|Title of Invention||
AN INSTALLATION FOR ELIMINATING IMPURITIES DURING CASTING OF METALS
|Abstract||(57) Abstract: A machine for elininating impurities during casting of metals, comprising at least one casting ladle (2) which forms an outlet siphon (3) and can tilt around a transverse axis (14). Starling from the siphon (3), the casting ladie (2) is prolonged by a conduit (4) which ends at a scum-retaining pan (5). the said components forming a single piece. The pan (5) has outlet orifices (7) at the bottom and is externally lined with a ceramic cloth (10) which acts as a filter lor retention of impurities. PRICE: THIRTY RUPEES|
The invention relates to a machine for eliminating impurities during casting of metals, particularly impurities which float in the form of scum on the surface of the cast metal and more particularly comprise oxides of the metal. The invention is particularly applicable to casting of non-ferrous metals such as zinc.
All metals leaving furnaces in a molten state contain occluded impurities which generally consist of oxidised particles of the metal in question.
When the metal is poured into an ingot mould and left at rest, the impurities rise to the surface and tloat thereon in the form of scum. Irrespective of these impurities, quantities of oxides of the metal occur during the operations of casting it, depending on the manner in which the cast metal is handled. The quantity of oxides increases or decreases with the speed of casting. If the casting speed is constant, the proportion of oxides in the form of scum will still be increased or reduced depending on the height from which the metal cascades or falls on to the ingot mould.
.Ai!er solidifying, the scum remains on the ingots, contaminating the metal thereof The scum also acquires a spongy texture into which ambient moisture, rainwater and the like penetrate, making it very dangerous lo re-melt the ingots subsequently.
Due mainly to these disadvantages, it is desirable to obtain ingots free from such scum and consequently free
from the resulting disadvantages. It is therefore necessary to eliminate the impurities originating from the melting furnace or formed during handling of the cast metal.
For the reasons stated, these kind of impurities are usually eliminated on the ingot mould, once the cast metal has been poured into it. This avoids the risk of further oxidation when the metal is left at rest.
Impurities in the cast metal poured into the mould are removed by means of scoops which move over the surface of the oast metal, starting from one of the edges, in order to pull along and collect the floating scum. Generally two scoops are used and the scum is collected between them. The scoops can be actuated manually or mechanically, in the first case the operation is laborious and dangerous, whereas the second case Involves investment in machinery, maintenance costs and the like.
To solve these problems, Spanish Patent 466 025 by the present Applicants discloses a machine for separation of scum during casting of metals and comprising two separation phases or steps, both based on retention of the scum during the travel of the cast metal from the furnace to the mould. The first step or phase, during which the scum is retained, occurs in the casting ladle, where the cast metal arrives from the furnace. To this end, a siphon is formed at the outlet of the ladle and the cast metal flows through it so as to retain the scum floating on the metal. Between the casting ladle and the ingot mould, the cast metal flows along a conduit which discharges on to the mould, agitating the metal and thus resulting in further quantities of oxides, which are retained during a second or separation phase using a scum-retaining pan which is
situated on the bottom of the mould and above which the outlet duct from the casting ladle discharges, the pan being formed with outlet orifices which open directly on to the bottom of the mould, thus avoiding further formation of oxides.
The machine described can efficiently retain the impurities which float on the cast metal, but there is a need for independent components, i.e. the casting ladle and retaining pan, and the corresponding actuating mechanisms, which have to be accurately co-ordinated with one another.
On the one hand, the casting ladle has to be mounted above a mechanism for tilting it between two extreme positions, i.e. a front or filling position at which it receives the molten metal from the melting furnace and the outlet of the siphon is situated at a height above that reached by the metal inside the mould, and a pouring position in which the outlet mouth of the siphon descends to a height at which the molten metal can flow out In sufficient volume to fill one or more ingot moulds. At the same time, the Ecun-retaining pan must be mounted in a mechanism for moving it vertically between a bottom position in which it rests on the bottom of the mould so as to receive the cast metal coming from the casting ladle, and a top position at which it is situated above the edge of the ingot-mould wall so that the moulds can he moved.
The invention relates to an installation for elimination of impurities during casting of metals and designed so as greatly to reduce the formation of oxides during the flow of cast metal from the fusion furnace to the ingot mould.
Another object of the invention is to simplify the construction and operation of the installation for separating the impurities, by reducing the number of moving parts thereof and consequently reducing the aechanisms necessary for actuating them.
In order greatly to reduce the production of oxides, the installation according to the invention is designed so that the flow of metal from the melting furnace to the mould is as gentle as possible and compatible with the required production rate, along sloping surfaces and without falls from excessive heights capable of resulting in formation of oxides.
The installation according to the invention, like the machine described in Spanish Patent 466 025, includes a casting ladle and a scum-retaining pan. According to the present invention, the scum-retaining pan and the casting ladle form a single component, the casting ladle being formed by an interchangeable ceramic filter cloth and by a recess formed at the end of the pouring conduit of the ladle.
The recess formed by the retaining ladle is blocked at the front and has outlet orifices at the bottom.
The ceramic cloth is disposed externally around the pan, covering at least the bottom thereof, to serve as a filter for collecting the last oxides produced during the final travel of the cast metal from the outlet of the siphon formed in the casting ladle up to the retaining pan,
AS a result of the construction described, since the retaining pan is in one piece with the outlet conduit from the casting ladle and owing to the relatively shallow
depth of the pan, the cast metal does not fall or pour from the siphon of the casting ladle. Also the slope of the conduit from the siphon outlet is as gentle as possible and compatible with the required production rate.
The result of the design described is to reduce the formation of oxides when the cast metal flows out of the siphon of the casting ladle. Smce the retaining pan is in one piece with the conduit from the casting ladle, there is no need of mechanisms for actuating the pan.
Accordingly the present invention a machine for eliminating impurities during casting of metals, comprising at least one casting ladle at which the metal arrives trom a melting furnace, and a scum-retaining pan which receives the metal from the ladle and discharges on to an ingot mould, the ladle being shaped as a siphon and tillable around a transverse axis between two end positions, a front or filling position at which it receives the molten metal from the melting furnace, when the outlet of the siphon is at a height above the maximum reached by the metal inside the ladle, and a pouring position in which tlie outlet mouth of the siphon descends to a level enabling the molten metal to pour out in sufficient volume to fill at least one ingot mould, characterised in that the scum-retaining pan and the casting ladle form a single component, the two being joined by a conduit which, in the outflow or pouring position, has the minimum slope compatible with that necessar,- for a flow of metal and for achieving the set production rate, the composite retaining pan being formed at the end of the pouring conduit of the ladle and being provided with an interchangeable ceramic filter cloth: the retaining pan is closed at the front and is formed with outlet openings at the base; and the ceramic cloth is disposed on the outside around the pan to cover at least the bottom thereof
The features and advantages of the invention as summarised in the claims will be understcxxi more easily from the following description with reference to the accompanying drawings, which show a possible embodiment given by way of non-limitative example.
With reference to the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 IS a plan view of the machine according to the invention, disposed on a chain of ingot moulds in a zinc-producing installation;
Fig- 2 is a section of the machine according to the invention along line II-II in Fig. I, showing the casting ladle in the end position for pouring:
Fig. 3 is a \-iew similar to Fig. 2, showing the casting ladle in the end position tor filling;
Fig. 4 is a larger-scale side elevation of the scum-retaining pan formed at the end of the pouring conduit and
Fig- 5 is a cross-section of the scum-retaining pan along line V-V
in Fig. 4.
The ingot-producing installation comprises a welting furnace (not eshown in the drawings) from which an outlet duct 1 (Figs. I to 3] extends and discharges on to a pouring ladle 2, which includee an outlet aiphon 3 which in the present case discharges through pouring conduits 4. Each conduit ends in a pan 5 which is transversely blocked at the front by a wall 6 and is formed with outlet orifices 7 at the bottom.
The outlet conduits 4 discharge on to a corresponding number of ingot moulds a which form part of a chain of moulds 9 which are inter^iittently moved and remain at rest during the time for pouring the cast metal and filling the mould situated at each moment under the pouring conduits 4. The motion of the chain 9 is controlled so that at each atop, two empty ingot moulds 8 are situated under the outlet conduits 4.
Of course, the casting ladle 2 can have a single outlet conduit or more than two conduits.
The scum-retaining ladle 5 also comprises an outer ceramic cloth 10 which is externally securad to the pan and covers at least the bottom thereof, serving as a filter for retaining any impurities which might rise through the orifices 7 in the pan.
The ceramic cloth 10 is interchangeable and can be fitted by means of a metal ring 11 disposed around the pan 5 and provided with external spikes 12 at which the ceramic cloth 10 can easily be secured or released.
As shown in Figs. 2 and 3, the retaining pan 5 is in one piece with the casting ladle 2. The casting ladle also has a partition 13 parallel to and near the vail from
where the pouring conduit 4 startB and extending between the adjacent walls to near the bottom, thus forming a siphon 3 through which the cast metal flows when the ladle 2 is situated in the pouring position, the impurities being retained in the form of scum which floats on the cast metal in the ladle 2.
The assembly formed by the ladle 2, siphon 3, pouring conduit 4 and scua-retaining pan 5 is mounted on a rear joint 14 and a fixed front support 15. The base 16 on vhich the joint 14 is mounted and the pivot 17 on which the support 15 rests are adjustable in height so that the slope of the conduit 4, when in the pouring position, can be adjusted to the minimum necessary and compatible with the required production rate, so as to reduce the speed at vhich the cast metal le poured and consequently reduce the formation of oxides.
since the retaining pan 5 is formed at the end of the pouring conduit 4, there is no fall of cast metal from the conduit to the bottom of the mould 8 or from the actual pan in the case when it is a separate component from the pouring conduit 4. Owing to the relatively shallow depth of the pan 5, there is practically no fall of metal from the conduit 4 and consequently no risk of formation of oxides.
The design described consequently reduces the formation of oxides between the outlet of the siphon 3 and the ingot mould 8.
As also shown in Figs. 2 and 3, the pouring ladle 2 can oscillate between two end positions, i.e. a pouring position shown in Fig. 2 and a metal-receiving position shown in Fig. 3.
In the pouring poeition shown In Fig. 2, the metal in the casting ladle above the level N is po«red out through the conduit 4 until it reaches the mould e. When all the metal has been poured, the ladle turns on the astia 14, through action of a hydraulic cylinder IS and a combination of levers 19 and 20 mounted on a common shaft 21 and actuating a roller 22 on which a slide 23 rests and is secured to the bottom of the ladle 2, which moves to the position shown in Fig. 3 in which the cast metal remaining in the ladle takes up a level Ni which is sufficiently below the pouring edge of the ladle, reference number 23. At the same time as the cylinder 18 is actuated, a further measured quantity of metal is poured from the casting furnace and arrives via a duct l, the measured amount being just sufficient to fill the mould or moulds B situated under the corresponding pan 5- When the ladle is in the position in Fig. 5 the chain 9 of moulds advances, so that new empty moulds appear below the casting pans 5-
During the advance of the line of moulds 9, cast metal arrives in the casting ladle 2 and the level rises to Hi but does not reach the pouring edge 23.
when this stage is reached, the cylinder 18 is re-actuated by retracting it, so that the ladle is lowered to the position shown in Fig. 2, resulting in a new casting cycle. The ladle 2 is raised and lowered at the most suitable speed in each case.
When the ladle reaches the position in Fig. 2, the metal flows through its own weight through the siphon 3, the conduit 4 and the pan 5 and comes out through the ceramic filter cloth 10, Figs. 4 and 5.
The cycle described is automatically repeated, two metal ingots being cast in each operation, using the construction shown in the drawings. During this process all impurities originating froio the furnace, together with the oxides produced during the metered pouring, the travel through the duct i and the fall of metal from the casting mould 2, float in the mould and are withdrawn therefrom and deposited in an auxiliary mould. The reduced quantity of scum which can form along the conduit 4 and comes out through the pan 5 is retained at the bottom thereof by the ceramic filter cloth 10, the final result in the ingot moulds B being an ingot totally free from adverse products.
In the example shown in the drawings, the casting mould 2 (Figs. 2 and 3) comprises a metal casing 24 provided with an inner lining formed by an insulating layer 25 and a refractory inner layer 26 which is cast in one piece on the insulant and by using an inner mould, in order to obtain sealing-tightness for scaling off the hot metal eo that it cannot reach the insulant 25 or the casing 24. The inner mould itself eliminates the housing for the conduit 4 or for the refractory partition 13 forming the siphon 3. The conduit 4 can be made of silicon carbide and mounted without an insulating lining, but only with a thin layer of refractory mortar and secured e.g. by components 27 to prevent it moving relative to the metal casing 24.
WE CLAIM :
1. A machine for eliminating impurities during casting of metals, comprising at least one casting ladle (2) at which the metal arrives from a melting furnace, and a scum-retaining pan (5) which receives the metal from the ladle (2) and discharges on to an ingot mould (8), the ladle (2) being shaped as a siphon (3) and tiltable around a transverse axis (14) between two end positions, a front or filling position at which it receives the molten metal from the meltmg furnace, when the outlet of the siphon (3) is at a height above the maximum reached by the metal inside the ladle (2), and a pouring position in which the outlet mouth of the siphon (3) descends to a level enabling the molten metal to pour out in sufficient volume to fill at least one ingot mould, characterised in that the scum-retaining pan (5) and the casting ladle (2) form a single component, the two being joined by a conduit (4) which, in the outflow or pouring position, has the minimum slope compatible with that necessary for a flow of metal and for achieving the set production rate, the composite retaining pan (5) being fonned at the end of the pouring conduit (4) of the ladle (2) and being provided with an interchangeable ceramic fiker cutlet (10); the retaining pan (5) is closed at the front and is formed with outlet openings (7) at the base; and the ceramic cloth (10) is disposed on the outside around the pan (5) to cover at least the bottom thereof
2- The machine according to claim 1, wherein the pan (5) is surrounded by a metal ring or circle (11) provided with spikes (12) on which the ceramic cloth (10) is secured.
3. The machine according to claim I, wherein the ladle (2) comprises a
metal receptacle (24) with an outlet conduit (4) made of the same material
and a retractory Inner lining (26), the lining of the conduit (24) forming
the said retaining pan (5).
4. A machine for eliminating impurities during casting of metals,
substantially as hereinabove described and illustrated with reference to
the accompanying drawings.
|Indian Patent Application Number||1670/MAS/1996|
|PG Journal Number||30/2009|
|Date of Filing||23-Sep-1996|
|Name of Patentee||ASTURIANA DE ZING, S.A.|
|Applicant Address||SAN JUAN DE NIEVA 33417 ASTURIAS|
|PCT International Classification Number||B22D 43/00|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|