Title of Invention


Abstract A floating decentralized power plant Comprising a floating waterwheel turbine mounted on a seamless hollow shaft with forged fitted and welded solid ends Characterized in that at least two pontoons support the bearing on which the said shaft is mounted and said water wheel turbine having blades consisting of at least one controllable window provided with control means so as to increase or decrease the flow of water producing thrust, the said turbine wheel is connected to a power transmission system which in turn is connected to an energy conversion device for producing electrical energy.
Full Text 1
This invention concern with a floating decentralized power plant for Hydro power generation. Unlike the conventional water Turbine, it is a floating water wheel of horizontal shaft where Kinetic Energy (not potential Energy) of natural flow of water' in river (later on termed mass momentum of water) is used to get Mechanical Energy. So it can be termed as zero head Turbine
Water wheel is a conventional device by which Potential Energy of water is converted to useful Mechanical Energy. Many developments are made on it to improve this design for more efficiency. This invention Floating water wheel Turbine concern with deriving Mechanical Energy from Kinetic Energy of mass momentum of natural flow of water in river at practically zero potential head. This river may be in plain area or in hilly area. Here natural velocity of flow per unit time and natural mass of flow per unit cross-section area of river are the main controlling factor to derive the above Mechanical Energy. The output Mechanical Energy is directly proportional to the above two factors i.e. velocity of flow and mass of flow in river. Its main disadvantage is that in dry season, these two factors reduce considerably and the system may be less effective or do not work at all. But in monsoon its performance is quite significant. It can reduce the workload of thermal plant or in hydel plant considerably in monsoon for later use in dry season. However with some modification the system can be made more effective. One method is to increase the dia of the water wheel. In dry season water current goes much below the surface of water maximum at 1/6 depth of water.
The system is made so simple that, for rural development place like North Eastern Region, of India rural people can made it with 50-60% raw materials locally available like matured timber and bamboo with their local carpenter, welder and fitter. Little machining operation required could be done in lathe, drilling and shopping machine, which are commonly available in near by town. Some other parts like-gear, pinion, spindle, gearbox bearing etc. required can be purchased at cheaper price from 2nd hand spare parts automobile shop from the nearest town. About 80% cost of making roads in hilltop, dam, spur, weir tunnel, powerhouse, etc. in conventional hydel plant are completely eliminated. A little cost involved in anchoring the system in river. For Small River tested nyion rope and anchoring point on riverbank is enough. For big river anchoring point on river is to be made which is not so costly. It can be owned individually or collectively on cooperative bases in rural area. It can be made from very small size to as big as desired for mass production, when desired to made it for large scale, it can be called endless project for any quantity of production desired, with insignificant block capital. In North Eastern Region in all rivers big or small, huge quantity of water is flowing in monsoon. It carries an immense quantity of Kinetic Energy every day. By the use of floating water wheel turbine a little quantity of this daily power loss can be utilized for human use. No very skilled man or precision parts are required for its fabrication. Generally it will not work for 4-5 month in a year. During this period annual maintenance work can be done for next monsoon use. Floats can be made with angle iron and planks, Blades; catwalk can be made with bamboo, which is available in plenty in this region.
It can be used for irrigation purpose in agricultural use. It can charge inverter battery and water supply for domestic use for people resides on riverbanks. At present rural people in remote area who cannot dream for electricity and water supply at their home and water for irrigation and depend upon natural rain can have there facilities at their hand provided they are on river bank.

This invention provides -—
A floating decentralized power plant comprising a floating water wheel turbine mounted on a seamless hollow shaft with forged fitted and welded solid ends characterized in that at least two pontoons support the Bearings on which the said shaft is mounted and said water wheel turbine having blades consisting of at least one controllable window provided with control means so as to increase or decrease the flow of water producing thrust, the said turbine wheel is connected to a power transmission system which in turn is connected to an energy conversion device for producing electrical energy.
The details of the invention, its objects and advantages are explained hereunder in greater details with reference to figures illustrated in accompanying drawings.

Fig.1, Isometric view of floating decentralized power plant (FDPP)
Fig. 2 Shows different position of main parts of floating decentralized power plant (FDPP) in orthographic projection.
Fig. 3 shows the characteristic curve of velocity of river water of Brahmaputra near Pandu Ghat in Guwahati. All data were collected from flood control dept. Govt, of Assam velocity in meter/sec against average of 10-month record in the year.
Fig. 4 Sheet for cat work and angle ride frame.
Fig. 5 detailing section of a anchoring column, Roller for guide, floats and guide.
Fig.6 Detailing of anchoring column, how it is designed for stability in river without tilting forward and side way.
Fig. 7 Old gearbox assembly.
Fig. 8, 9, 10 Details of reciprocating pump, which can be made easily by rural people.
Fig. 11 Details of how FDPP can be placed in big river for commercial production of electricity and pumping of water.
Fig. 12 shows how FDPP can be floated in river of different width for community people and commercial use.
Fig. 13 Details how power generated by FDPP can be taken to the bank of river in commercial use.
Fig.14 Isometric view of assembly of main part of FDPP.
Fig. 15 Detail of blade profile and two control system (a) window control (b) sliding part of blade to reduce effective contact area of blade in high flow of river water.
Fig. 16 Power transmission system from turbine shaft of low RPM to required RPM of alternator or pump.
Fig. 17 Design of pontoon if it is made with bamboo or timber.
Fig. 18 Angle iron frame and end circular plates FDPP shaft and blade in isometric view.
Fig. 19 details of use of reciprocating pump to eliminate the gearing device and details of crank.
20. Table 1 - 3a/19- different velocity record of River Brahmaputra 10 years 1989 to 1998

1. Two numbers of (pontoons).
2. One angle iron frame (can be termed as chassis) made with Mild steel Angle iron.
3. One water wheel consisting of a shaft and a 7 numbers of plain blade made with mild steel, timber or Bamboo blade.
4. Two numbers or catwalk made of timber, bamboo or angle iron and plank.
5. Guard Rail made with bamboo, timber, mild steel pipe or angle.
7 numbers of blades are made with 1 mm thick mild steel sheet or 20 mm thick planks or 6 mm thick bamboo board. Each flat blade is supported with 5 numbers of Mild Steel angle iron at equal distance. Mild Steel sheet are spot welded with the mild steel angles. Each angle is fitted with 3 number of 12 mm diameter full threaded nuts and bolts along with 5 number of circular plate as shown in fig. 15 enclosed. Each circular plate is 12mm thick and 25cm diameter welded to a hollow shaft at equal distance from each other. Plates are so arranged that all the turbine blades are arranged radically. Refer fig.15 enclosed. On both ends of the shaft perfectly turned solid mild steel rods of 50 mm+ diameter is forge fitted and then welded to the hollow shaft. Figure 18 Bearings are fitted to this solid end of the shaft. The flat blades can give 100% resistance to the flow of water. The mild steel angle iron on which blades are fitted has section 35 mm x 35 mm and 50 mm x 50 mm these two pieces are joined by lap welding.
When flow of water increases in river, the Revolution Per Minutes (RPM) of turbine shaft increases and high Torque developed on turbine blades. It is not desirable. For controlling torque on turbine the following 4- methods can be adopted.
1. In method - I angle iron frame can be raised or lowered to change the effecting area of the blades on which the flow of water acts. This causes change of rotation of turbine shaft for controlling.
2. In method - II 7 blades are made in two parts horizontally. The parts towards the shaft end is kept fixed in position and the parts towards the end can be slide over the fixed part of blades (Fig.15). This facilitates the change of area of blade on which flow of water will act. So revolution of the turbine shaft can be changed for controlling.
3. In this method 4 numbers of rectangular windows can be made on each blade, which are made to close or open by spring of suitable strength. When the velocity of water increases pulling the spring by water the windows open automatically and the effective resisting area decreases which in turn keeps the torque developed on turbine shaft more of less constant (fig 15)
4. A differential gear box can be included in the mechanical power transmission system as done in automobile vehicle and by manual operation of the gear box at the driver side can be kept under control (Fig. 16). The whole systems are made as simple as possible so that rural people can make it with their won welder, fitter and mechanics.

5 In Floating Decentralized Power plant whole gearing system can be completely eliminated by using a double acting double cylinder reciprocating pump of very low Revolution Per Minute (RPM) but of very high pressure, coupled to a very high pressure accumulator which can easily drive pelt on wheel turbine by high static pressure head which we generally called potential head of water. But in this case of floating water wheel turbine the natural kinetic energy (KE) of water is converted to pressure thread of water using pumps as mentioned above, the design of such pump is shown in drawing which can be easily made by rural people with little skill and effort. Design of such pump is made very simple. Simple forging and welding works are to be done here. 2nd hand valve and springs of automobile engine, which are at easy reach, can be used here. Valve, valve sheets are not so precision. It can be done in general workshop of local town by general mechanics.
Transmission device of mechanical power from turbine shaft, to alternator or pump
Big spur gear fitted to the turbine shaft drives another pinion fitted to the driving shaft of gearbox I. This gear box steps up the low Revolution Per Minute (R.P.M.) of turbine considerably. Connecting another differential gear box, Revolution Per Minute (RPM) of the system is increased further and the direction of transmission of power is also changed at 90°. The out put power of differential gear is put to a differential gear box II. Here facility for reversing the rotation of driven shaft and increase of R.P.M. of driven shaft is possible. From the out put shaft of this last gearbox - alternator or centrifugal pump can be driven by using belt pulley. The whole arrangement of transmission of power is shown in the sketch fig 16.

a) Length - 5.5 m b) breath - 4.0 m
c) Height - 2.2 m d) Weight -- @ 3-5 m.t.
2. Average RPMof water wheel 3 to 4
3. Max R P M out put of gear box - 2000
4. Gear box - 4 Speed - Local made and automobile differential and differential gear box combined
5. H. P. developed - Seasonal - Max in Monsoon
- Min in Dry season
6. H. P. as per Technical paper for blade area 2m x 0.8m-
(a) In April, May, June, July and August - (Monsoon)
9.67 HP at Velocity of flow - 164 m/min
(b) In Sept., Oct, Nov and March 2,33 HP at Velocity flow 102 m/min
(c) In Dec, Jan., Feb - (Dry season) 0.58 HP at a velocity of flow 40m/min
N.B. Dry season HP can be increased by increasing the diameter and length of the shaft of water wheel.
It consists of the following components: •
1) WATER WHEEL: - It consists of one hollow shaft made with seamless steel pipe, 50mm Diameter. Circular M.S. Flanges 25cm Diameter, 12mm thick is fitted to the above shaft at equal distance by welding M.S. angle of length 60cm X section - 40 x 40 x 5mm is joined by welding with another piece of length 40cm and X section 50 x 50 5mm. 7 nos. of such joined M.S. angles are filled to each circular flange by Bolting with bigger section towards the flange. These angles are placed with equal angle to each other. All the angles are placed in such a manner that they will be in one straight line for all, in different flanges so that one M.S. Sheet can be placed over 5 nos. of angles placed over them of different flange. 7 nos. of M.S. sheet of thickness 1 mm are placed on the angles on the shaft. This assembly will make the water wheel fig. 18
2) ANGLE IRON_FRAME:- It is folding type box of size 1.5 x 1.5 m x 2m. The main bars are 50 x 50 x 5mm and others 40 x 40 x 5mm. The water wheel is placed inside this box, supported by two ball bearings. This ball bearing can be fitted to the angle iron frame by nuts and bolts fig. 17.
3) FLOATS: - Two floats of length 5.5 are made with angle iron frame of 40 x 40 x
5mm. whose square cross section is 1m x 1m. Bottom, both ends and sides are
covered by 1.6 mm thick mild steel plate by welding. It is made leak proof. Top is
covered with mild steel step where required. Both the floats are rigidly connected at
both ends by 50mm diameter Galvanized. Iron, pipes and 70 mm x 70mm x 6mm
cross section angle iron, 1.6 mm mild steel. Sheet is used on top where necessary.
All joints of the pipe and a angle with the floats are made with bolt and nuts.

The assembly forms a barge. Front sides of the floats are given the shape of a Country Boats or it can be flat end and Funnel shape. The shape is given for reducing the resistance of flow of water in river and also to guide the water in front to the blades of the water wheel. This is also one special character of this water wheel fig. 17
Two horizontal floats are made of 12mm thick waterproof glass wool board/ 2mm mild steel sheet used in marine boats or by well-seasoned BAMBOO. Boards are fitted on angle frame by nuts and bolts and joints of boards are made with waterproof glue used in marine works. The outside surface of the floats (sides and bottom) are covered with thin aluminum sheet to make it full leak proof 1m length of front inside vertical wall and the bottom of both the floats are made curve. This will make a hopper shape to the assembly of barge in front. This aerofoil shape will (1) like guide vane of water turbine water will be guided towards blade (2) Upward thrust of water in front side of the barge is increased. This aerodynamic shape of barge in front will help to increase its efficiency. Both the floats are connected in top by 4nos. of 25cm x 7cm x 3m size good quality unplanned wooden planked or by mild steel angle frame and mild steel sheet. Floats are fitted on both sides of the frame of water wheel with nuts and bolt. Top surface of the floats can be kept open where pulley or crank etc. is to be fitted. However this open part is to be covered to protect it from rain and external accident. The design of the barge should be made simple so that the village people can make it with their own carpenter, welder and fitter. The assembly of the two floats and frame of the water wheel from a barge on which all other mountings can be suitably fitted keeping it in stationary position with the facility of moving up and down. The anchoring point may be on the river or on its bank. If structural design permits, the pillars of bridges of road and railway can be used for anchoring the barge on river provided, the concerned department allows its use.
51 CAT WALK: - Two cat walks are made for movement of operator around the water wheel model when required fig 14.
6) GEAR BOX:- One 3- speed gear box is made taking gear, pinion, shaft and other small parts from second hand spare parts of automobile shop. Main box is made of 3mm thick mild steel sheet Bearings for each gearbox shaft is placed by nuts and balls on both side of the gearbox. Gear change levers are placed on top of the gearbox. This gearbox is mounted inside of any of the two floats fig. 18.
7) TRANSMISSION DEVICE FROM WATER WHEEL SHAFT TO GEAR BOX: - Using one C. I. Gear of 85 cm diameter and one pinion of 15 cm diameter (ready made) was used to transmit power from water wheel shaft to input gear box shaft. The gear is fitted to the water wheel shaft. Along with this transmission system differential gear of automobile Vehicle is used fig 16.
8) EXPERIMENTAL DEVICE: - The output shaft of gear box is extended beyond the bearing both side to fit here one BRAKE DRUM in one end to measure Horse Power of the system. On the other end of the same shaft one alternator or a pump can be fitted to see the utility of the water wheel when needed.
9) ACCESSORIES: - Any accessories like step up transformer, penal board,
accumulator for pump etc. can be housed inside the other float conveniently. Hand
tools or other required items can be put on top of the float or inside the float.

Usually the turbine shaft rotates at 3 to 4 revolution per minute. But using the above gear box the output shaft shows revolution up to 2000 pm. Since there is 100% resistance given by the Turbine blades to the flow of water in river. The Revolution Per Minute of rotor may be very less but torque developed is very high at output shaft. In monsoon the Horse Power develops goes above 10 Horse Power. Enclosed test report shows result on 24.09.02.
10) MODIFICATION DESERVED BY INNOVATOR:- For dry season, to develop more
Horse Power the diameter of the water wheel should be increased from 2m to 3m. To
make this change the following corresponding change is to be made -
a) Angle iron frame is to be replaced by 2 numbers side frame.
b) Length of each float will have to be increased by 2m for stability.
c) 2 numbers, catwalk is to be made.
If any financial organization render help to the innovator these changes will be done to see the corresponding improvement of the model in dry season. On successful testing of the model with the above change of diameter of water wheel, there will be another change of diameter of the water wheel from 3m to 4m and blades length will be increased from 1.5m to 2.5m. doing these two above modification of the model, it will be . suitable for most dry season in the year. Velocity of flow is maximum at 1/6 of its depth. So increase of diameter of rotor is necessary for dry season.
The enclosed drawing fig I will explain in brief about its specification. During operation the model can float in water and can move in X,Y,Z direction which is unique. It can be kept in one place by using 4 tested Nylon rope of 3T to 3.5 T capacity and tied to an anchoring point either on the bank of a river or on the river depending upon the width of the river. Refer fig no. 12 enclosed here.
11) ANCHORING METHOD: - The enclosed drawing will explain well, how it can be
anchored. For anchoring point on river, special design for the anchoring column is to be
made. Simple drawing is shown here. Structural design is not shown. Here Fig 12 shows
how the water wheel models can be anchored in river of different width. In very Small
River it can be anchored from any one side of the riverbank. If the river is wide enough
two models can be floated anchoring from each riverbank and both of them should be
tied together so that they will be in the middle of the river and models never strikes
against river bank. For medium size of river three models can be floated as shown in fig
.12. For moderately Wide River anchoring post can be made on river and water wheel
model can be anchored as shown in fig 12. For very big rivers for large scale production
of Electricity, large number of anchoring post can be made on river in different lines
perpendicular to the river bank.
The Electricity generated by the water wheel model in large scale on big river will have to be transmitted to the bank of the river. This method is shown in fig 13. The transmission system is also floating making parallel connection to each alternator of water wheel model to the transmission cable. Three-phase small alternator can be fitted individually to each model or making a flexible shaft coupling of a group of three models a single bigger size alternator can be fitted to the shaft of the middle one.

How the model can move in X.Y.Z direction while it Is in operation
It is shown in fig 11 Two Vertical guide rail (box section) as shown in Fig 11 is fitted to the anchoring column and another horizontal guide rail (H. Section) is placed on two floats as shown in fig 8 through roller, the horizontal guide channel can move up and down along the vertical guide channel fitted to the anchoring column. Details are shown in fig 11. For shifting models of a group of three from one anchoring column to another anchoring column on river, a connection channel of equal and same x-section of horizontal guide channel can be suitably placed between two horizontal guide channels by a connecting joint. The connecting joint is a small piece of H-section channel, slightly bigger in size than the horizontal guide channel, so that it can be placed over the horizontal guide channel one on each end. The connecting joint is bigger in size than the horizontal guide channel, so that it can be placed over the horizontal guide channel one on each end. The connecting joint is welded with the horizontal guide channel at both end. Using another two floats (engine drive.) of suitable size the connecting channel can be brought to position on river, it is fitted to the horizontal guide by Nuts and bolt Details is shown in fig 11.
Power transmission Device:
The transmission cable is fitted with insulator on a Projected bar (pole), which in turn is fitted to a frame. The frame is fitted on this floats used to support the horizontal guide channel. Ref fig 13. This pole moves up and down along with the up and down motion of the guide channel. The transmission cable is continues from last anchoring post on river to the bank. For three phases line there will be three cables. At the end of the projected bar another small bar is fitted with insulator, Connection of output electrical power is feed to the transmission cable through the small bar Ref fig 13.
Construction of anchoring column:
It consists of two separate elliptical R.C.C. column about 1m distance from each other. Both the columns are connected at top and riverbed lever. Ref fig 6. Columns are straight where two M.S. box channels are bounded together. It has two more functions— (a) It guide the horizontal guide channel to move up and down with the help of roller (b) It also take tensile and compressive toad when the columns tends to bend. It is a short of exposed reinforcements to the column. Different force development on the column due to pull of water wheel model is shown by double arrow in fig 6. Its column has an horizontal cantilever member at river bed level which prevents any forward bending of the column due to pull of water wheel. The cantilever member has two taper vertical projection as shown in the fig 6. Which the anchoring column tends to bend forwards this two projection prevents it. The under ground portion of column is made tapering and bigger in lower side. This tapering part prevents any bending of the column. These two cantilever members of the two columns are along the direction of flow of water but they are at 60° to 120° angle with each other to prevent any side bending tendency of the columns. It is shown in fig 6. A typical design is required for the column unlike the vertical load-bearing column of Bridge. It is much smaller in X - section than bridge column.
Advantages of floating water wheel model:
1) Its range is wide. Who can effort to purchase a Maruti Van, he can easily effort to make one model for his own use. The number of floating water wheel model can be increased one after another along the river or across the river, it is an endless project for large scale power generation.

2) Right from the completion and commissioning of the 1 model, it can give service. This service will go on increasing as we go increasing the number of models. It is an advantage that we need not wait for a long time by investing capital with no return till we complete the large-scale project. For increasing its capacity there is no end; it is endless for power generation.
3) The conventional Hydel project at hilltop; 80% of the budget amount is spent for construction of road, Dam. Tunnel, pain stock and powerhouse. In floating water wheel model this cost is nil. For an anchoring device some extra cost will involve. But it is never 4 times of the cost of making water wheel model. It is much less.
4) It does not require any fuel or water in reservoir. It is seasonal. But the benefit derived at least 6 months in a year is a tremendous gain. Fuel in Thermal plant and water in hydel plant can be saved for next 6 months use in a year. With some special modification, in dry season also it can give service.
SPECIAL CHARACERSTICS Description of floating Decentralized power plant
1. It is a horizontal shaft floating water wheel Turbine.
2. Seven numbers of plain blades with little curvature on the blades are fitted to the shaft giving more or less to the shape of a pelt on wheel.
3. Blades are expose to 100% X-section area of water in front of the blades. This is a special character of the blades of this floating water wheel Turbine.
4. The shaft is rigidly supported by two no of Ball Bearings and the shaft can with stand maximum thrust of water without any leakage from the blades.
5. The bearings of shaft are supported in an angle iron framework.
6. The angle iron framework is supported on two floats.
7. The shape of the float is just like country Boat that is longitudinally bisected by a vertical plane. The front shape is also just like country boat. This shape is given for minimum resistance of flow of water and also to guide the water in front towards the blades.
8. Bottom and sides of each float is made flat for more stability.
9. The top of both the floats are made flat to accommodate any mounting accessories of the model such as gearbox, alternator, pump set, transformer and accumulator etc.
10. The front shape of both the float in assembly forms like a funnel.
11. Inside of the floats can be used for storing anything required.

12. For stability of the model in high flood with more turbulence can be avoided by making the length of the float little more than twice the Diameter of the water wheel and where turbulence in river is less the length can be made little less than this. For this more trial is required.
13. The angle iron framework on which the water wheel is supported can be moved vertically up and down and also horizontally front and back. This facilitate balancing the water wheel on the floats and adjustment of the axis of the water wheel to the required height from the water level so that no overflow of water takes place over the shaft which may prevent back load to the rare blades.
14. Due to little curved shape of the blades, the rare blades can come out of water easily. Regarding the correct curvature. More trial is required.
15. Platform and guards are made all around the water wheel and the float so that when any operator moves around it there is no chance of falling into the river.
16. The model is made as simple as possible so that the rural people can made it
with local products and with local fabricators.
17. It can be largely used for rural development using the flow of water in tributaries in villages and in hilly area for pumping water generation of Electricity.
18. For big river like the Brahmaputra large numbers of such models can be made to
float for generation of electricity and also for pumping water.
19. It can be used in DAMS to remove silting in front of the Dam. Which will increase
the life of Dam for several years.
20. In small rivers anchoring of the model can be made from bank. In case of big
river mass scale special technology is developed by which
a. The model can be anchored in big river, in a mass scale
b. The models can be moved across the river both ways.
c. Electricity generated or water pumped by it can be transferred from
middle of the river to the riverbank.
21. Models for this technology are not yet made, which requires some funding from some agencies, which are not obtained yet.
22. The R.P.M of the shaft of the model is very less but torque developed is very high.
23. A gearbox can be used to raise the R.M.P, which already got up to 2000 R.M.P
24. Transmission of power from water wheel shaft to the gearbox is only by gear
pinion (positive Drive)
25 This system is most suitable for river having less depth and more gradient -example rivers in hilly area and in Tributaries.

26. Sometime in 1950 it was tasted by making a bamboo model where the depth of water was about 0.5m and generated electricity in bicycle dynamo.
27. Since a toy model was made before half a century, this time instead of making another toy models, a working model is made which generates H.P. in the river Brahmaputra in the month late Sept.2002 up to 2.09 to 2.39. All theoretical calculations are done with blade area 2mX1m. But my model was made with blade area 1.5mX 1m. Had the blade are of the 2m X 1m. Calculated value on 24/09/2002 wood have been 2.78 HP. for 523 R.P.M. and 3.197 for 600 R.P.M. which is much higher than theoretical value.
28. Velocity of water increases as we go deep and maximum at 1/6depth of water. Hence if the diameter of water wheel is increase from 2m to 3m probably the output will be more than double. It requires some modification of existing model.
29. This model is most suitable for N.E.R. of India.
30. Special character of this model is that — it can float in water and can be. carried from one place to another place without much problem. It is movable horizontally and vertically in both directions.

Details of Turbine blades
Floating Decentralized power plant (FDPP) should have minimum 7 nos. of blades.
Preferably the number should be odd. The blades can be made of materials like bamboo, timber and mild steel sheet. All blades are straight. Keeping turbine shaft just on surface of the water. The blades can be placed on the turbine shaft. Keeping one edge just on the surface and the other edge sufficiently blow water. If we desire the blades can be submerged to a certain depth. When thrust on blades will be found more. Shape of the blades can be made rectangular or square, as we desire. To fix the blades on shaft some thick (about 10 cm) mild steel circular plates having central hole equal to the outside diameter of the turbine shaft and 3 nos. of 10m-diameter dill hole made radically with equal angle with each row. The number of such circular holes in-group of 3 are equal to the number of blades we required to be placed. Here number of blades are seven. The number of such circular plats depends upon the length of turbine shaft and depth of water to which the blades goes below the surface of water.
For River like The Brahmaputra, keeping one edge of the blade of surface depth to which the blades goes below 85 cm. All the circular plates are welded to the turbine shaft in such a way so that all holes of all the circular plates are in one line. Mild steel angle iron of suitable dimensions having drill hole matching with the drill holes of circular plate are fitted with the shaft (each regular holes of the circular plates). Towards the shaft 60% length of the total length of the angular iron should be bigger in size. Two different size of angle iron are joined by lap joint. For Barhmaputra river these sizes are 50 mm x 50 mm x 6 mm and other 35 mm x 35 mm x 5 mm. The size depends upon the velocity of water. For immerged blades. This size will be bigger. Structural design will decide it. Blades are placed upon the angle iron fitted with circular plates. If it is made with bamboo or timber, it should be fitted with screw on the angles iron or if it is made with steel sheet spot of welding is enough. Water proofing paints should be used on blades, angle iron circular plates and the turbine shaft for its durability. Controlling device can be made on the blade for increased velocity of water, by changing the direct contact area of blades with water current.
On both side of the blade circular plates equal to the diameter of the turbine wheel are fitted on the main frame so that water entering with the turbine wheel cannot go away without giving any thrust on the blade.

Mathematical treatment of mass momentum of water on river with zero potential head to floating water wheel turbine
Here Fig .1
1) Will show the assembly of the device in floating condition with its anchoring.
Mathematically this, force on resisting area can be calculated as follows.
F = [w A Va x (Va - Vo)]/g Kg F= Force applied on external resisting body due to mass momentum of water on river /channel.
Va= Average velocity of flowing water in river/channel in m/min. Na = Average R.P.M. of water wheel due to the velocity Va. Vo= Loss of velocity Va which will determine the R.P.M. of water wheel. A= Submerged cross section area of resisting external surface perpendicular to the flow of water.
With the notation given above - for the maximum average value of Va =2.5m/scc=150 m/min
Va = 15om/m in monsoon, near PANDU IN BRAHMAPUTRA RIVER.
Na = 13.8 rev./min, A = 1.8 sqm
R = Distance from the C.L. of shaft of water wheel to the Centre of pressre of the surface area where the force is suppose to act = 0.65 m. Froce on Area A- F = 987.4 Kg (Calculated) Torqm on shaft = 987 kg x 0.65 mm. = 641 Kgm Horse power developed = 11.6
This result is more or less true for monsoon - in May to Sept., for 5 months. From October to May the result will come down.
In most dry period of the year, this H.P developed is = 0.2. But by suitable modification this HP can be increased considerably. This is only theoretical output in terms of H.P Actual output may be slightly more or less. In monsoon the possibility of output is going to higher side and in winter it may go to lower side. Here except the construction, installation and maintenance cost without any recurring cost this power is available for 24 hours without any break and it will be obtained days after days and month after month.
In small tributaries of Assam in dry season in valley, the velocity is much less than the Brahmaputra River but towards hillside the velocity will be much higher. It is suitable to drive pump for irrigation purpose and generation of electricity in small scale.

The enclosed data of chart (1) obtained for several years in the river Brahmaputra, in Pandu sight in Guwahati will give picture of velocity of flow of water in this river. Taking the average of the mean of the all-maximum velocity for four year Jan. 1991 to 1996 -we get. Averages of all maximum velocity
=(2.75+ 2.80+ 2.69) / 3 = 2.7325 M/SEC = 164 m/min Averages of all Minimum velocity for the same period
=(0.861 +07+86+0.52+0.46+0.63) /6
= 0.67 M/SEC= 40 M/MIN Average of maximum and minimum (164+ 40) 12 = 102 M/MIN = Va
Diameter of wheel = 2m, proposed to make it 4 m for winter
Length of wheel = 2m, proposed to make it 3 m for winter
No. of blade = 7, Area of blade = 1x2 = 2 sqm
90% of blade area is submerged in river water
Maximum contact area of blade = 2 x.0.9 =1.8 sqm
Minimum contact area of blade = 1.8 x .8 sqm = 1.44 sqm
Average contact area of blade = (1.8 + 1.44) 12 = 1.62 SQM
Maximum distance of center of pressure of the submerged part of the blade from the C.L
of axis of shaft = 0.2 + 0.9 /2 = 0.65 m
Minimum distance of center of pressure (C.P. ) of the blade from the C.L of the axis the
shaft = 0.65 x 0.8 = 0.52m
Average distance of C.P. to C.L.= (0.65+ 0.52) /2 = 0.58m
CASE 1 - Between monsoon and dry season
Va = 1.7 m/sec = 102 m/min Taking velocity Va = 102 m / min
R.P.M at no lode II DN = 102 i. e. N = 102 / (3.14 x 2) = 16.2
R.P.M. at full load = 0
Average R.M.P - (16.2 + 0) / 2 = 8.1
It is assumed that due to resistance of tail water, wt. of the water wheel, and friction in
bearing of the shaft there will be loss of velocity of Va by 20%. which is say Vo.
Let this loss = Vo = (0.2 x 102) = 20.4 m/min
It force on blade due to mass momentum F

F = [wA Va ( Va -Vo ) ]/g where A = Submerged area of blade
= [1000 x 1.62 x 102 x (102-20.4)]/(9.81 x 60 x 60) = 381.799 kg.
Torque (T) applied on shaft of water wheel by this F
T = F x R R = Distance between C.P of
= 381.799 x 0.58 = 221.44kgm blade and C .L of shaft
Horse Power developed on shaft due to the Torqe
(2?NT)/4500.= (2 x 3. 14x8 .1 x 221. 44)/4500 = 2.50
CASE 2 - in Monsoon
Va= 2.77 m /sec = 166.2 m / min
Taking velocity Va = 166.2 - in Monsoon (maxim value
R.P.M. at No load ?DN = 166.2 N =26.46
R.P.M. at max load - N = 0
Average R.P.M. = (26.46+0)/2 = 13.23 Vo = assumed 20% OF Va
i.e. F = [wAVa(Va-Vo)]/g
= [1000 x 1.62 x 166.2 x (166.2 - 32.8)] / (9.81 x 60 x 60)
= 1017 Kg.
T = F x R = 1017 kg x 0.65 mm = 661 kg
HP = 2p NT/4500 = (2x3.14 x 13.23x661 /4500= 12.2
CASE 3 - In dry season
Va = 0.66 m / sec = 40 m / min below the surface velocity will be>40
Taking velocity Va = 40 m / min - in December, January and February
R.M.P at no load pDN = 40 N= 40/(3.14x2) = 6.36
R.M.P at Maximum load N = 0
Average R.M.P = (6.36 + 0) / 2 = 3.18
F = [W A Va (Va- Vo)] /g = [1000 x 1.62 x 40 x (40- 0.2 x 40)] / (9.81 x 60 x 60) =
T = F x R = 58.71 kg x.0.65 = 38.16 kgm.
HP. = 2p NT / 4500 = (2 x 3 .14 x 3.18 x 38.16) / 4500 = 0.16,
1. Average H.P. 2.5 is available in the month of April, September, October and November.
2. Average H.P. 12.2 will be available in the month of May, June. July, and August. In May and October the HP. will be between 2.5 and 12.7 depending upon the velocity of flow.
2. In most dry season December January and February H P is 0.16 in March H.P will increase from 0.16 to 2.5.

So the generation of H.P. is seasonal and it is useful for 8 month in a year. It the
diameter of water wheel is increased to 4 m and two such units are coupled together
using Flexible Flange Shaft coupling or by universal shaft coupling there will be
improvement as shown below:
R.M.P. at no load -IIDN = 40 so N ='40 / (3.14 x 4) =3.18
R.M.P. at Maxim Load = 0 below the surface velocity will be >40m / min
Average R.M.P. = (3.18 + 0)/2= 1.59.
Submerged depth of blade - keeping C.L.of shaft 20 cm above the surface of water =
1.8 m.
Maximum submerged area of blade 2 x 1.8=3.6 sqm
Minimum submerged area of blade = 0.8 x 3 .6 = 2.88 sqm
Average submerged area of blade = (3.6 + 2.88) 12 - 3.24 sq.m =
Distance R from C.L.of shaft and C.P.of submerged area of blade = 0.2 + (1.8) / 2 =
Here Va = 40 m/ min. So - Vo = 40 m / min X 0.2 = 8m./Min
F = [WA Va (Va-Vo)] /g = [1000 x 3.24 x 40x (40 - 8)] / (9.81x 60x 60) = 117.4 kg
T = FxR=117.4x 1.1=129.17 kg m.
H P = (2p NT) 4500 = 2 x 3.14 x 1.59 x 129.17 / 4500 = 0.280
For two such water wheel total H.P = 0.28 x 2= 0.56
This shows that H.P. in dry season can be increased from 0.16 to 0.56 with little
modification. There is a possibility of making more improvement of H.P. developed.
Actually we may get more H.P. if less loss is considered. This H.P. developed in water
wheel shaft can be suitably devised to drive centrifugal/reciprocation pump for supply of
water for drinking and irrigation purpose or to drive generator of low RPM to generate
electricity. Usually 3 phase, 6 pole, 10 Kw rating generator is to be used for 7 months in
a year. Generator of 10 Kw range can be used in May, June, July, August and generator
of 5 Kw rating may be used in September, October and April. January, February and
March a compromise for two generators can be made.
For generation of electricity or pumping water by pump, Rotation Per Minute of driven shaft can be increased by two methods
1 Using belt pulley gear train to increase Rotation Per Minute directly
2Using two strokes, double acting reciprocating pump. Accumulator and pelt on wheel
The 2nd method may be costly but will be more efficient.
When belt pulley is used in two steps on gear train the R.P.M. of a working shaft can be
increased to our requirement.

Similarly for other velocity Diameter of pulley may be changed.
In the second method two nos. simple horizontal double acting Reciprocating pump may
be fabricated and used to suck water from river and to supply it at a high pressure to an
accumulator. This accumulator may be used to drive a low Rotation Per Minute pelt on
wheel mounted on the barge. This pelt on wheel can be coupled with a generator of
suitable size. Here pump can directly supply water for irrigation purpose. To get uniform
supply/discharge from reciprocating pump, the pump is to be made double acting and
two stages. Each pump will take half of the HP. generated. The following calculation will
give some idea how it will work.
Let us assume the following - for case 2
Horse Power supplied to each pump - 12.2/2 = 6.1
H.P.consumed for suction and delivery strokes of each pump is assumed in the ratio of
H.P. required for each stroke= 6.1x 0.8 = 4.88
Assumed -
Crank radius = 0.25m
Stroke length = 0.5m
Diameter of barrel = 0.14m = 14 cm
Pump efficiency = 80%
Volumetric efficiency = 80%
Under above assumed boundary condition the following calculation will show the power
generation in K. Watt. Torque developed on crank pin and connecting rod joint - be T3.
H.P. = 2p NT/4500
T3 = 4.88 x 4500/(2x3.14x13) = 268.98 kgm.
F = Force on piston
= 268.98 kgm/0.25m = 1076 kg
A = x -section area of barrel = (II/4) x 14x14 = 153.86 sq. cm.
P = Intensity of pressure of water in the accumulator delivered by pumps
= F/A =1076kg/153 kg/cm2 = 7.0326kg/m2 = 70.33.m of water column
Discharge of two pump = Qm3
Q = (p/4 x (D x D) x L x 2 x 2 x 0.8 x 0.8 x N
= (3.14/4) x (196 x 50 x 4 x.0.64 x 13)/ (100x100x100)
= 0.256 m3/min
P = Power generation in Kw P = 0.8 QH = 0.8 x 0.256 x 70.33 =14.40 kw
H = head of water = 70.33 m of water colum

In case I
Similarly for velocity 102 m/min P = 9.4 Kw,
In case 3 when velocity of water is 40 m/sec
P = 3.69 Kw
It shows that 2nd method is more efficient to generate electrical energy.
This gain is due to the elimination of frictional loss in gear train, bearings, and weight of
massive gears in gearbox.
All the above calculations are made taking many losses in different stage.
If a small sample model is made it can be judge properly whether the system so
designed will hold good or it should be out rightly rejected. Any unconventional thing
appeared to be absurd at the beginning.
The enclosed table land Fig 3 show the characteristic of velocities for several year round
the different month. All dates are not obtained now. Enclosed sheet for data show that
missing of data in monsoon specially from May to Nov. put the calculation much
erroneous and gives low reading. The doted line in Square Graph paper and less no of
Bars in Bar chart shows non-availability of data. With more effort rest of the data will be
made available from the respective department.

I A floating decentralized power plant Comprising a floating water wheel turbine
mounted on a seamless hollow shaft with forged fitted and welded solid ends
characterized in that at least two pontoons support the bearings on which the
said shart is mounted and said water wheel turbine having blades consisting of
atleast one controllable window provided with control means so as to increase or
decrease the flow of water producing thrust, the said turbine wheel is connected
to a power transmission system which in turn is connected to an energy
conversion device for producing electrical energy.
2. A floating decentralized power plant as claimed in claim 1 wherein the said turbine blade comprises control means by which two parts of the blade- upper and lower, slidingly operate to increase or decrease the blade width of the blade to effect the effective surface area of the blade.
3. A floating decentralized power plant as claimed in claim 1 wherein the said turbine blade comprises windows creating operating in the blade area, the said opening is increased or decreased by the control means such as spring and hinge system.
4. A floating decentralized power plant as claimed in claim 1 wherein said power transmission means comprises a gearing system, which drives an energy conversion device:
5. A floating decentralized power plant as claimed in claim 1, wherein said energy conversion device is an alternator.
6. A floating decentralized power plant as clamed in claim 1 wherein said power transmission device is a low RPM high head PUMP and pelton wheel.
7. A floating decentralized power plant as claimed in claim 1 wherein said electrical energy is supplied to consumer through an electrical distribution system.
8. A floating decentralized power plant as claimed in claim 1 wherein said blade consists of several windows which can be controllably operated or closed to increase or decrease the blade surface area to increase or decrease the RPM of the shaft depending upon the velocity of water.
9. A floating decentralized power plant as claimed in claim 1 wherein said turbine mount on a supporting structure on said pontoons.
10. A floating decentralized power plant as claimed in claim 1 wherein said supporting structure consists of atleast one angle frame mounted between said pontoons and fitted rigidly on the pontoons by screw and spindle system, the said angle frame being capable of raised or lowered.
11. A floating decentralized power plant as claimed in claim 1 wherein said power
plant consists of several such turbines, which are supported by an anchoring
12 A floating decentralized power plant as clamed in claim 1 wherein said turbine blades prevent silt deposition in the river when used upstream of a dum.
13 A floating decentralized power plant substantially as herein described and illustrated with reference to the accompanying drawings.
A floating decentralized power plant Comprising a floating waterwheel turbine mounted on a seamless hollow shaft with forged fitted and welded solid ends Characterized in that at least two pontoons support the bearing on which the said shaft is mounted and said water wheel turbine having blades consisting of at least one controllable window provided with control means so as to increase or decrease the flow of water producing thrust, the said turbine wheel is connected to a power transmission system which in turn is connected to an energy conversion device for producing electrical energy.


Patent Number 201390
Indian Patent Application Number 00240/KOL/2003
PG Journal Number 7/2007
Publication Date 16-Feb-2007
Grant Date 16-Feb-2007
Date of Filing 25-Apr-2003
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
PCT International Classification Number F03B 3/00
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 NA