|Title of Invention||
A process for the preparation of a Novel composition useful for making parottas
|Abstract||A Process for the preparation of novel composition having improved Theological characteristics of dough useful for making parottas which comprises blending flour having total ash 0.5%, dry gluten 10-12%, protein content 10-12% SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate) sedimentation value 55-65ml, damaged starch 8-12%, water absorption 58-62% with 15-75ppm reducing agents.|
|Full Text||A process for the preparation of a novel composition useful for making parottas and a process for making improved parottas there of.
This invention particularly relates to a process for preparing a composition and making parottas there of having improved rheological characteristics of dough for parotta, thereby improving the quality of parotta.
Just as bread is a staple food item in the Western World, chapati, phulka, puri, tandoori roti, nan, South Indian parotta, North Indian parotta, batura, etc. are important staple food items of India. The parotta prepared in South India entirely differs from the one in North India. The main raw material in the preparation of South Indian parotta is wheat flour (maida) obtained from roller flour mills, while whole wheat flour (atta) from disc mills or resultant atta from roller flour mills is used in North India. The methodology of preparation, taste and textural profiles of South and North Indian parotta are quite different. Qarooni mentioned about the South Indian parotta in his book "Flat bread technology" (Qarooni, J. Flat breads. In Flat bread technology (Qarooni, J. Ed), International Thomson Publishing, New York, 1996, pp88.)
More than 50% of wheat flour produced by the roller flour mills in South India is utilised for the preparation of South Indian parotta hence forth referred to simply as parotta - is basically prepared using wheat flour, salt, oil and water, while sugar and egg form the optional ingredients. The dough prepared with flour, salt and water is rested and later spread into a thin film with liberal application of oil. The film is folded into multiple layers and then coiled. After resting, it is sheeted again into a circular disc of 15 cm diameter and 0.5 csm thickness. It is baked on a hot plate for 2 min on each side, while applying oil during baking. The baked parotta is
creamish white in colour and possesses several distinct layers. It is a soft textured product with chewy characteristics, and is generally consumed along with vegetarian or non vegetarian side-dishes.
Rheology of dough plays an important role in determining the quality of wheat-based products, as it forms an important intermediate material between the wheat flour and the end product. The already existing literature on rheological characteristics of bread dough is quite exhaustive, whereas such information is lacking in the case of traditional products. However, whatever information is available on chapati dough indicates that end-product quality is influenced by the quality of wheat, particle size distribution, protein content, damaged starch and water binding capacity of atta (Haridas Rao, P. 1993. Chapati and related foods. In: encyclopedia on Food Science Technology and Nutrition. Academic Press. London, pp 795 - 801). Various research workers have developed test baking procedure for traditional products. Haridas Rao etal have developed a method for test baking of chapati ( Haridas Rao, P., Leelavathi, K., and Shurpalekar, S. R. 1986. Test baking of chapati - Development of a method. Cereal Chem. 63 : 297-303), similarly, methods have been developed for Arabic bread ( Qarooni, J., Orth, R. A., and Wootoon, M. 1987. A test baking technique for Arabic bread quality. J. Cereal Sci. 6 : 69-80), nan ( Rahim, A., Vatsala, C. N., and Shurpalekar, S. R. 1993. Development of a laboratory method for preparation of Nan. J. Food Sci. Technol. 30 (2) 114-117), tandoori roti ( Saxena, D. C, and Haridas Rao, P. 1996. Optimisation of ingredients and processing conditions for the preparation of tandoori roti using response surface methodology. International Journal of Food Sci and Technol. 31: 345-351), Syrrian type, two-layered flat bread (William. P. C, El - Harramein, F. J.,
Nelson, W., and Srivastava, J. P. 1988. Evaluation of wheat quality for the baking Syrian-type two-layered flat breads. J. Cereal Sci. 7:195-207) Egyptian Balady bread (Faridi, H. A., and Rubenthaler, G. L. 1984. Effect of baking time and temperature on bread quality, starch gelatinization, and staling of Egyptian balady bread. Cereal Chem. 61:151-154) and puri ( Shurpalekar, S. R., and Shukla, V. K. 1992. Characteristics of puri dough and puri based on wheat and composite flour flours. J. Food Sci. Technol. 29:153-158). Most of the efforts to extend shelf life of chapathies and similar products have been made to meet the requirements of defence personnel in emergency situations. Chapathies containing 0.3% sorbic acid and 1.5% salt and heat sealed in polyethylene bags or in an aluminium foil polyethylene laminate, kept well for 180 days (Kameswara Rao, G., Malaaathi, M.A., and Vijayaraghavan, P. K. 1964. Preservation and packing of Indian Foods. I. Preservation of chapathies. Food Technology. 18: 108 - 110). North Indian parottas were preserved for over 10 months when 0.3% sorbic acid and 1.24% salt were incorporated into the dough and packed initially in M.S.T. cellophane and repacking in heat sealed polythene pouches (Kameswara Rao, G., Malathi, M. A., and Mohan, M. S. 1969. Preservation and packing of Indian foods. III. Parottas. J. Fd. Sci. Technol. 6: 279 - 281). Additives are substances that are added in small quantities to improve either the processing conditions, or the quality of end products. Among the additives generally used are oxidants, reductants, enzymes, gluten and emulsifier or surfactants. Use of these additives helps not only in improving the quality of end products, but also in maintaining consistency in the quality of products. In India, the use of additives is gaining popularity in view of the non-availability of the right type of flour, and of variations in the quality of flour. The
addition of reducing agents like potassium metabisulphite and cysteine hydrochloride softens gluten. The softening effect is due to reduction of the disulphide bonds (Moss, R. 1974. Dough microstructure as effected by the addition of cysteine, potassium bromate and ascorbic acid, Cereal Science Today. 19: 557 -561). Improvement in volume, crumb grain, texture and shelf life of bread with oxidising agents, alpha amylase enzyme, surfactants, either alone or in combination, has been reported by several authors (Kuninori., Toyo., and Matsumoto, H. 1963, L - ascorbic acid oxidising system in dough and dough improvement. Cereal Chem. 40 : 647 - 657., Kulp, K. 1993, Enzymes as dough improvers. In: Advances in baking technology, ed. Kamel, B.S. and Stauffer, C.E, pp. 152 - 153. VCH Publishers, Inc, New York., Chung, O. K., and Tsen, C. C. 1975, Functional properties of surfactants in bread making. Roles of surfactants in relation to flour constituents in a dough system. Cereal Chem. 52: 832 - 843). Haridas Rao reported that addition of an emulsifier together with an alpha amylase inproved the texture of chapathi as well ite keeping quality (Haridas Rao, P. 1993. Chapati and related foods. In: encyclopedia on Food Science Technology and Nutrition. Academic Press. London, pp 795 - 801). Qarooni et al reported that Arabic bread and its shelf life could be improved by the addition SSL and shortening (Qarooni, J., Wooton, M., and McMaster, G. 1989. Factors affecting the quality of Arabic bread -additional ingredients. J. Cereal Sci. 6: 69 - 80).
Hither to commercially available known processes for the preparation of parotta are without any additives. Parottas collected from different commercial sources were evaluated for physical, chemical and sensory characteristics as described below:
Evaluation of parotta : Parottas were evaluated for various physical characteristics like weight, diameter and thickness. Spread ratio of parottas was calculated by dividing values of the diameter by values of the thickness of parotta. The moisture content in parotta was determined in two stages. The total moisture content in the parotta was determined using the equation TM = A + (100 - A) B / 100. The fat content in parotta was extracted using petroleum ether (b.p 40 - 60° C). The percentage of fat in the sample was calculated using the equation
Fat content = Weight of fat / Weight of sample X 100. Sensory evaluation of parotta was carried out by a panel of six judges for colour, nature of spot, shape, handfeel, texture, layers, mouthfeel, taste and aroma and overall quality score. Statistical analyses of data were carried out using Duncan's New Multiple Range Test. The data (Table 1) indicated that the weight of parotta ranged from 70.4 to 115 g with an average value of 92.66 g. The average moisture and fat content of parotta was 31.01% and 12.6% respectively. The sensory data of the parottas from commercial sources showed that the colour of the parotta was creamish white with uniformly distributed light brown spots on the surface of the crust. The shape of the parotta was circular. The handfeel of parotta was soft. The sensory texture, layers and mouthfeel of parotta varied considerable, as indicated by the higher values for coefficient of variability of 32.22, 33.09 and 20.56 respectively. Sensory scores for oiliness varied from 4 - 7 for the maximum score of 10. This reflected in fat content of parotta samples ranging from 7.6 -18%. In general, the overall quality of parotta based on the maximum socre of 100 varied from 40 - 79 indicating a wide variation in the quality characteristics of parottas available in the market. Survey on quality of parottas indicated that there is a wide variation in the quality characteristics of
parottas available in the market. The overall quality of parottas ranged from very good to poor. The drawback of the presently made parottas are non availability of right type of flour or processing parotta from the dough that is not ideal to produce good quality parotta.
Table 1 Means, standard deviations (SD), coefficients of variability (CV), and ranges of quality characteristics of parotta obtained from different commercial sources
The main objective of the prsent invention is to provide a process for the preparation of a novel composition useful for makin parottas.
Another objective of the present invention is to provide a process for making improved parottas using the novel composition of the present invention
Yet another objective of the present invention is to modify rheological characteristics of parotta dough.
Still another objective of the present invention is to provide a formulation with an additive for the preparation of high quality parotta.
Another objective of the present invention is to provide a process for the commercial roller flour millers for the production of flour exclusively for parotta. From our detailed studies we have found out that in order to improve the quality of parottas in general and to remove the above noted drawbacks in particular addition of reducing agents to form a novel composition with the flour will result in meeting our objectives of obtaining an improved parotta.
In the process of the present invention incorporation of reducing agents separately at low levels in the dough marginally decreased the strength of the dough, suggesting mellowing effect on the dough. The mellowing effect of dough by the reductants is thought to be due to reduction of the disulphide bonds and also dough containing either of the reducing agents was found to be comparatively less elastic and more extensible in nature when compared to the control dough. Hence, moulding characteristics with special refernce to sheeting or spreading of parotta dough significantly improved with addition of low levels of reducing agents, however addition at higher levels of these reducing agents adversely affected the dough
moulding properties as indicated by the excessive sticky nature of the dough sample.
The quality of parotta prepared by adding reducing agents showed significant improvement when compared to parotta prepared without any reducing agent with reference to handfeel, texture, layer formation, mouthfeel and overall quality. The parottas were soft, exhibited right degree of chewiness and showed thin, transparent layers. The parottas were easy to disintegrate and left no residue in the mouth. However, parottas with higher levels of reducing agents were sticky, possessed fused layers and lacked typical chewiness in them.
Accordingly the present invention provides a process for the preparation of novel composition useful for making parottas which comprises blending of flour with 15-75 ppm reducing agents.
In an embodiment of present invention the flour used may be such as having total ash 0.5%, dry gluten 10-12%, protein content 10-12%, SDS sedimentation value 55-65 ml, damaged starch 8-12%, water absorption 58-62%.
In another embodiment of the present invention the reducing agent used may be such as potassium meta bisulphite, cysteine hydrochloride, mixture there of,
Accordingly the present invention provides a process for making improved parottas using the novel composition of the present invention, which comprises:
i) Mixing the novel composition with ingredients such as 0.5-1.5 wt% edible salt, 0.0 -1.0 wt% sugar, 0-10 wt% egg, 58-62 wt% water to prepare a dough allowing the dough to age for a period in the range of 30-60 minutes, preparing parottas by known methods.
In an embodiment of the present invention egg used may be in the form of fresh whole eggs or egg powder.
The process of the present invention is illustrated by the following examples and should not be construed to limit the scope of the present invention.
Example 1 i) preparation of novel composition: blending of wheat flour with 50 ppm of potassium meta bisulphite
Example 2 i) preparation of novel composition : blending of wheat flour with 25 ppm of cysteine hydrochloride.
Example 3 i) preparation of novel composition : blending of wheat flour with 25 ppm of potassium meta bi sulphite and 10 ppm of cysteine hydrochloride
Example 4 Preparation of improved quality parottas
i) mixing of novel composition of example 1 or example 2 or example 3 with ingredients like salt, sugar, egg, water and oil for 8 min. ii) resting the mixed dough for a period of 30 min. iii) dividing the dough (75 g) iv) rounding the divided dough v) resting the rounded dough for 10 min.
vi) spreading the rounded dough into a thin film with the help of 7.5 ml of oil. vii) folding the thin film into multiple layers and coiling
viii) resting the coiled dough for 10 min.
ix) sheeting to a circular disc of 5 mm thickness and 15 cm diameter
x) baking on a hot plate for 2 minutes at 450°F on each side, while applying 5 g of
oil during baking.
In an embodiment of the present invention the weight of the ingredients used are:
The details of the different operations in the process of the present invention are Scaling of ingredients
All the ingredients are weighed according to the formulation. Mixing of ingredients
Novel composition, salt, sugar, egg, additive and water are mixed thoroughly to get a weli developed dough. Dough resting
The above dough is rested for 30 min at 28 to 32°C. Dough dividing
The dough is divided into 75 g pieces.
Divided dough pieces are rounded to get an uniform surface film. Dough sheeting
The dough is sheeted into a very thin film with application of oil (7.5 ml) Dough folding & coiling
The above thin film of dough is folded into multilayers and coiled. Dough resting
The above dough is rested for about 10 min. Dough sheeting
Dough is sheeted to a thickness of 5 mm using appropriate frames. The diameter of the sheeted dough is about 15 cm. Baking
Parottas are baked on a thermostatically controlled hot plate for 2 min at 450°F on each side, while applying 5 g of oil during baking. Cooling
Parottas are cooled to room temperature. Results of the experiments carried out: Effect of incorporation of reducing agents on the guality of parotta
Parottas were prepared with different levels of reducing agents as per the methodology described earlier and the results are presented in Table 2.
The data shows that on addition of 100 ppm of potassium meta bisulphite or 50 ppm of cysteine hydrochloride or combinaiton of potassium metabisulphite 25 ppm and 10 ppm of cysteine hydrochloride, the spread ratio of parotta increased from 29.8 to 32.1, 30.4 and 30.2 respectively.
Surface characteristics like colour and nature of spots as indicated by sensory scores, were not affected, but showed improvement in shape by the incorporation of potassium metabisulphite at 50 ppm or cysteine hydrochloride at 25 ppm or combination of potassium metabisulphite (25 ppm) and cysteine hydrochloride (10 ppm). The sensory scores for handfeel, texture, layers, mouthfeel and overall quality increased on addition of these reducing agents. This is indicated by the increase in the overall quality scores from 75 for the control dough to 88 for the dough having 50 ppm potassium metabisulphite and to 88 for the dough having 25 ppm of cysteine hydrochloride for the 87 dough having potassium metabisulphite (25 ppm) and cysteine hydrochloride (10 ppm). However, the sensory scores for the above parameter decreased when the reducing agents were used at higher levels (100 ppm of potassium metabisulphite and 50 ppm of cysteine hydrochloride). The overall quality score fell from 75 for the control dough to 52 for the dough having 100 ppm of potassium metabisulphite and to 50 for the dough having 50 ppm of cysteine hydrochloride.
The above studies indicate that parottas with improved handfeel, layer formation and texture can be produced by adding 50 ppm of potassium metabisulphite, or 25 ppm of cysteine hydrochloride or combination of potassium metabisulphite and cysteine hydrochloride of 25 ppm and 10 ppm respectively, and an increase in their concentration above these levels adversely affects the overall quality of parotta.
Table 2- Effect of incorporation of reducing agents on the quality of parotta
The main advantages of the present invention are:
1 Moulding properties of dough improved with the addition of either of the reducing
agents at low levels - e.g. 50 ppm of potassium metabisulphite or 25 ppm of cysteine
hydrochloride or mixture of potassium metabisulphite (25 ppm) and cysteine
hydrochloride (10 ppm).
2. Addition of reducing agent increased the spread ratio, improved the sensory
scores for handfeel, texture, layers, mouthfeel and overall quality of parotta.
1. A process for the preparation of novel composition having improved rheological characteristics of dough useful for making parottas which comprises blending flour having total ash 0.5%, dry gluten 10-12%, protein content 10-12%, SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate) sedimentation value 55-65 ml, damaged starch 8-12%, water absorption 58-62% with 15-75 ppm reducing agents.
2. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the reducing agent used may be such as potassium meta bisulphite, cysteine hydrochloride, mixture there of.
3. A process for the preparation of the novel compositon having improved rheological characteristics of dough useful for making parottas substantially as here in describe with reference to examples 1-3.
|Indian Patent Application Number||1125/DEL/1999|
|PG Journal Number||40/2008|
|Date of Filing||19-Aug-1999|
|Name of Patentee||Council of Scientific and Industrial Research|
|Applicant Address||Rafi Marg, New Delhi-110001,India.|
|PCT International Classification Number||A21D 2/36|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|