|Title of Invention||
A PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF A PROTEASE
|Abstract||ABSTRACT TITLE: BACILLUS PROTEASES This invention is in the field of detergent proteases obtainable from a strain of a new Bacillus sp. ZI 315. More-5 over, the invention is directed towards a process for the preparation of the protease the use of the protease as detergent enzyme and detergent compositions comprising the protease of the invention.|
FIELD OF INVENTION
The present invention relates to detergent proteases obtainable from strains of Bacillus sp. More specifically, the invention is directed towards a novel alkaline protease derived from a strain of Bacillus sp. ZI 315. Moreover the invention is directed towards a process for the preparation of the protease, the use of the protease as a detergent enzyme, and detergent compositions comprising the protease of the in¬vention.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Detergent enzymes have been marketed for more than 2 0 years and are now well established as normal detergent in¬gredients in both powder and liquid detergents all over the world.
Enzymes used in washing formulations comprise many different enzymes such as proteases, lipases, amylases, cellulases, as well as other enzymes, or mixtures hereof. Commercially the most important enzymes are the proteases.
Detergent proteases have been developed by isolation of proteases found in nature followed by testing in detergent formulations. Most detergent proteases are obtained from members of the genus Bacillus.
Examples of commercial protease products are AL-CALASE'", ESPERASE™ and SAVINASE™, all supplied by Novo Nordisk A/S, Denmark. The ALCALASE™ protease is produced by strains of the species Bacillus licheniformis. The ESPERASE™ and SAVINASE™ proteases are obtained by cultivation of strains of alkalo-philic Bacilli.
The washing traditions, especially the used washing temperature, the hardness of the used water, and the ingredi¬ents of the detergents vary very much from one country to another. Typical conditions are outlined below:
- low pH and low water hardness: liquid detergents in US and Asia;
- low pH and high water hardness: liquid detergents in Europe;
- high pH and low water hardness: powder detergents in US and Asia; and
- high pH and high water hardness: powder detergents in Europe.
(A low pH in detergents is typically a pH in the range 8.0-9.5, in particular around 9; a high pH in detergents is typically a pH in the range 10-11.5, in particular around 10.5. A low water hardness is typically in the range 3-6°dH; a high water hardness is typically in the range 15-20 °dH, in particular around 18°dH).
Furthermore, the compositions of the detergents are changing these years in order to make the washing process more snvironmental friendly. All these differences and changes Aitkin the detergent industry make the field extremely compli-ated. There is therefore a need all the time to find new proteases which perform optimally at a certain specified set of conditions .
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
It is an object of the present invention to provide lovely detergent proteases with improved washing performance at moderate to low wash temperatures.
Accordingly, in its first aspect, the invention provides a protease characterized by:
- having immunochemical properties identical or partially
identical to those of a protease derived from the strain
3acillus sp. ZI 315, DSM 9702.
In a second aspect, the invention relates to an .solvated biologically pure culture of a strain of Bacillus sp. represented by the strain Bacillus sp. ZI 315. In a more specific aspect, the invention relates to a strain of Bacillus ;p. ZI 315, DSM 9702, or a mutant or a variant thereof.
In a third aspect, the invention provides a process for the preparation of the protease, which process comprises cultivation of a protease producing strain of Bacillus sp. ZI 315 in a suitable nutrient medium, containing carbon and nitrogen sources and inorganic salts, followed by recovery of the desired enzyme. In a more specific aspect. Bacillus sp. ZI 315, DSM 9702, or a mutant or a variant thereof, or another host organism carrying the gene encoding a protease having immunochemical properties identical or partially identical to those of the protease derived from Bacillus sp. ZI 315, is cultivated.
In a fourth aspect, the enzyme is used as a detergent enzyme. In more specific aspects, the invention provides detergent compositions and detergent additives comprising the protease.
In a fifth aspect, the invention provides a washing process comprising addition of the protease.
Accordingly the present invention provides a process for the preparation of a protease having immunochemical properties identical or partially identical to those of a protease derived food the strain Bacillus sp. U 315, DSM 9702, said process comprising the steps of cultivating a protease producing strain of Bacillus sp ZI 315, DSM 9702 or a mutant or a radiant thereof in a suitable nutrient medium, containing carbon and nitrogen sources and inorganic salts and recovery said protease in a known manner.
The present invention is further illustrated by reference to the iccompanying drawings, in which;
Fig. 1 shows the relation between temperature and the proteolytic activity of an enzyme according to the invention (the enzyme preparation obtained according to Ex. 1, with 1% of casein as substrate and at pH 9.5);
Fig. 2 shows the relation between pH and the proteolytic activity of an enzyme according to the invention (the enzyme preparation obtained according to Ex. 1, with 1% of casein as substrate and at 35*^0).
DETAILED DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
The novel microorganism of the invention, able to produce an enzyme
of the invention, is represented by the strain that was isolated from a sample
of soil. Bacillus sp. ZI 315 has been deposited according to the Budapest
Treaty on the
International Recognition of the Deposits of Microorganisms for the Purpose of Patent Procedures, on 30 January 1995 at DSM -Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH -under Accession No. DSM 9702.
The microorganism of this invention is an aerobic, alkaliphilic, spore forming bacterium belonging to the genus Bacillus. Morphologically it can be described as Gram+, motile rods with a diameter of 0.6 - 0.9 micron, and a length of 1.5 -3 micron. The spores (which occur rarely) are ellipsoid, central to subterminal, swelling the sporangium.
Optimum temperature for growth is within 3 0 - 40°C, with no growth at 50°C, and optimal pH for growth is within 9 -10, with good growth at pH 10.0 and no growth at pH 7.0, which makes the strain strictly alkaliphilic.
The microorganism forms yellow to orange colonies,
round and smooth, on alkaline nutrient agar slants, and no
diffusion of pigment into the agar is observed. '
Bacillus sp. ZI 315 has been identified as a new species within group 1 of the genus Bacillus. Full 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that Bacillus sp. ZI 315 is closest-related to Bacillus firmus. Bacillus circulans, and Bacillus benzoevorans; it branches further away from other alkaliphilic species of group 1 such as Bacillus cohnii and Bacillus halmapalus. ZI 315 branches away from and shows significant physiological differences to its closest phylogenetic relatives and. are for these reasons considered to be a new species within group 1 of the genus Bacillus.
Cultivation of the Microorganism
The microorganism of the invention can be cultivated under aerobic conditions in a nutrient medium containing assimilable carbon and nitrogen together with other essential nutrients, the medium being composed in accordance with the principles of the known art.
Suitable carbon sources are carbohydrates such as sucrose, glucose and starch, or carbohydrate containing materials such as cereal grain, malt, rice and sorghum. The carbohydrate concentration incorporated in the medium may vary
widely, e.g. up to 25% and down to 1 - 5%, but usually 8 - 10% Will be suitable, the percentages being calculated as equi¬valents of glucose.
The nitrogen source in the nutrient medium may be of .inorganic and/or organic nature. Suitable inorganic nitrogen sources are nitrates and ammonium salts. Among the organic nitrogen sources quite a number are used regularly in fermenta¬tion processes involving the cultivation of bacteria. Illustra¬tive examples are soybean meal, cotton seed meal, peanut meal, casein, corn, corn steep liquor, yeast extract, urea, and albumin. In addition, the nutrient medium should also contain usual trace substances.
The novel Bacillus species of this invention are slightly alkalophilic. Therefore, the cultivation is preferably conducted at alkaline pH values, which can be obtained by addition of suitable buffers such as sodium carbonate, pH 9 . 0 -10.5, after sterilization of the growth medium. For cultiva¬tion in tank fermentors it is necessary to use artificial aeration. The rate of aeration is similar to that used in conventional tank fermentation.
After fermentation, liquid enzyme concentrates may be produced by removal of coarse material from the broth or, if desired, concentration of the broth by, e.g., evaporation at low temperature or by reverse osmosis. Finally, preservatives may be added to the concentrate.
Solid enzyme preparations may be prepared from the purified and/or concentrated broth by precipitation with salts, such as NajSO^ or water-miscible solvents, such as ethanol or acetone. Removal of the water in the broth by suitable drying methods, such as spray-drying, may also be employed.
Assay for Proteolytic Activity
The proteolytic activity is determined with casein as substrate. One Casein Protease Unit (CPU) is defined as the amount of enzyme liberating 1 mM of primary amino groups (determined by comparison with a serine standard) per minute under standard conditions, i.e. incubation for 3 0 minutes at 25°C and pH 9.5). A folder AF 228, describing the analytical
mecnod, is available upon request to Novo Nordisk A/S, Denmark, which folder is hereby included by reference.
The enzyme of the invention is a novel detergent protease. It is obtainable by cultivation of a microorganism of the invention, preferably Bacillus sp. ZI 315, DSM 9702, or a mutant or a variant thereof, in a suitable nutrient medium, containing carbon and nitrogen sources and inorganic salts. The enzyme can also be obtained by recombinant DNA-technology.
The protease of the invention may be characterized by the physical-chemical properties described below.
A molecular weight of 3 8 kD, determined by SDS-PAGE.
A pi at above 9.3 could be determined by isoelectric focusing
on LKB Ampholine® PAG plates. The protease activity is
inhibited by PMSF, a-1-antitrypsin, and Turkey-egg-white
proteinase inhibitor. EDTA and soybean-protein inhibitor do not
influence the protease activity. •
The temperature activity relationship was determined with 1% of casein as substrate and at pH 9.5. The assay for proteolytic activity described previously was used with the modification that the incubation temperature was varied in the interval of from 10°C to 70°C.
The result is shown in Fig. 1. It appears from the figure that the enzyme possesses proteolytic activity from temperatures below 10°C to about 50°C, and has a temperature optimum at around 4 0°C.
The dependence of activity on pH was determined by the same procedure using Britten-Robinson buffers adjusted to predetermined pH values in the pH range of from 6 to 11.
The result is shown in Fig. 2. It appears from this figure that the enzyme possesses proteolytic activity at pH values below 6 to above 11 with a pH optimum in the range of from pH 9 to pH 11.
The protease of the invention possesses especial potentials in detergents with low water hardness and moderate :o low wash temperatures.
The protease of the invention has immunochemical sroperties identical or partially identical (i.e. at least martially identical) to those of a protease derived from the strain Bacillus sp. ZI 315, DSM 9702.
The immunochemical properties for various Bacillus proteases are indeed a very distinguishing feature: whereas pH-)ptimum, temperature-optimum, pi etc. as disclosed above are lore or less the same, different immunochemical properties result in very different stability in various detergents.
The immunochemical properties can be determined .mmunologically by cross-reaction identity tests. The identity :ests can be performed by the well-known Ouchterlony double .mmunodiffusion procedure or by tandem crossed immujioelectro-)horesis according to N. H. Axelsen; Handbook of Immuno->recipitation-in-Gel Techniques; Blackwell Scientific Publica-:ions (1983), chapters 5 and 14. The terms "antigenic identity" md "partial antigenic identity" are described in the same took, chapters 5, 19 and 20.
Monospecific antiserum was generated according to the .bove mentioned method by immunizing rabbits with the purified irotease of the invention. The immunogen was mixed with 'reund's adjuvant and injected subcutaneously into rabbits very second week. Antiserum was obtained after a total mmunization period of 8 weeks, and immunoglobulin was prepared herefrom as described by N. H. Axelsen, supra.
Using the ouchterlony double immunodiffusion test escribed above the protease of the invention showed no cross eaction to the known serine proteases:
ALCALASE'" (available from Novo Nordisk A/S) SAVINASE'" (available from Novo Nordisk A/S) ESPERASE™ (available from Novo Nordisk A/S) subtilisin Novo (available from Novo Nordisk A/S),
- KAZUSASE™ (available from SHOWA DENKO),
- the Bacillus proteases described in WO 92/07067,
- the Bacillus proteases described in WO 92/17576,
- the Bacillus proteases described in WO 92/17577,
- the Bacillus proteases described in WO 92/17578,
- the Bacillus proteases described in WO 93/18140,
- the Bacillus proteases described in WO 93/24623,
- the Bacillus proteases described in WO 94/01532, and
- the Bacillus proteases described in WO 95/07350.
Various Bacillus proteases tolerate various deter¬gents with a great variety, and one of the best tools today in differentiating between Bacillus proteases is the immunoche¬mical identity tool.
According to the invention, the protease may typical¬ly be a component of a detergent composition, e.g., a dish¬washing or a laundry detergent composition. As such, it may be included in the detergent composition in the form of a non-dusting granulate, a stabilized liquid, or a protected enzyme. Non-dusting granulates may be produced, e.g., as disclosed in US 4,106,991 and 4,661,452 (both to Novo Industri A/S) and may optionally be coated by methods known in the art. Examples of waxy coating materials are poly(ethylene oxide) products (polyethyleneglycol, PEG) with mean molecular weights of 1000 to 20000; ethoxylated nonylphenols having from 16 to 50 ethylene oxide units; ethoxylated fatty alcohols in which the alcohol contains from 12 to 20 carbon atoms and in which there are 15 to 80 ethylene oxide units; fatty alcohols; fatty acids; and mono- and di- and triglycerides of fatty acids. Examples of film-forming coating materials suitable for application by fluid bed techniques are given in patent GB 1483591. Liquid enzyme preparations may, for instance, be stabilized by adding a polyol such as propylene glycol, a sugar or sugar alcohol, lactic acid or boric acid according to established methods. Dther enzyme stabilizers are well known in the art. Protected
enzymes may be prepared according to the method disclosed in EP 238,216.
The detergent composition of the invention may be in any convenient form, e.g. as powder, granules, paste or liquid. A liquid detergent may be aqueous, typically containing up to 70% water and 0-30% organic solvent, or nonaqueous.
The detergent composition comprises one or more surf¬actants, each of which may be anionic, nonionic, cationic, or zwitterionic. The detergent will usually contain 0-50% of anionic surfactant such as linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS), alpha-olefinsulfonate (AOS), alkyl sulfate (fatty alcohol sulfate) (AS), alcohol ethoxysulfate (AEOS or AES), secondary allcanesulfonates (SAS) , alpha-sulfo fatty acid methyl esters, alkyl- or alkenylsuccinic acid, or soap. It may also contain 0-4 0% of nonionic surfactant such as alcohol ethoxylate (AEO or AE), carboxylated alcohol ethoxylates, nonylphenol ethoxylate, alkylpolyglycoside, alkyldimethylamine oxide, ethoxylated fatty acid monoethanolamide, fatty acid monoethanolamide, or polyhydroxy alkyl fatty acid amide (e.g. as described in WO 92/06154) .
The detergent composition may additionally comprise one or more other enzymes, such as amylase, lipase, cutinase, cellulase, peroxidase, and oxidase, e.g., laccase.
The detergent may contain 1-65% of a detergent builder or complexing agent such as zeolite, diphosphate, triphosphate, phosphonate, citrate, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetri-aminepentaacetic acid (DTMPA), alkyl- or alkenylsuccinic acid, soluble silicates or layered silicates (e.g. SKS-6 from Hoechst). The detergent may also be unbuilt, i.e. essentially free of detergent builder.
The detergent may comprise one or more polymers. Examples are carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) (PVP), polyethyleneglycol (PEG), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), polycarboxylates such as polyacrylates, maleic/acrylic acid copolymers and lauryl methacrylate/acrylic acid copolymers.
16) Detergent formulations as described in 1) - 15) which
contain a stabilized or encapsulated peracid, either as an
additional component or as a substitute for already specified
17) Detergent compositions as described in 1), 3), 7), 9) and 12) wherein perborate is replaced by percarbonate.
18) Detergent compositions as described in 1) , 3), 7), 9), 12) , 14) and 15) which additionally contain a manganese catalyst. The manganese catalyst may, e.g., be one of the compounds described in "Efficient manganese catalysts for low-temperature bleaching", Nature 369. 1994, pp. 637-639.
19) Detergent composition formulated as a nonaqueous detergent liquid comprising a liquid nonionic surfactant such as, e.g., linear alkoxylated primary alcohol, a builder system (e.g. phosphate), enzyme and alkali. The detergent may also comprise anionic surfactant and/or a bleach system.
The protease of the invention may be incorporated in concentrations conventionally employed in detergents. It is at present contemplated that, in the detergent composition of the invention, the protease may be added in an amount corresponding to 0.00001-1 mg (calculated as pure enzyme protein) of protease per liter of wash liquor.
The invention is further illustrated in the following examples, which are not intended to be in any way limiting to the scope of the invention as claimed.
Bacillus sp. ZI 315, DSM 9702, was cultivated at 30°C on a rotary shaking table (300 r.p.m.) in 500 ml baffled Erlen-meyer flasks containing 100 ml of medium of the following composition (per litre) -.
Potato starch 100 g
Ground barley 50 g
Soybean flour 20 g
NajHPO, X 12 H2O 9 g
Pluronic® 0.1 g
Sodium caseinate 10 q
5 The starch in the medium is liquified with a-amylase,
and- the medium is sterilized by heating at 120°C for 45 minutes.
After sterilization the pH of the medium is adjusted to 9.7 by addition of 10 ml of a 1 M solution of sodium 0 sesquicarbonate.
After cultivation (3 days) and separation of the solid material the protease was purified by a conventional chromatographic method.
Yield from 1.5 1 of culture broth was 50 ml with 70 5 CPU/1. Purity was more than 90% as judged by SDS-PAGE.
The characteristics of the preparation prepared in accordance with this Example have been referred to earlier in this specification, and reference is made hereto.
0 Wash Performance of Bacillus sp. ZI 315 protease (at 20°C)
The wash performance tests were accomplished on grass juice soiled cotton, in a model wash system at 20°C, at a constant temperature for 10 minutes.
The tests were performed at protease concentrations 5 of 1.6, 3.2, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 160 nM.
2.0 g/1 of an American type powder detergent composi¬tion were used in the test. The detergent did not contain any enzymes prior to the addition of the protease of the invention. The detergent was dissolved in approx. 6°dH (German Hardness) 0 water. The pH of the wash liquor was 10. The textile/wash liquor ratio was approximately 5 g of textile per litre of wash liquor. For each enzyme concentration two independent tests were performed.
Subsequent to the fabric washing, the cloths were 5 flushed in running tap water for 20 minutes and then air-dried.
The performance of the protease of the invention and of Savinase™ was assessed by the change (AR) of the remission (%R) at 460 nm measured on a Datacolor Elrephometer 2000, AR being the remission after wash with protease added, minus the remission after wash with no protease added.
The results of these tests are shown in Table 1 below (mean of 2 tests) .
Protease Concentration AR
(nM) ZI 315 Si W
1.6 4.6 0 8
3.2 7.7 2 7
8 12.0 6 6
16 17.7 8 5
32 18.2 14 8
64 21.9 17 0
It can be seen from Table 1 that AR (Bacillus sp. ZI 315) is higher than AR (Savinase™) at all the measured protease concentrations, i.e. the protease of the invention has a better wash performance at all the measured concentrations at 20°C.
Wash Performance of Bacillus sp. ZI 315 protease (at 25°C)
The wash performance tests were accomplished on grass
juice soiled cotton, in a model wash system at 25°C, at a
constant temperature for 10 minutes.
The tests were performed at protease concentrations
of 1, 2, 7.5, and 20 nM.
2.0 g/1 of a detergent with the following composition
NajCOj 0.4 g/1
Zeolith 0.6 g/i
Naj-citrate 0.08 g/1
Carboxymethylcellulose 0.006 g/1
Polycarboxylate 0.083 g/1
were used in the test. The detergent was dissolved in approx. 6°dH (German Hardness) water. The pH of the wash liquor was adjusted to pH 10. The textile/wash liquor ratio was approxi¬mately 5 g of textile per litre of wash liquor. For each enzyme concentration two independent tests were performed.
Subsequent to the fabric washing, the cloths were flushed in running tap water for 20 minutes and then air-dried. The performance of the protease of the invention and of Savinase™ was assessed by the change (AR) of the remission (%R) at 460 nm measured on a Datacolor Elrephometer 2000, AR being the remission after wash with protease added, minus the remission after wash with no protease added.
The results of these tests are shown in Table 2 below (mean of 2 tests).
Protease (nM) Concentration ZI 315 AR Si W
7.5 20 3.7
19.6 2 2
7 13 7 9 8 7
It can be seen from Table 2 that AR (Bacillus sp. ZI 315) is higher than AR (Savinase™) at all the measured protease concentrations, i.e. the protease of the invention has a better wash performance at all the measured concentrations at 25°C.
Improvement factor/Model detergents
An improvement factor (defined below) for the protease of the invention was established at low and high water hardness, using a model detergent at pH 9 with Savinase as reference.
The improvement factor was determined in the follow¬ing way:
Measurement of remission (R) on a test material (grass on cotton) was done at 460 nm using an Elrepho 2000 photometer (without UV). The measured values were fitted to the expression:
R = (a • AR„,^ • c)/(AR„3^ + a • c) + b.
The improvement factor (IF) is then calculated by use of the initial slope of the curve:
IF = a/a^gf,-wherein
R: is the wash effect of the enzyme in remission units,
a: is the initial slope of the fitted curve,
aj-ef: is the initial slope for the reference enzyme,
b: is the intersection of the fitted curve and the y-
c: is the enzyme concentration in nanomoles active
enzyme per liter, and
AR^^: is the theoretical maximum wash effect of the enzyme
in remission units.
The following experimental conditions were used:
Detergent: 25% STP (NajFjOio),
2 5% NajSO^ 10% NajCOj 20% LAS (Nansa 803)
5% NI (Dobanol 25-7)
0.5% CMC (carboxymethylcellulose)
Washing time: 15 min.
Washing temperature: 15°C
Water hardness: 6°dH and 18°dH
Enzyme concentrations: 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 and 60 nM
Swatch/volume: 5 swatches (Diameter: 2.5 cm) per
50 ml washing solution
Test material: Grass on cotton.
The following results were obtained:
IF = 4.8, when the water hardness was 6°dH, and
IF = 1.4, when the water hardness was 18°dH. ,
This example shows that the protease of the invention would be very useful in a liquid detergent (low pH) for use in US and Asia, (where the water hardness is low; around or less than 6°dH).
Improvement factor/Commercial detergents
Improvement factors, obtained as explained in Example 4, were also established for the commercial detergents Koso Tpp and Omo Powder China, again with Savinase as the reference enzyme.
The following experimental conditions were used:
Detergent dose: 1 g/1
pH: 10.5 (Koso Top) and
10.2 (Omo Powder China)
Washing time: 15 min.
Washing temperature: 15°C
Water hardness: 3°dH
Enzyme concentrations: 3, 6, 9, 15, 3 0 and 6 0 nM
Swatch/volume: 5 swatches (Diameter: 2.5 cm) per
50 ml washing solution
Test material: Grass on cotton.
The following results were obtained: IF = 2.1 (Koso Top), and IF = 3.1 (Omo Powder China)
/ This example shows that the protease of the invention
would be very useful in detergents with high pH for use in Asia, (where the water hardness is low, around 3°dH).
The co-pending application No. 250/MAS/96 relates to a process for preparing protease using the strain Bacillus Spl 612, DSM 9701.
1. A process for the preparation of a protease having immunochemical properties identical or partially identical to those of a protease derived from the strain Bacillus sp. ZI 315 DSM 9702, said process comprising the steps of cultivating a protease producing strain of Bacillus sp ZI 315, DSM 9702 or a mutant or a variant thereof, in a suitable nutrient medium, containing carbon and nitrogen sources and inorganic salts and recovery said protease in a known manner.
2. The process according to claim I, wherein Bacillus sp. ZI 325, DSM 9702, or a mutant or a variant thereof, or another host organism caning the gene encoding a protease having immunoche; cal properties identical or partially identical to those of the protease derived from Bacillus sp.ZI 315 is cultivated.
3. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the protease has (a) an apparent molecular weight of 38 kD; (b) a pi at above 9.3; (c) pH optimum in the range of from pH 9 to pH 11 at 25°C with casein as substrate; and (d) a temperature optimum at around 40*'C at pH 9.5 and why casein as substrate.
4. A process for the preparation of a protease substantially as herein described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
|Indian Patent Application Number||251/MAS/1996|
|PG Journal Number||02/2006|
|Date of Filing||15-Feb-1996|
|Name of Patentee||M/S. NOVOZYMES A/S|
|Applicant Address||KROGSHOJVEJ 36-DK-2880, BAGSVAERD,|
|PCT International Classification Number||A01N63/00|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|