|Title of Invention||
AN APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING THE SYNCHRONIZATION OF A COMPLEX MACHINE DURING ELECTRIC POWER FAILURES OR LOSSES
|Abstract||(57) Abstract: A unit for controlling the synchronization of a complex machine during power failures or losses, wherein the machine comprises a plurality of motorized devices (Al, A2, A3) for the movement and control of the various components, and wherein each device is connected to the power supply bus by virtue of a speed converter (C1, C2, C3), each device having a known flywheel mass (ml, m2, m3) and having, in the steady state, a speed that is synchronized with that of the other devices. The unit includes: a system (2) for recognizing an actual grid power failure; systems for measuring the speed and the current of the various devices; a computing device (3) for calculating the moments of inertia of the most significant flywheel masses, of their respective speeds and absorbed currents; a circuit (5) for comparing the voltage of the supply bus with the last value of the voltage detected before the grid power failure, suitable to generate a first error signal; a closed-loop regulator circuit (7) for processing the first error signal so as to generate a second signal in output. The second signal can be sent to a multiplier operator (XI, X2, X3) that is associated with each converter to control the gradual and synchronous deceleration of all the devices, converting part of the kinetic energy of the most significant flywheel masses into electric power to supply the system. PRICE: THIRTY RUPEES|
The present invention relates to an apparatus for controlling the synchronization of a complex machine during electric power failures or losses, such as for example automated industrial facilities for mass-production in the mechanical, textile, chemical, paper-making, and food-production sectors, to mention only a few of the best-known, in case of electric power failure.
It is known that these machines are characterized by a large number of devices with corresponding electrical actuation systems that supervise the various functions and steps of the production process.
These devices must generally operate in a synchronous manner, that is to say, keeping precise speed or pitch ratios among each other in order to ensure continuity of the process and constant quality of the resulting products. For example, in spinning facilities all the drums and the spools of the winding frames must have very precise speed ratios to avoid accumulations or tears of the thread.
In the past, this condition could be met because the various devices were generally
connected to the rigid mechanical shaft of a single prime mover by means of belts,
chains, or other equivalent systems that are suitable to maintain constant and
invariable transmission ratios which, in case of an interruption in the supply of
motive power, caused all the devices to decelerate proportionally,
avoiding the above mentioned problems.
In today's complex machines, due to flexibility and productivity requirements, each device is generally actuated by a single independent DC motor or (more frequently) three-phase AC motor, of the asynchronous or brushless type. Other subsystems, such as brakes, encoders, dynamic stabilizers, and any other item that is necessary for the control and automation of the process, can be connected to the motors. Each motor, with the corresponding mechanical reduction unit, is generally connected to a so-called converter, which has the purpose of varying the frequency of the supply current to adjust the speed or power that is delivered as a function of the external loads. The assembly constituted by the motor, the reduction unit, any accessories, and the converter constitutes a so-called drive. The various drives are in turn connected to the bus of a controller, of the analog type or, more modernly, of the digital type, which has the purpose of synchronizing the various converters, maintaining speed ratios that are constant or governed by preset rules.
It is known that the national or local power grid does not guarantee constant delivery of electric power and has temporary interruptions that can be caused by short circuits, sudden changes in absorption, starting of high loads, and line failures.
The interruptions can last a long time, for example more than three minutes, in which case it is necessary to resort
to so-called uninterruptible power supplies.
Short interruptions, which fall within the field of application of the present invention, cause power failures lasting between a few tenths of a second and three minutes, with a higher incidence between 100 and 300 msec.
The sudden decelerations caused by these power failures can produce considerable damage, especially in some particularly sensitive products, such as for example threads. The various devices of an industrial machine in fact generally have very different flywheel masses and internal frictions; therefore, in case of power failures they are subject to different amounts of deceleration that alter the synchronization and the continuity of the process.
In order to obviate the lack of synchronization during deceleration, instead of the mechanical shaft of conventional systems having a single prime mover, one should create a so-called "virtual electrical shaft", that is to say, an intelligent connection between the adjustment systems of the various motors and drives that is suitable to maintain the speed ratios during the decelerations that occur as a consequence of the power failures in the electric grid.
A known method that is used by some manufacturers of control systems and converters consists in simultaneously
braking the various components in a constant manner, with an approximately linear-type deceleration criterion, so as to use and convert the kinetic energy of the decelerating masses to supply the drives in a synchronous fashion.
A first drawback of this system is constituted by the fact that it does not use closed-loop adjustment and therefore actual synchronization control is not performed.
Secondly, if one wishes to ensure the operation of the system at all speeds, the deceleration curve must have a very steep slope. In the first part of the deceleration, that is to say, when the speeds are still rather high, the amount of kinetic energy that is removed from the system is greater than the amount that is strictly necessary to power the system; therefore, part of this energy must be dissipated irreversibly in order to maintain the energy balance. On the contrary, in the second part of the deceleration, that is to say, when the speeds are lower, there no longer is enough energy to operate the drives and the electronic components of the system and it is not possible to follow the linear deceleration criterion. Accordingly, to ensure the operation of the system even at low speeds, it is necessary to set a very steep deceleration curve slope, that is to say, to impose very sudden decelerations that can be extremely harmful to delicate products.
The aim of the present invention is to provide a method and an intelligent control unit for synchronizing the various
devices and systems of a complex machine in which it is necessary to maintain preset speed ratios, such as to make the quality of the product being processed substantially insensitive to anomalies in current supply, particularly to power failures lasting longer than 0.1 seconds.
A particular object is to provide a method and a control unit that allow to obtain a deceleration curve of the machine that is as slow and uniform as possible even in the presence of power failures that lead to the full halting of the facility.
This aim is achieved by a method for controlling the deceleration of a facility according to claim 1, and by a control unit for performing the method according to claim 10.
The dependent claims describe particular embodiments of the method and control unit according to the invention.
By a method and a device according to the invention, one obtains a gradual deceleration of the various devices along an optimum curve that is calculated on the basis of the dynamic and electrical configuration of the facility, maintaining the longest possible voltage drop time. During deceleration, the various devices maintain the initial synchronization by using part of the kinetic energy of the most significant flywheel masses, which is instantly and automatically converted by the speed converters into electric power and redistributed proportionally among the
Accordingly, the present invention provides an apparatus for controlling the
synchronization of a complex machine during electric power failures or losses,
wherein said machine comprises a plurality of motorized devices (Al, A2, A3) for the
movement and control of the various components, and wherein each device is
connected to the power supply bus by a speed converter (CI, C2, C3), each device
having a known flywheel mass (ml, ml, m3) and having, in the steady state, a speed
that is synchronized with that of the other devices to allow the regular operation of the
machine, characterized in that it comprises: a detection means for recognizing an
actual grid power failure; measuring means for measuring the speed and current of the
various devices: a computing device for calculating the moments of inertia of the most
significant flywheel masses and the initial slope of the deceleration as a function of the
moments of inertia of said most significant flywheel masses, of the respective speeds,
and of the absorbed currents; a circuit for comparing the voltage of the power supply
bus with the last value of the voltage detected before the grid power failure, suitable to
generate a first error signal; a closed-loop regulator circuit for processing said first
error signal, so as to generate a second signal in output; wherein a multiplier operator
0 (XI, X2, X3) associated with each converter (CI, C2, C3) and connected to the output
jl| of said closed-loop regulator circuit; said multiplier operator (XI, X2, X3) having
means for elaborating said second signal and means for converting part of the kinetic =» energy of said most significant flywheel masses into electric power for the supply of said detection means and of said devices.
Further characteristics and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description of the method and control unit according to the invention, illustrated only by way of non-limitative example in the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Figure 1 is a block diagram of the connection between the various devices of an industrial facility, with specific reference to the most significant flywheel masses;
Figure 2 is a functional block diagram of the control unit according to the invention;
Figures 3 to 5 illustrate deceleration curves of the system in various control conditions;
Figures 6 and 7 plot families of deceleration curves of the various devices in case of prolonged power failure and in case of temporary grid loss, respectively.
Figure 1 is a diagram of an electrical and functional connection between some of the devices of a machine or industrial facility S and the electric power grid.
In particular, the complex machine S, enclosed in the main block shown in solid lines, can contain a plurality of devices that perform specific functions of the production process. Only three of these devices have been shown inside
the blocks Al, A2, and A3 in broken lines for the sake of simplicity. Of course, the number of devices is generally considerably higher, but this does not substantially change the nature of the problem.
Devices Al, A2, and A3 can be actuated by respective motors Ml, M2, and M3, for example of the asynchronous type, and can include other accessories or devices, such as encoders, brakes, and speed and current sensors. The motors are connected to the bus of the power supply line L by leads Dl, D2, and D3 and by freguency converters C1, C2, and C3 of a per se known type, for example of the kind produced and marketed by this same Applicant under the name AC WAVE2™. Each device has a flywheel mass ml, m2, m3 of known value, which a corresponding moment of inertia, and a speed V2, V2, and V3 that has a specific and constant ratio with respect to the speeds of the other devices during the normal operation of the machine.
The power line L is arranged after a rectifier unit Ra that is supplied with three-phase current provided by the national or local grid, which includes temporary power failures that have a known distribution.
A control unit 1, preferably of the microprocessor type, is connected to the converters C1, C2, and C3 and is described in detail hereinafter with particular reference to Figure 2.
Unit 1 includes a noise detector, shown schematically as a
block 2, that is connected to the three-phase electric grid ahead of the rectifier unit Ra and essentially has the purpose of measuring the duration of the voltage drops of each phase, indicating when it exceeds the minimum value of, for example, 10 msec, equal to three half wave periods. By virtue of this device it is possible to filter out measurement errors from actual power failures.
Furthermore, unit 1 includes a microprocessor computer 3 that is DC-supplied by the bus and receives input signals that arrive from speed detectors VI, V2, and V3 and from ammeters that measure the respective absorptions II, 12, and 13 of the individual devices in order to take into account internal frictions and the loads that act on the respective devices. By an interface keyboard 4 it is possible to enter, the initial data, in the computer 3, for example the flywheel masses ml, m2, and m3 that are most significant with respect to those of the other devices of the system. As a first approximation, one might also introduce a single flywheel mass, particularly the one related to the device that has the greatest inertia.
The computer is programmed to process speeds VI, V2, and V3, currents II, 12, and 13, and input data ml, m2, and m3 so as to calculate, at each instant, the initial slope of the optimum deceleration curve of the entire system at the moment To when the power failure occurs, in order to approximate a theoretical deceleration curve. It is noted that this theoretical optimum deceleration curve is approximately of the quadratic type, since the kinetic
energy depends on the square of the speed.
If this initial parameter were not calculated, one might adjust the system by assuming very slow braking, as shown in Figure 3, or very sharp braking, as shown in Figure 4, and in both cases considerable oscillations would occur before reaching an equilibrium condition that tends toward the theoretical curve, shown in dashed lines. Figure 5 instead shows the deceleration curve of the system when one introduces the initial slope in the calculation algorithm of the regulator, initial slope which is calculated by the computer 3, which provides a considerable approximation of the theoretical deceleration curve.
A sampling circuit 5 of the sample & hold type continuously calculates and stores a reference value of the voltage on the DC bus. A first relay Rl is provided on the supply line of circuit 5 and interrupts the stream of signals at the time To, holding it at the last sampled value.
A differential amplifier 6 compares the actual voltage of the DC bus with the last value sampled from circuit 5.
The error signal in output from amplifier 6 is sent to a closed-loop regulator 7 of the PID type, that is to say, of the type that has a proportional, integral, and derivative action, which determines a calculation algorithm for control. The signal in output from computer 3 is held by a third relay R3 at the time To and eliminates integral forcing on the PID regulator.
From the time To onward, the PID automatically regulates the deceleration so that the kinetic energy recovered by the combination of the flywheel masses is neither greater nor smaller than the energy that is sufficient to supply all the devices of the machine, maintaining the energy balance and keeping the voltage of the supply bus L constant.
Before starting the regulation, the PID calculates, a reference value, or "speed set point", for each device, so as to detect the average absorption with respect to this value. This leads to an initial speed step SI, S2, and S3, shown in Figures 6 and 7, whose size depends on the various absorptions and on the respective flywheel masses.
The output signal from the PID is constituted by a number between 1 and 0 and is proportional to the actual value of the speed during deceleration. This signal is held by a third relay R3 and sent outside unit 1.
The output signal from the PID can be used to regulate the various drives: for example, it can be sent to multipliers XI, X2, and X3 associated with each converter CI, C2, and C3. The values of the speed set points VI, V2, and V3 sampled last by three sample & hold circuits 8, 9, and 10 are held by respective relays R4, R5, and R6 and are multiplied by multipliers XI, X2, and X3 by the numeric signal computed by the PID regulator and held by relay R3.
Starting from time To, the most significant flywheel masses
ml, m2, and m3 have a certain inertia that tends to keep them in motion. During deceleration, part of the kinetic energy of masses ml, m2, and m3 is transferred to motors Ml, M2, and M3, which act as generators. The amount of kinetic energy converted by the motors into electric power is distributed within the system, which therefore requires no external source for the time during which the power failure occurs. During this interval, converters CI, C2, and C3 regulate the voltage and distribute it proportionally to all the motors of the individual devices of the machine, providing uniform deceleration. By virtue of the perfect setting of the converters, the speeds of the devices maintain their initial synchronization, that is to say, the initial ratios, avoiding damage to the delicate materials being processed.
In practice, the control method according to the invention includes the following steps:
a) calculating the moment of inertia of one or more
flywheel masses that are more significant than the others;
b) detecting grid noise and recognizing its duration;
c) instantaneously measuring the speed of each individual device and the current absorbed thereby;
d) calculating the initial speed to cancel out the average absorption of the entire system;
e) calculating the initial slope of the optimum
deceleration curve on the basis of the most significant
flywheel masses and of the corresponding speeds and
f) sampling and holding of the mains voltage;
and the following steps from the moment of actual power failure:
g) setting the value of the initial slope of the
deceleration curve and introducing this value in a
h) sending the value of the initial speed calculated to cancel out average absorption;
i) comparing the actual value of the voltage in the supply-line with the last sampled value, in order to obtain a first error signal;
j) sending the first error signal to a closed-loop regulator circuit that operates with the calculation algorithm to obtain a second system control signal;
k) sending the second control signal to the speed converter of each individual device to gradually reduce its speed, maintaining synchronization with the devices of the machine.
By this method, in case of prolonged power failure, devices Al, A2, and A3 decelerate until their speed is eliminated, as shown in the chart of Figure 6, whereas in case of a short-lasting grid loss, the speed of the devices decreases up to a certain moment Tl, when the power supply returns. The speed of the devices increases again, following a linear rule, as in the case of cold-starting.
In order to control all possible situations in an optimum manner, it is possible to introduce some setting parameters, such as for example: the parameters of the PID regulator, which affect the stability and performance of the control loop. The time required by the machine to stop, merely by inertia, which is relevant in calculating the initial deceleration slope; and the value of the maximum deceleration slope that prevents the regulator from imposing speed variations that are harmful to the mechanics of the machine.
In the illustrated embodiment the logic system of unit 1 is of the digital type. For the sake of practicality, communications between the unit and the converters can occur by an RS485 serial port, but it can also be different without modifying the inventive concept.
Furthermore, although the logic system and the communications protocol of the above described unit 1 are of the digital-logic type, it is evident that they can be analog or fuzzy without entailing modifications to the inventive concept.
Some limitations to the use of this method and control unit can be constituted by machines whose drives have negligible inertial masses. In order to obviate this drawback, it is possible to introduce, an inertial load, that has a sufficient flywheel mass, on the shaft of one or more drives or it is possible to increase the steady-state speed of the motors.
From the above description it is evident that the method and the control unit according to the invention achieve the intended aim and all the objects, and in particular their ability to decelerate the various devices of the machine synchronously and with a uniform deceleration curve is stressed.
The method and the control unit according to the invention are susceptible of numerous modifications and variations, all of which are within the scope of the inventive concept expressed in the accompanying claims and are all egually protected.
1. An apparatus for controlling the synchronization of a complex machine during electric power failures or losses, wherein said machine comprises a plurality of motorized devices (Al, A2, A3) for the movement and control of the various components, and wherein each device is connected to the power supply bus by a speed converter (CI, C2, C3), each device having a known flywheel mass (ml, ml, m3) and having, in the steady state, a speed that is synchronized with that of the other devices to allow the regular operation of the machine, characterized in that it comprises: a detection means (2) for recognizing an actual grid power failure; measuring means for measuring the speed and current of the various devices: a computing device (3) for calculating the moments of inertia of the most significant flywheel masses and the initial slope of the deceleration as a function of the moments of inertia of said most significant flywheel masses, of the respective speeds, and of the absorbed currents; a circuit (5) for comparing the voltage of the power supply bus with the last value of the voltage detected before the grid power failure, suitable to generate a first error signal; a closed-loop regulator circuit (7) for processing said first error signal, so as to generate a second signal in output; wherein a multiplier operator (XI, X2, X3) associated with each converter (CI, C2, C3) and connected to the output of said closed-loop regulator circuit; said multiplier operator (XI, X2, X3) having means for elaborating said second signal and means for converting part of the kinetic energy of said most significant flywheel masses into electric power for the supply of said detection means and of said devices.
2. The apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein it comprises a digital
microprocessor, with said closed-loop regulator (7) of the PID type.
3. The apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein it has a sample & hold circuit for
sampling both the grid voltage and the speed of each device, said sample and hold
circuit having means for elaborating a signal generated by said detector means (2).
4. The apparatus as claimed in claim 3, wherein said detection means has means
for recognizing (2) noise lasting more than 10 msec.
5. An apparatus for controlling the synchronization of a complex machine during
electric power failures or losses, substantially as herein described with reference to the
|Indian Patent Application Number||1179/MAS/1996|
|PG Journal Number||08/2007|
|Date of Filing||04-Jul-1996|
|Name of Patentee||M/S. REEL S R L|
|Applicant Address||RIVIERA BERICA 28,36024, PONTE DI NANTO (VICENZA)|
|PCT International Classification Number||68 C|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|