|Title of Invention||
"A PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF A NOVEL SYNERGISTIC FEED FOR THE JUVENILE SHRIMPS."
|Abstract||An improved process for the preparation of a novel synergistic feed formulation for juvenile shrimps which comprises mixing 1 0-12% wt % dired and powdered seaweeds such as species genesis Ulva, Entremorpha ; 27-30 wt % of powdered carbohydrates source. 1 8-20 wt % of proteinaceous materials; 40-45 wt % of carbohydrates bassed binding agent and 5-8 wt% of lipids source such as herein described|
|Full Text||The invention relates to a process for the preparation of a novel synergistic feed formulation for the juvenile shrimps. The formulation, may be used as it is or in the form of pellets.
Hitherto known formulations of a large number of shrimp feeds have been developed in the past 20 years. The preparation of the above said feed formulation involves selection of suitable ingredients mainly protein, binding agent, palatability and relative potential for better growth. Various studies on the shrimp nutrition enabted to define the main requirements for proteins, lipids (steriod, fatty acids) and carbohydrates. The protein requirement for Penaeus spp. ranges between 30-55%. However, other feeds showed that proteins requirement in the diet ranges from 28 to 32% for P. styliferus, 43% for P. monodon, 34 to 42% for P. merguiensis and 40 to 55% for juveniles of P. monodon.
In shrimp culture practice either semi-intensive or intensive, feed contributes around 60% of the total production cost. Therefore, much attention has been given in recent years to use cheap and good quality feed which inturn reduces the cost of shrimp production. In adult shrimp nutrition, protein and lipid contribute a major portion of the diet. These nutrients play an important role on the growth of shrimps. The source of these nutrients is mainly from the marine organisms, i.e. fish meal and oil. These ingredients are more expensive than most common agricultural products.
Selection of an appropriate feed with respect to different stages of shrimp is one of the major tasks in shrimp farming as it is directly responsible for the growth and survival of the organisms. A cheap feed consisting of usually raw food such as minced meat of mussel and clams, ricebran, coconut oil cake etc. make large scale
intensive shrimp culture economical and profitable. Several studies have been conducted where protein level was reduced and diet was supplemented by non protein elements to maintain the total energy level. The replacement of protein from 40% to 30% and increase in the percentage of carbohydrates to 30% in the diet normally does not affect the growth. Incorporation of carbohydrates in the diet show a greater sparing action than lipids in the diet of the juveniles. The requirements of carbohydrates in the diet for the juveniles of shrimp especially P. monodon has not been given much attention.
Due to the shortage in the supply of the food items, their high cost and deficiency of important nutrients in the feed, an attempt has been made to develop a suitable artificial, cost effective and growth efficient feed for the juveniles of shrimp especially P. monodon.
The different commercial feeds available in the market contain high percentage of proteins and lipids and less carbohydrates (4%). The search on the subject showed that feed rich in carbohydrates and seaweed as the major component have not been known so far.
Reference may be made to a publication wherein juveniles of Penaeus monodon were fed with diets containing 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60% protein. The protein feed contained ingredients such as casein, dextrin, soybean meal, squid meal, fish meal, shrimp meal, bread flour, cod liver oil, cholesterol, vitamin mix, mineral mix, sago palm starch and celite. (The quantitative dfetary proteins requirements of Penaeus monodon juveniles in a controlled environment. V. R. Alava and C. Lim, Aquaculture, 30 ; 1983 ; 53-61).
Reference may be made to a publication wherein Penaeus monodon were fed with a feed containing marine yeast, prawn meal, ground nut oil cake, rice bran,
tapioca powder, sardine oil and mineral mix. In this feed formulation marine yeast was used as a protein source. This feed containing 39.76% protein, 28.08% carbohydrate and 4,76 % lipids. (Use of marine yeast as a protein source in the pelleted feed for the black tiger Penaeus monodon - Nursery rearing. S. Jose and P. A. Josekutty, Seafood Export Journal; 1995; 15-18).
Reference may be made to a publication wherein a compound feed- was prepared making use of locally natural available protein product such as beef liver meal, coconut oil cake, soya flour, mangrove leaves, wheat flour and distilled water. (Formulation of cheaper artificial feeds from shrimp culture: Preliminary biochemical, physical and biological evaluation. U. Goswami and S. C. Goswami, Aquaculture, 16, 1979; 309-317).
Reference may be made to a publication wherein flours from corn, sorghum, millet, rice, meals from pasta and cookie by-product were used as the main carbohydrate source to study the growth of juvenile shrimp of Penaeus vannamei. (Effect of different carbohydrate source on the growth of Penaeus vannamei : economical impact L. E. Cruz-Suarez, D. Ricque Marie, J. D. Pinal Mansillia and P. Wesche-Ebelling, Aquaculture, 123; 1994; 349-369).
Reference may be made to a publication wherein essential nutrients such as glucose, sucrose, trehalose, α-Cellulose with different concentrations (10, 20i and 30%) of carbohydrates were used to feed the juveniles of Penaeus monodon (Carbohydrate requirements of Peneaus monodon (Fabricius) juveniles. V. R. Alava and F .P. Pascual, Aquaculture, 61; 1987; 211-217).
Reference may be made to a publication wherein -various carbohydrate concentrations (5%, 15%, 25% and 35%) of gelatinized breadflour as a carbohydrate source were used to determine growth response in Penaeus monodon (Apparent digestjbility of diets with various carbohydrate levels and the growth response of Penaeus monodon. M. R. Catacutan, Aquaculture, 95; 1991; 89-96).
Reference may be made to a publication wherein juveniles of Peneaus monodon Fabricius were reared on semi-purified diets containing 10 or 40% maltose, sucrose, dextrin, molasses, cassava starch, cornstarch or sago palm starch as main constituents in the feed formulation. (Survival and some histological changes in Penaeus monodon Fabricius juveniles fed various carbohydrates. F. Pascual, R. M. Cotoso and C. T. Tamse, Aquaculture, 31; 1983; 169-180).
However, in all above feeds seaweed was not used which showed a very high growth rate in juveniles of Penaeus monodon.
In some of the commercially available common feeds, the following are the constituents followed in feed formulation:
At present, a huge amount of foreign exchange is being spent on importtn| good quality feeds for the juvenile shrimps. The indigenous production of feedi particularly in pellets form on commercial scale will not only help in saving thf
foreign exchange but adequate supply of juvenile shrimp feeds can also be made available at low cost in the Indian market. India will be in position to export the feeds to the developing countries and earn substantial amount of foreign exchange.
The main objective of the present invention is to provide a novel synergistic feed formulation for juvenile shrimps which obviates the drawbacks as detailed
Another objective is to provide a novel feed formulation which is low cost and growth effective feed suitable for the juvenile shrimps especially Penaeus monodon.
Yet another objective is to provide a novel feed formulation having a higher carbohydrate content.
Still another objective is to provide a novel feed containing seaweeds.
Accordingly, the present invention provides a process for the preparation of a novel synergistic feed formulation for juvenile shrimps which comprises mixing 10-12 wt% dried & powdered seaweeds such as species of Ulva, Enteromorpha, 27-30 wt% of powdered carbohydrates source , 18-20 wt % proteinaceous materials; 40-50 wt % of carbohydrates based binding agent and 5-8 wt % of lipids source such as herein described.
In an embodiment of the present invention, the seaweeds used is from marine green algae such as Ulva fasciata, Ulva lactuca, Ulva. reticulate, Enteromorpha intestinalis or mixture thereof.
In an another embodiment of the present invention, carbohydrate used is such as ricebran, molasses, starch, potato, detoxified soybean, tapioca or mixture thereof.
In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the proteinaceous materials is used such as mussel meat, clam meat, oyster meat, squid, egg, trash fish, soya seeds, yeast, molasses or mixture thereof.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, the binding agents is used such as wheat flour, tapioca, molasses or mixture thereof.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, the lipid is used such as coconut oil cake, sunflower oil cake, cotton oil cake, soya bean oil cake or mixture thereof.
The novelty and inventive steps of the present invention is based on increasing the amount of carbohydrate content in the formulation and using seaweed as an essential component in the formulation.
The present invention provides a feed formulation for juvenile shrimps containing low cost protein and high content of carbohydrates ingredients. These carbohydrate ingredients not only substitute protein component to function as energy source but also provide stability to the feed and increase food conversion through increased payability and digestion. The increases digestibility reduces faecal production and thereby reducing organic matter loading in the culture pond. The new feed has shown the best efficiency when a comparison was made between the another feed developed by us and commercial feed available in the market.
The feed formulation obtained by the process of the present invention is neither a product of chemical reaction nor a mere admixture but is a synergistic formulation having the properties different than the aggregate properties of the individual components.
The detailed steps of the process of the present invention are;
(I) Cleaning: Drying and powdering seaweeds from commonly occurring marine
algae by known methods. The known materials used is such as Ulva fasciata,
Ulva lactuca, Ulva. reticulate, Enteromorpha intestinalis. The known method used
such as collection of seaweed from commonly occurring group of marine algae
from beaches of Goa; washing it several times with fresh water to remove sand
particles and other unwanted materials; keeping seaweeds in fresh water for 24-
36 hours to remove extra sand particles; separating seaweeds filaments and
spreading on a blotting paper under sunlight for drying; further drying of the
seaweed at 60-70° C for 48 -56 hours in an oven.
(II) Detoxification of soybean seeds by known methods, grinding the detoxified
seeds to fine powder by known methods. The detoxification is effected by
methods such as soaking the soybean seeds in water for 24-36 hours; boiling
for 15-20 minutes in freshwater; drying the seeds at 130° C for 2 hours.
(III) Preparing separately fine powders of carbohydrates such as ricebran, potato, tapioca, wheat flour.
(IV) Preparing minced protein ingredients such as molasses, soyabean and yeast.
(V) Preparing powdered lipids such as coconut oil cake, sunflower oil cake, soybean
(VI) The desired quantity of powdered seaweeds, powdered carbohydrate,
powdered lipids, minced protein matters and binding agent were mixed to obtain
a tough dough. Pellets of size in the range 1.5 to 2.5 mm were prepared and
dried using conventional methods and machines. Pellets are dried at 60° C for
The invention is described in detail with reference to the examples given below which are provided by way of illustrations only and therefore, should not be construed to limit the scope of the present invention.
Seaweed, Ulva fasciata from commonly occurring group of marine algae is collected from beaches. The seaweed at first, is washed several times with fresh water to remove sand particles and other unwanted materials. Seaweed is further kept in fresh water for 24 hours to remove extra sand particles. The filaments of the seaweeds are spread on a blotting paper under sunlight for drying. Further drying of the seaweed is completed at 60° C for 48 hours in an oven. The soybean seeds are soaked in water for 24 hours and then boiled for 15 minutes. The seaweed (10 g) and carbohydrates with combination of ricebran (15 g), tapioca (20 g) and protein ingredients consisting of molasses (10 g), soybean (10 g), yeast (10 g) are grounded separately with the help of a kitchen mixer. They are mixed with wheat ftour (20 g) and coconut oil cake (5 g) and kneaded well for about 10 minutes until a tough dough is obtained. The pellets (2 mm diameter) are prepared with the help of a hand operated pelletizer. Pellets were dried at 60° C for 24 hours. The above prepared pelletised feed was fed at the ratio 1: 10% of the total body mass twice in a day.
The feed formulation without seaweeds but with high proteinacious ingredients was prepared as follows:
The mussel meat (20 g), clam meat (15 g), squid (10 g), trash fish (10 g ), egg (1 no) rice bran (10 g), molasses (10 ml), oil cake (5 g) are mixed thoroughly in a kitchen mixer for 10 minutes. After mixing these ingredients, wheat flour (15
g) and yeast (5 g) are added in the mixture. The ingredients are kneaded for further 10 minutes until a tough dough is formed. The pellets (2 mm diameter) are prepared with the help of a hand operated pellatizer. Pellets are dried at 60° C for 24 hrs. The above prepared pelletised feed was fed at the ratio 1: 10% of the total body mass twice in a day.
Commercial feed available in the brand name of High Gain Lipton feed comprising 40% proteins, 3% carbohydrates, 3% lipids and remaining other ingredients 54% were used to feed juvenile shrimps as described above.
Commercial feed available in the brand name of Higashi 3000 comprising 40% proteins, 3% carbohydrates, 6% lipids and remaining other ingredients 51% were used to feed juvenile shrimp as described above.
Commercial feed available in the brand name of Grow-Best comprising were used to feed juvenile shrimp as described above.
The analysis of data on weekly basis, showed that average food consumption for feed of Example 1 was minimum (0.479 g dry weight). A maximum consumption was recorded for feed of Example 2 with an average of 1.051 g (dry weight). However, the data for faecal production showed a minimum production (0.061 g dry weight) for feed of Example 1, whereas, maximum (0.248 g dry weight) for feed of Example 2. The faecal production for other feeds was close to feed of Example 2. A significance difference was observed (p
data for assimilation which showed that for feed of Example 1, the assimilation efficiency was relatively higher (86.78%) as compared to other feeds. However, minimum assimilation efficiency was observed for feed of Example 2 (74.59%).
Similarly, weekly weight gained by the juveniles was higher for feed of Example 1. The average net growth efficiency for feed of Example 1 was 231.54% whereas, a minimum (80.95%) for feed of Example 2.
The averaf® gross growth efficiency value was maximum (19847%) for feed of Example 1 whereas, minimum (59.00%) for feed of Example 2 . For the other feeds, the average gross growth efficiency was between 85.96% and 121.82% .
The Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) when compared for all fie five feeds used in the present study showed a minimum FCR (0.471) for feed of Example 1. The highest FCR values (1.248) was calculated for feed of Example 2.
The biochemical analysis for all the feeds used in the present invention showed that carbohydrates were relatively higher in feed of Example 1 as compared to other feeds.
The above mentioned comparison for the efficiency of different feeds used in the experiments show maximum growth attains by the juvenile shrimp is for feed of Example 1.
A comparative study between the commercially available pelleted feeds and feed developed by us was conducted as detailed in the Example 1-5 to show the efficiency of the formulated feed, its nutritional value and effect on the growth of the juveniles of Penaeus monodon under laboratory conditions. The feed formulation of the present invention has shown the best efficiency than the commercial feeds available in the market as shown in Table 1 below.
Table 1 : A summary of the efficiency of different diets. [Values are In dry wt (g) per animal and experimental period
was 49 days]
1. An improved process for the preparation of a novel synergistic feed I formulation for juvenile shrimps which comprises mixing 10-12% wt % dired and powdered seaweeds such as species genesis UIva, Entremorpha; 27-30 wt % of powdered carbohydrates source; 18-20 wt % of pnoteinaceous materials; 40-45 wt % of carbohydrates based binding a§ent and 5 - 8 wt% of lipids source such as herein described.
2. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the seaweeds is selected from Ulva fasciata, UIva iactuca, Ulva, reticulate, Enteromorpha intestinalis or mixture thereof.
3. A process as claimed in claims 1 & 2 wherein the carbohydrate is; selected from ricebran, molasses, starch, potato, detoxified soybean, tapioca or mixture (hereof.
4. A process as claimed in claims 1-3 wherein the proteinaceous materials selected from
mussel meat, clam meat, oyster meat, squid, egg, trash fish, soyai seeds, yeast,
molasses or mixture thereof.
5. A process as claimed in claims 1-4 wherein the carbohydrate based binding agents
selected from wheat flow, tapioca, molasses or mixture thereof.
6. A process as claimed in claims 1-5 vyherein the lipid is selected from coconut oil cake,
sunflower oil cake, cotton oil cake, soybean oil cake or mixture thereof.
7. A process for the preparation of novel synergistic feed formulation for the
juvenile shrimps substantially as herein described with reference to Example 1.
|Indian Patent Application Number||1348/DEL/1999|
|PG Journal Number||31/2009|
|Date of Filing||11-Oct-1999|
|Name of Patentee||COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH|
|Applicant Address||RAFI MARG, NEW DELHI-110001, INDIA|
|PCT International Classification Number||A23L 1/337|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|