 52 of the center housing rotationally
support the shaft. A sleeve 58 is engaged intermediate the thrust surface and
compressor wheel. A rotating seal 60, such as a piston ring, provides a seal between
the sleeve and backplate.
The variable geometry mechanism for the present invention includes a
substantially cylindrical piston 70 received within the turbine housing concentrically
aligned with the rotational axis of the turbine. The piston is longitudinally movable by
a spider 72, having three legs in the embodiment shown, attaching to the piston and
attaching to an actuating shaft 74. The actuating shaft is received in a bushing 76
extending through the turbine housing and connects to an actuator 77. For the
embodiment shown, the actuator is mounted to standoffs on the turbine housing using
a bracket 78 .
The piston slides in the turbine housing through a low friction insert 82. A cylindrical seal 84 is inserted between the piston and insert. The piston is movable from a closed position shown in FIG. 1, substantially reducing the area of the inlet nozzle to the turbine from the volute 24. In a fully open position, a radial projection 86 on the piston is received against insert face 88 that limits the travel of the piston.
Nozzle vanes 90 extend from a heat shield 92. In the closed position of the piston, the vanes are engaged by the face of the radial projection on the piston. The heat shield outer periphery is engaged between the turbine housing and center housing. The shield is contoured to extend into the cavity of the turbine housing from the interface between the center housing and turbine housing and provide and inner wall for the turbine inlet nozzle.
FIG. 2 shows turbocharger of FIG. I with the piston 70 in the open position. An open annular channel 94 is created intermediate the vanes and the face of the radial projection. Exhaust gas flow through the vanes and annular channel which comprises the open nozzle is directionally stabilized by the vanes. Modulation of the nozzle flow can be accomplished by positioning the piston at desired points between the fully open and fully closed position.
The actuation system for the piston in the embodiment shown in the drawings, is a pnuematic actuator 77 attached to bracket 78 as shown in FIGs. 1 and 2,
FIG. 3 shows a second embodiment of the invention incorporating a piston 70a which is fabricated from sheet metal or a thin wall casting having a substantially U shaped cross section to incorporate an outer ring 94 parallel to the direction of translation of the piston and an inner ring 96 extending to attach to a plate 98 for connection to the actuating rod 74. The outer ring of the piston is received in a slot 100 in the turbine housing and the inner ring is closely received by the inner circumferential wall of the turbine housing outlet thereby creating a staggered joint seal for the piston. In the closed position, the web of the U shaped piston engages the vanes to create the minimum area nozzle.
FIG. 4 shows the embodiment of FIG. 3 with the piston in the open position, and the web of the piston separated from the vanes providing the clear annular space previously described for the open nozzle providing maximum nozzle inlet area. Engagement of the rim of outer ring 94 with the end of the slot 100 or alternatively.
engagement of the web of the U with the adjacent face 88a of the turbine housing limits the travel of the piston.
Having now described the invention in detail as required by the patent statutes, those skilled in the art will recognize modifications and substitutions to the specific embodiments disclosed herein. Such modifications and substitutions are within the scope and intent of the present invention as defined in the following claims.
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. A turbocharger having variable turbine nozzle geometry comprising:
a case having a turbine housing receiving exhaust gas fi'om an exhaust manifold of an internal combustion engine at an inlet and having an exhaust outlet, a compressor housing having an air inlet and a first volute, and a center housing intermediate the turbine housing and compressor housing;
a turbine wheel carried within the turbine housing and extracting energy from the exhaust gas, said turbine wheel connected to a shaft extending from the turbine housing through a shaft bore in the center housing;
a bearing carried in the shaft bore of the center housing, said bearing supporting the shaft for rotational motion;
a compressor impeller connected to the shaft opposite the turbine wheel and enclosed within the compressor housing;
a substantially cylindrical piston, concentric to the turbine wheel and movable parallel to an axis of rotation of the turbine wheel;
a heat shield engaged at its outer circumference between the turbine housing and center housing and extending radially inward toward the axis of rotation, said heat shield further having a plurality of vanes extending substantially parallel to the axis of rotation;
means for moving the piston from a first position proximate the heat shield and contacting the vanes to a second position distal from the heat shield.
2. A turbocharger as defined in claim 1 wherein the piston has a thin walled U-shaped
cross section forming an outer ring and an inner ring joined by a web, said outer
ring closely received in a cylindrical slot in the turbine housing and said inner ring
closely engaging an inner circumferential surface of the exhaust outlet, said inner
and outer rings acting as a staggered seal, and said web contacting the vanes with
the piston in the first position.
A turbocharger having variable turbine nozzle geometry substantially as herein described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
Dated this 29 day of April 2003
|Indian Patent Application Number||640/CHENP/2003|
|PG Journal Number||35/2007|
|Date of Filing||29-Apr-2003|
|Name of Patentee||M/S. HONEYWELL GARRETT SA|
|Applicant Address||Zone Industrielle Inova 3000 2, rue de l'Avenir F-88150 Thaon-le-Vosges (FR)|
|PCT International Classification Number||F01D 17/14|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/FR2000/003350|
|PCT International Filing date||2000-11-30|