|Title of Invention||
METHOD OF MANUFACTURING COUNTERFEIT-PROOF AND/OR ALTERATION PROOF DOCUMENT AND A COUNTERFEIT-PROOF AND/OR ALTERATION-PROOF DOCUMENT
|Abstract||Method of manufacturing counterfeit-proof and/or alteration proof document two steps namely, (A) making a blank document/form counterfeit-proof having security element by:- (i) printing one or two black patches on the blank documetn in ink which is transparent to light rays of specific frequency; (ii) selecting specific fixed information from the blank document and encrypting it using a strong encryption system; (iii) converting the encrypted infromation into a barcode document in customised symbology; (iv) printing the barcode on the black patch on the blank documetn to get counterfeit proof document; (v) maintaining a data base consisting of details of all information printed as above;|
|Full Text|| FORM 2
THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 (39 of 1970) COMPLETE SPECIFICATION (See Section 10)
METHOD OF MANUFACTURING COUNTERFEIT-PROOF
AND/OR ALTERATION PROOF DOCUMENT AND
A COUNTERFEIT-PROOF AND/OR ALTERATION-PROOF DOCUMENT
MEHTA AJAY CHXMANLAL Kejriwal House, 7-N Gamadia Road, Mumbai 400 026, Maharashtra, India
(An Indian National)
30 MAY 2000
The following specification particularly describes and ascertains the nature of the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed :
This invention relates to a method of manufacturing counterfeit-proof and/or alteration proof document and a counterfeit-proof and/or alteration proof document.
The currently used methods of making valuable documents counterfeit proof and / or alteration proof like using papers with water mark and security threads, using printing technologies like ultraviolet ink, intaglio printing, latent imaging , void pantograph have all failed as even Rs. 500 currency notes and high value stamp papers in which these techniques are used have been successfully counterfeited and they have passed as genuine for long periods of time in spite of scrutiny by knowledgeable persons in theif respective fields.
The invention described below is based on the entirely new concept of using two security elements/means for fixed and variable information. Many valuable documents like bank drafts are first printed with some fixed information on them like name of the bank, serial no etc. When it is issued to some person, variable information like name of payee, the amount etc. is written or typed on it. In the first element / means the fixed information on the document like sr. no, name of issuer etc is first encrypted using a very strong encryption system, translated into barcode form specially devised and readable by customised scanners and then it is printed on a patch printed on the documelit with an ink, which is transparent only to light of specific wave length (which is used in the scanner). If this document is colour copied the barcode does not appear on the copy. Moreover, the encryption system used makes it next to impossible to print an identical document bearing the same encrypted barcode.
Thus the two methods of counterfeiting a document, i.e., colour copying and printing duplicates will completely fail and the document becomes counterfeit proof.
When variable information is written or typed on the blank form of the document before issuing it, some important piece of information is again encrypted using the same or similar strong encryption system and the cipher text is printed in a similar barcode form mentioned above or written or typed in the form of string of alphanumeric symbols. This is called the TEST CODE. If any person alters the variable information on a genuine document before it is presented for redemption or for use, the person to whom it is presented, having access to the decryption code can easily decode the first element to check the genuineness of the documents and the TEST CODE to detect any changes in the vital variable information on the document. This makes the document counterfeit proof and / or alteration proof.
2. Background :-
Documents of economic value like share certificates, bank drafts, deposit receipts and even forms like mark sheets issued by universities or examination boards, passports, driving licences, etc. are subject to counterfeiting. If the blank forms of documents are stolen, criminals can use them by making unauthorized endorsements and forging signatures of authorized signatories. If endorsed documents are intercepted, the value of the document or the name of the beneficiary may be altered and then the document may be offered for redemption of use.
In order to nullify efforts of criminals in this direction, the issuers of documents of economic value are constantly trying to improve the quality of the paper on which the documents are printed, using new methods in printing such as invisible ink, hologram, etc. to make the blank forms of the documents difficult to counterfeit and duplicate. However, with recent advances such as in colour copying, these efforts are not found to be sufficient.
As per the prior art, existing valuable documents suffer from defects in (a) document itself, and (b) in process. As a result, there is lack of sufficient means to ensure that the document is genuine as well as the contents of the same are not altered.
The main objective of this invention is to obviate the above described drawbacks / demutation / defects of the existing method of manufacturing valuable documents and the document itself and to provide a novel method of manufacturing to make the document counterfeit-proof and alteration-proof, such that the valuable documents are totally safe and easily detectable if any foul play with any merit or skill is attempted, thereby safeguarding our banking system, share markets, customs and excise collection system from huge losses, which otherwise will be incurred in a tremendous quantum. Same invention applies with equal merit to safeguard the sanctity of degree certificates, marklists, admission cards, which are required to be counterfeit-proof and alteration-proof to make the university and other educational board's system safe, trustworthy and dependable.
Another object of this invention is to implement the system easily so as to use the same and to detect frauds.
Accordingly, this invention provides : method of manufacturing counterfeit-proof and/or alteration-proof document and a counterfeit-proof and/or alteration-proof document comprising the following steps :
(a) printing the valuable document in the prescribed manner;
(b) printing or affixing the security element using security ink and a customised barcode symbology as per the requirement of the system and comprises fixed information of the document, duly encrypted, using a strong encryption system, thus making the document counterfeit-proof;
(c) alteration-proof- generation of Test Code / Identification Means on the document, the Test Code / Identification Means comprising part of the fixed information of the security element / means and key details of the variable information, which will make the document alteration-proof.
Modern advances in cryptography has made high grade strong crypto systems available. According to cryptologists' definition "strong" generally means "to all intents and purposes uncrackable - with existing technology and knowledge". According to another definition, "strong means that the chances of cryptosystem's cipher text being decoded or forged by anyone who does not possess the key, are so small as to be not worth considering".
Any document of economic or other value passes through one or more distinct phases: (1) Preparation of paper stock incorporating unique features/elements such as, but not limited to, special fibre pigments or chemicals uniquely distinguishable to the paper to be used for preparation of forms of the document and these forms are serially numbered to help maintain inventory and conduct audit. (2) After the blank forms of any document are printed, some endorsements are made on them by a competent authority to assign it specific value and / or to a specific beneficiary. (3) If the ownership of the document is transferred to any other person, suitable endorsements are made thereon, etc. Thus, adequate safety measures would need to be employed at these different stages of production.
3. General Description of the New Process of Manufacturing / Creating Counterfeit-proof and/or Alteration-proof and Documents and Counterfeit-proof and/or Alteration-proof Document.
3.1. This invention/process uses the following five distinct elements (a) Software, (b) Hardware, (c) Symbology for barcode, (d) Database, (e) Security Element/Means
(a)(i) This process employs a strong customised cryptosystem, available in textbooks on this subject, to make documents counterfeit-proof. Though cryptosystems are available freely, each user selects his own secret key to encrypt and decipher information. This key is known only to the user and his trusted people and therefore no unauthorised person can encrypt the information on the blank draft of the variable document and generate the cipher text relevant to it. This will make it virtually impossible for unauthorised entities / persons to encrypt the information on the documents and generate the security elements / means described hereunder and thereby preventing any unauthorised person manufacturing a counterfeit document; and if at all someone tries to counterfeit a document, it will be detected before it is used or redeemed.
(a)(ii) The information which is encrypted comprises the name of the institution issuing the document, subject and the serial number and the encrypted text is printed on the blank form on a. black patch which is printed by using ink transparent only to light of particular frequency to create the desired security element. While printing this encrypted text, precaution is to be taken to ensure that it is not readable or visible to the naked eye and is readable by an electronic device only, by using any one of numerous technologies like invisible inks or inks readable only under lights of specified frequencies. When this security element is scanned and information is passed through decryption programme, the computer screen will display the name of the institution, the subject and the serial number which are printed in eye-readable form on the blank form of the document. If the information on the computer screen and the information on the document match, it can be reasonably assumed by any person that the document is genuine.
(a)(iii) After satisfying himself that the blank form is genuine, the authorised signatory will enter the necessary details/ information on the blank form to make it usable. If it is a bank draft, the authorised signatory will enter the name of the payee, the amount payable, and simultaneously he will encrypt the information contained in the first security element in concatenation with the newly endorsed information written on the document. The encrypted text of all this information will be printed by the computer in the form of a Test Code/ Identification Means. If a computer is not available, the issuing authority will key in the specific details of the blank form in concatenation with the endorsed information written on the document in a calculator like encoder machine which will encrypt the information and generate the cipher text. Such machines can be manufactured by experts in the field. The issuing authority will enter the cipher text on the document manually.
(a)(iv) Since the encryption and decryption programmes are separately and independently maintained only by authorized persons, it will not be possible for any outsider to alter the endorsements once made on the document. When the document is tendered for redemption or for use by the person to whom it is issued, the receiving authority will first decrypt the first security element / means to ensure that the original document is genuine. He will then scan or read and decrypt the second security element. The computer will automatically check whether the name of the issuing institution and the serial number of the blank form on the first an second security elements match and give an indication
accordingly. If they match, the person honouring the document will further check whether the endorsement made on the document matches with the decrypted information which has appeared on the computer screen. If they match, he will be fully assured that the document has been issued by the rightful authority and that the endorsement has not been altered at any time between the time of issue and the time of redemption or honouring this document. If the cipher text has been manually entered on the document, in lieu of the second security element, as mentioned in (a)(iii) the redeeming authority will scan the first security element and then key in the cipher text (endorsed manually) in the computer, which will decrypt both and compare the information on the first security element and the same information on the second element and give an indication if they match. The computer will also display the details of the endorsement. This will be compared with the endorsement on the document. The document will be redeemed or honoured if the two match.
(a)(v) In the alternative, the authority which redeems the document will scan the first security element scan or key in the second security element and also key in the relevant details in the latest endorsement. The software programme will be so designed that the computer will encrypt the keyed in information and generate cipher text and compare the so generated cipher text with that in the two security elements and either accept or reject the document, depending on whether the two cipher texts match or not.
(b)(i) The hardware itinerary will consist of a suitable computer or a hand held encryption device, a hardware lock, printer, scanner and stationery.
(b)(ii) The computer can be a simple personal computer. The hand held encryption device will have a key pad and LCD display and will be able to encrypt keyed in data.
(b)(iii) Hardware lock will be used to keep the encryption decryption software in non-copiable and non-erasable mode.
(b)(iv) The printer will be capable of printing security element containing cipher text of the endorsement on the document.
(b)(v) The scanners will be customised so that only specific scanners will be able to read the contents of the security element. These are available with manufacturers of scanners.
(b)(vi) The stationery will consist of blank forms on which the security elements are printed or affixed.
(c) Symbology of Barcode
The barcodes normally used in market are called 39, 128b, etc. Any scanner available in the market can read such barcodes. The barcodes used in the security element / means and the Test Code / Identification Means on the document will be printed with the help of specially devised barcodes which are not used by anyone else. These barcodes can be devised and supplied by manufacturers of scanners and they will be unique to one programme. This will ensure that outsiders will not be able to use similar barcode symbology and print or generate security elements / means or Test Codes / Identification Means.
(d)(i) As soon as any blank form of a document is printed, database will be built up containing information such as and not limited to the parties to whom specific forms have been supplied.
(d)(ii)As soon as any endorsement is made on any blank form, the database will be updated with the endorsement information and relevant data. The name/identity details of the person who endorses the document will also be entered against each document, either in the computer or in manually written registers.
(d)(iii) At the place where the document is redeemed, the database will be built up, showing which document is redeemed or honoured and by whom. This will be in electronic form, or in a regularly maintained register.
(d)(iv) In the extremely unlikely event of any mischief being played, the database will help fix the responsibility.
(e) Security Element / Means
(e)(i) The security element will be in machine readable / scannable form such as, but not limited to, specially devised barcoded form or may be in the form of eye- readable string of alphanumeric characters.
(e)(ii) The security elements printed or affixed on the blank forms must be printed in a manner to make it non-copiable, non-readable by naked eye by using any technology like invisible or ink readable
under light of specified frequency or black ink on black background etc.
(e)(iii) The technology used will help establish the genuineness of the document.
(e)(iv) The technology used will be capable of machine reading of encrypted data in the elements, storing critical information on the document.
(e)(v) The technology is software supported, intelligent and reliable for the use/ purpose.
(e)(vi) The technology is insurable against losses that could occur due to frauds.
(e)(vii) The technology generates a complete audit trail from the manufacturer to the document holder in that any fraud committed at any stage can be traced to the agency or individual responsible for the same.
3.II. Following is the brief description of the process showing how a valuable document can be made counterfeit-proof and/or alteration-proof by using the five distinct elements described above. Any institution or agency wanting to issue valuable documents will print the documents as usual. Thereafter, they will print the security element using special security ink, special symbology for barcode, a strong encryption system making the security element non-duplicable and counterfeit-proof. This security element will contain fixed information on the blank draft of the document like the name of the institution, the subject and the serial number of the document which will be printed on the documents in eye-readable form also. When the security element / means is scanned and the encrypted information is put through the decryption programme, the plain text comprising the name of the institution, the subject and the serial number will appear on the computer screen. The authorised person from the institution will check the information appearing on the screen with that on the document and if the two match perfectly, the blank form will assuredly be original and can be used for filling up the variable information. The authorised person from the institution will then proceed to type the variable information such as the name of the beneficiary, the amount payable to him, etc and the software stored in the computer will automatically generate the Test Code / Identification Means relevant to part of the fixed information on the document and the relevant variable information by using the encryption system software and print it on the document simultaneously. This can be either in eye-readable alphanumeric symbols or in customised barcode. This Test
Code/ Identification Means will make the variable information written or encrypted on the document alteration proof. When the document is tendered for redemption or for use, the authorised person who wants to rely on the document will scan the security element / means and with the help of the decryption software available to him, the contents of the security element will be decrypted and the computer screen will exhibit the name of the issuing institution, the subject and the serial number of the document. The person wanting to use the document will compare this information with the information printed or written on the document. If the two match, he will be assured that the form of the document is genuine. He will then proceed to key in or scan the Test Code/ Identification Means. He will further key in the variable information written on the document and key in into the computer the key elements related to the document and the software programme installed in the computer will automatically compare the relationship between the key elements in the variable information and the fixed information with the Test Code / Identification Means and declare whether the variable information has been altered or not. If the programme declares the variable information is correct, the person using the form can safely infer that not only is the document genuine but the variable information has not been altered. In the whole process, data about the person filling in the variable information, the information itself and about the person who is checking the genuineness of the document, will be built up and stored. Data about each security element / means printed and Test Code / Identification Means printed and used will also be built up. It will be useful to pinpoint the actions of every person using the scheme.
Application and Modifications
(i) This process can, with minor modifications, be used to make any document of economic or intrinsic value counterfeit-proof and to ensure immediate detection (prior to its being redeemed or honoured) if the endorsements thereon are altered. Examples are share/ stock certificates, bank drafts, fixed deposit receipts, bonds etc. It can also be applied to other documents like mark sheets, passports, driving licenses etc.
(ii) Taking bank draft as an illustration, the whole process is described below.
iii) The security element will look like
There is a black patch in the security element and barcode is printed on the black patch. For the purpose of illustration, the barcode is distinctly shown. In the actual security element the barcode will be printed on the black patch and will be very indistinct.
When the security element is scanned by an ordinary barcode scanner and not by the customised barcode scanner, the ordinary barcode scanner will not recognize the barcode and hence will not be able to display any data from the security element.
When the document containing the security element is photocopied, the security element in the photocopied document will appear as a black patch only and when this security element in the photocopied document is scanned by the barcode scanner , either ordinary barcode scanner or customised barcode scanner, the barcode scanner will not recognise the security element as a valid element and hence will not display any data .
When the security element is scanned by the customised barcode scanner but not decoded using the software incorporating the decryption program, the scanned data will appear as undecipherable set of alphanumeric characters such as , f4RTh67uw8qb . When the same security element is scanned using the customised barcode scanner and the data is decoded using the software incorporating the decryption program, the scanned data will appear as meaningful data, such as 'Deepak 45678'.
Authentication and Redemption System and Process
1. Each draft (Please refer to Figure 1) will have a security element pre¬
printed on it, in addition to what is pre-printed on it at present (i.e.,
the text "Payee Name", "Amount", "Authorised Signatory", etc. and
the MICR line) The security element contains the unique identifier of
that particular blank draft, i.e., the bank code, branch code and draft
Procedure for Issuing Drafts at Computerised Branches
2. For issuing a draft, the bank official takes a leaf out of the booklet containing blank drafts, imprints the branch name on it (if it is not printed already), and scans the security element containing the bank code and draft number using the scanner, and by matching the eye-readable text on the draft and what appears on the computer screen and satisfies himself that the draft stationery is genuine. He then enters into the computer, the details of the draft: a) payee name b) drawee branch, and c) the amount.
3. The payee's name, amount, drawee branch are printed on the draft. The computer generates a Test Code which is cipher text of the information contained in the pre-printed security element and the data keyed in Step 2 above, i.e., (a) bank code, (b) branch code, (c) draft number, (d) payees name (first three letters), (e) the amount, and generates a Test Code by encrypting this information. The computer prints the Test Code in eye-readable print. (Please see Figure 2 for a schematic drawing of the draft as it will look at this stage.)
4. The computer also updates a local database, thus logging the draft details along with identity of bank official who issued it.
5. The official signs the draft as at present, and issues it to the customer.
Procedure for Issuing Drafts at Non-computerised Branches
Non-computerised branches will use a hand-held calculator-like device with a keypad and LCD display. The device will contain the encryption system for generating the Test Code based on the blank draft and the payee's name, amount, drawee branch.
6. For issuing a draft, the bank official takes a leaf out of the booklet
containing blank drafts, imprints the branch name (if it is not printed
already), and enters into the hand-held device, a) bank code, b)
branch code, c) draft number, d) payee's name (first three letters), and e) the amount. The device displays cipher text of this information.
7. The official writes by hand on the draft or enters manually, the endorsement details of the draft (payee's name, drawee branch and amount) and also the Test Code displayed by the hand-held device. (Please see Figure 2 for a schematic drawing of the draft as it will look at this stage.)
8. The official signs the draft as at present, and issues it to the customer.
Procedure for Passing a Draft for Payment
Drafts are either encashed at the drawee branch, or are deposited into a beneficiary account in a bank in the location at which the draft is payable. In the latter case, the draft would go through local clearing and come to the issuing branch or the service branch in the location.
The following describes the procedure for passing a draft for payment in three cases: a) where the draft has been issued by a computerised branch and received by computerised branch, b) where the draft has been issued at a non-computerised branch (i.e., where the draft has a Test Code handwritten on it) and is received by a paying branch having a computer, and c) where any draft is received by a paying branch not having a computer.
a) Draft received at a computerised branch from a Computerised Branch
9. The official scans the first security element on the draft containing the
bank code, branch code and draft number. If the draft is genuine, the
computer decrypts the information on the first security element, and
displays the bank code, branch code and the draft number on the
screen. If this display matches with the information on the draft, the
draft is genuine. If the draft is counterfeit, the decryption will fail,
and the computer displays a message accordingly.
In case the draft is genuine, the official proceeds to the next step. If it is not genuine, he takes appropriate action.
10. The official keys in the Test Code printed on the draft. The software
compares the details on the first security element and the second. If
the name of the branch and serial number match, it gives an okay
indication. The software decrypts the information scanned, and
displays on the screen the name of the drawee branch, the amount
and the first three letters from the name of the payee.
11. The draft is passed for payment only if the details displayed by the computer and those on the draft match with each other.
12. Alternatively, the official first scans the two security elements on the draft and keys in the code / name of the issuing branch, the draft number, the relevant details of the payee's name and the amount. The software is so devised that the computer generates the two cipher texts and compares them with the two scanned cipher texts. It passes the draft for payment only if they match fully.
13. The software maintains a record of the passed draft alongwith identity of the official who handled the draft.
b) Draft issued by a non-computerised branch received by a computerised Branch
14. The official scans the first security element on the draft containing
the branch code and draft number. If the draft is genuine, the
software decrypts the information on the first security element and
displays the branch code and draft number on the screen. If the draft
is counterfeit, the decryption will fail, and the computer displays a
If the draft is genuine, the official proceeds to the next step. If it is not genuine, he takes appropriate action.
15. The official enters the Test Code written on the draft in the computer. The software decrypts the information entered and compares details on the first security element and that deciphered from the Test Code. If they match, it displays on the screen the name of the drawee branch, the amount and the first three letters from the name of the payee. The official compares this with the information on the draft.
16. The draft is passed for payment only if the details displayed by the computer and those on the draft match with each other.
17. Alternatively, the official first scans the first security element and
then enters the Test Code in the computer. Thereafter, he enters the
name / code of the issuing branch, draft number, the relevant details
of the payee and the amount. The software is so designed that the
computer generates the two cipher texts and compares them with the
scanned and entered cipher texts. The computer passes the draft for
payment only if the two match.
18. The software maintains a record of the passed draft alongwith identity
of the official who handled the draft.
c) Draft received at a non-computerised branch from either computerized or non-computerised branch
19. The official enters the name / code of the issuing branch, the draft number and the relevant details about the name of the payee and the amount in the hand held device. The device generates cipher text of the Test Code and displays it. The official compares it with Test Code written on the draft. He passes the draft for payment only if the two match.
20. The official enters details of drafts paid and unpaid in a register he maintains.
1) Method of manufacturing counterfeit-proof and/or alteration-proof document comprising the following steps:
A) making a blank document/ form counterfeit-proof having security element by:-
(i) printing one or two black patches on the blank document in ink which is
transparent to light rays of specific frequency ; (ii) selecting specific fixed information from the blank document and
encrypting it using a strong encryption system; (iii) converting the encrypted information into a barcode document in
customised symbology; (iv) printing the barcode on the black patch on the blank document to get
counterfeit proof document; (v) maintaining a data base consisting of details of all information printed
B) making the said counterfeit-proof document alteration-proof by
printing/writing testcode/identification means thereon by :
(i) filling upon the document with the required variable information to complete the valuable document at the time of issue;
(ii) selecting some of the fixed information and variable information from the filled up document and encoding the selected information and encrypting it using the software having same or similar encryption system as in step A (ii), converting it into customised barcode document and printing it on the other black patch on the document on alternative printing/writing the encrypted alphanumerical eye readable (not converted into barcode) coded information as the testcode.
2) Method of manufacturing counterfeit-proof and/or alteration-proof document as claimed in claim (1) wherein selected fixed information consist of particulars such as (a) name of the company issuing the document (b) serial number of the document (c) name of document, as desired by the issuer;
3) Method of manufacturing counterfeit-proof and/or alteration-proof document as claimed in claim (1) wherein the issuer can select some important variable information like, name of owner of the document, the amount or value of the document, the place and/or the date of validity of the document, as desired by the issuer;
4) A counterfeit-proof and/or alteration-proof document, which is obtained by a method of manufacturing as claimed in Claims 1,2 and 3 above.
5) Method of manufacturing counterfeit-proof and alteration-proof document as
more particularly described in the specification and the drawings.
Dated this 29th day of May 2000
(B. S. SHAH ) Duly Constituted Attorney
|Indian Patent Application Number||495/MUM/2000|
|PG Journal Number||41/2007|
|Date of Filing||30-May-2000|
|Name of Patentee||AJAY CHIMANLAL MEHTA|
|Applicant Address||KEJRIWAL HOUSE, 7-N GAMADIA ROAD, MUMBAI MAHARASHTRA INDIA|
|PCT International Classification Number||N/A|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|