|Title of Invention||
A PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF LOW FAT BAKED SNACKS
|Abstract||A new process has been developed to prepare low fat snacks for health conscious consumers employing baking technique. Low fat baked shakarpara (sweet wheat diamonds), namakpara (saltish wheat diamonds) and sev patties (saltish Bengal gram diamonds) have been developed for the first time making use of refined wheat flour, Bengal gram flour, sugar, salt, chilly powder, baking powder, curd, gingelly seeds, groundnut oil as shortening and additives like glycerol mono stearate, carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium stearoyl lactalate, in a pre-determined proportions, individually and in the mixed form to harness the synergestic effect. Dough was prepared, after altering the formulation, with the help of water. A conditioning step has been introduced to achieve better texture and palatability. The products thus obtained had a lower fat (~ 50% less) and organoleptically comparable to their deep fried counterparts.|
|Full Text||The present invention relates to a process for production of low fat baked snacks.
Low fat products are becoming popular day by day due to nutritional awareness as high fat intake is associated with high risk of heart diseases and obesity. Shakarpara (sweet wheat diamonds), Namakpara (saltish wheat diamonds) and sev patties (saltish Bengal gram diamonds) are very popular snack food in India. They are diamond shaped deep fried products made out of wheat flour (maida), Bengal gram flour (Besan), sugar, milk fat/vegetable fat, salt, khoa and or curd with different composition depending on the product. The dough is made, rolled up as patties and cut into diamond shapes before it is deep fried into golden yellow shakarpara, namakpara and sev patties. They are normally consumed as tea time snacks. Taste, palatability and texture profile of these products depend upon the ingredient used, residence time in the frying medium and temperature of the frying medium. During deep frying the oil uptake is very high. To offset this high uptake of the oil during deep frying an alternate method like baking with some dough conditioning can be tried to minimize the fat content. As baking is a totally different phenomenon compare to deep frying, because there is no direct heat carrier like vegetable oil medium is present, the processing of above snacks have to be different. This is still important when the process is aimed to reduce the fat without affecting the sensory attributes compare to deep fried counterparts. This necessitates for alteration in the formulation either by adding or removing the ingredients or giving some treatments.
Reference may be made to Burrington K.J., Out of the frying pan, Food Product Design 7: (6) 98, 100, 103-104 (1998) wherein alternative to fried snack foods are discussed with particular reference to development of low fat baked snack foods. Aspects considered include: application of technology in providing baked snacks that have the same flavour, texture and appearance as fried snacks; processes that occur during frying, resulting in products of distinctive flavours, use of microwave and impingement ovens to achieve desired textural qualities in baked snacks. Methods are employed for effective application of seasoning to baked snacks (tumble drum system), treatment with gum or starch solution for seasoning adherance, and encapsulation system. Baked crackers which have a lower fat content than conventional crackers have been developed. Popcorn as a non-fried snack and development of low fat popcorn cakes, pretzets, extruded snacks, fiber-rich, sweet baked snacks, cereal and granola bars have also been discussed. The draw-back with the report is that it deals mainly with western type of products which in many cases are not exclusively a deep fried product. Moreover agents we have used are not discussed in this report.
Reference may be made to Singh J., Hoseney R.C., and Faubion J.M. Effect of dough properties on extrusion-formed and baked snacks, Cereal Chemistry, 71: (5) 417-422 (1995) wherein a number of snacks are produced by extrusion forming and then baking. Factors affecting dough and product properties of a model extruded baked snack were investigated. Dough mixing time, die shape, and post-extrusion processing steps influenced the structure and texture of the final products. The extent of product puffing during baking could be controlled by reducing dough moisture content and introduction of a steaming step immediately after extrusion. SEM analysis of the baked products showed that those produced from over mixed doughs possessed more highly aligned microstructure
than did those produced from dough mixed for short time. The report relates to only extruded products although baked. Their properties can not be compared with the non-extruded traditional products as described in the present invention.
Reference may be made to Rice. J., Harnessing microwave technology for no-fat and low-fat snacks, Food processing, USA, 54: (7) 26-28 (1993) wherein use of microwave drying for preparation of low fat snack food is considered. To produce fat free potato chips, potato slices are heat dried to remove surface moisture. Slices are then cooked in high intensity microwaves which quickly evaporates most of the moisture, causing the slices to puff into chips. A small amount of oil is applied to the surface of the chips to enable adhesion of salt. Chips are further processed using lower intensity microwave to produce the finished product to which flavouring may be added. The main drawback with the process is that it gives a totally no-fat product which can never compete with deep fat products. Technique is also different compare to baking.
Reference may be made to Martinez S.V.M.D., Zimmerman S.P., Reed J.D., Seiden P. and Brown S.M., Low fat snacks having improved eating qualities and dough composition used to prepare low-fat fabricated snacks, U.S. Patent, US6 436 459 B2 (2002), wherein snacks made from dough containing starch-based material, water and an emulsifier-lipid composition is described. The emulsifier-lipid composition comprises a specific blend of monoglyceride, polyglycerol ester and fat. Addition of this composition to the dough improves the texture and flavour of the snack. The drawback with the report is that while emphasis is being given on the emulsifier-fat composition, the type of process for snacks preparation is not indicated.
Reference may be made to Reinikainen A, Haarasilta S., Reinikainen K., and Pontinen E, Process for the manufacture of dry baked products, PCT-International Patent-Application WO 98/41099AL (1998) wherein a process for manufacture of coated or filled dry baked products in the form of ready to use process are given. During the process a baked bread sheet in which the starch is in an elastic state, is used for the formation of pieces. The drawback with the product is that it is not a low-fat product.
The main object of the present invention is to provide a process for production of low fat baked snacks which obviates the drawbacks as detailed above.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a low fat baked snack which although contains less fat but sensorily comparable to deep fried counterparts.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide a snack food without deep frying.
Yet another object of the present invention is to use additives like emulsifiers and hydrocholloids to lower the fat in the products and improve palatability.
Accordingly the present invention provides a process for production of low fat baked snacks which comprises of refined wheat flour, Bengal gram flour, sugar, salt, chilly powder, baking powder, curd, groundnut oil (10 to 40% with respect to weight of flour) and additives like glycerol mono stearate, carboxy methyl cellulose and sodium stearoyl lactalate individually or in the mixed form after dispersing in hot water and mixing with fat at the level of 0.05 to 1.0% with respect to weight of the flour and commensurate with the percent level (5 to 50%) of shortening, which comprises of the following steps :
(a) by mixing them thoroughly and transformed into dough using appropriate
quantity of (5 to 45ml) water.
(b) by conditioning the dough at ambient temperature for 15-30 minutes to the homogeneous distribution of additives to attend the colloidal form and also emulsifying oil and water for a better texture
(c) and sheeting the dough to l-2mm thickness and subsequently cutting into diamond/patti shapes
(d) and by baking them at 160-200°C to give golden yellow color shakarpara, namakpara and sev patties which mimics their deep fried counter parts
(e) the process yielded a product with fat and moisture ranging between 10 to 20 and 1 to 5% as against their deep fried counterparts 25 to 40 and 2 to 5% respectively.
In an embodiment of the present invention, snacks like shakarpara, namakpara and sev patties are normally prepared by deep frying and invariably contain fat up to 35-40% which is not desirable particularly for health conscious consumers. Hence, baked snacks with low fat content with similar sensory characteristics will be a good functional food and have high market value.
The protocol developed in the present invention depends upon dough making where additives have been incorporated to perform a special function, other than normally they are known for, to overcome deficiency in the organoleptic behaviour of baked snacks. The objective of the present invention is to obtain a wheat flour based and low fat snacks by baking instead of deep frying. To achieve this additives like glycerol monostearate, corboxy-methyl cellulose and sodium stearoyl lactalate have been added to the dough which have further being conditioned at room temperature by allowing water absorption and equilibration. This process do not require any air bubbling and gives a low fat product comparable to deep fat counter parts. Further more, the additives act as emulsifiers and hydrocoUoids which gives a good texture and mouth feel with low fat content. The sensory quality of our products was as good as deep fried products.
The process comprises of wheat flour ( for flour based snacks) and Bengal gram flour ( for besan based snacks) along with sugar ( for sweet snacks) and salt, chilly powder ( for salties snacks), baking powder, curd (optional), groundnut oil and additives were used to prepare the dough separately using measured amount of water. The dough preparation is achieved by mixing and adding hydrated additives in the gel form along with fat and thorough kneading. The dough conditioning has been done at ambient temperature (28-32°C) by allowing the additives to change their form to colloidal form and migrate to the starch matrix. After conditioning the dough is sheeted and cut into diamond/patti form which have been baked at 180-190°C till golden brown to yield sweet and salties snacks.
Glycerol mono stearate, carboxy methyl cellulose, and sodium stearoyl lactalate have been chosen to be incorporated in the dough. These food additives act as emulsifying, stabilizing and hydrocolloiding agents are approved by codex Allimentarius, FAO/WHO and also by Indian Food Laws. They can be incorporated individually or in the mixed form. They have property of facilitating a uniform dispersion of oils and fats in aqueous medium or vice-versa and or stabilizing such emulsions. To overcome dryness in the products, hydrocolloid like carboxy methyl cellulose has been used to enhance the water, uptake and retention by flour. To reduce the level of oil uptake and to make the product low fat, emulsifiers like glycerol monostearate and sodium stearoyl lactalate were used up to recommended extent. Though all these additives were found to have fat lowering property but organoleptically not so comparable with deep fried counterparts. The mixture of these additives in equimolar ratio did show synergistic effect and yielded a better product with very low fat content and organoleptically very close to deep fried products. Conditioning of dough after kneading at room temperature with increased surface area has proved to be a critical phenomenon for achieving a desired texture of the baked snacks.
The novelty of the present invention is that snacks like shakarpara, namakpara and
sev patties, which are conventionally deep fried product having a high (-40%) fat content
have been prepared using baking with very low (-12%) fat content without compromising
with sensory attributes and mouth feel. This could be achieved by making use of additive
mixture in the dough preparation followed by conditioning of dough before sheeting and
cutting. The novelty aspect further comprise of dough conditioning (28-32°C) which
allows the additives to get into colloidal from and get distributed in the dough uniformly
along with emulsifying the oil and water which further helps distribution of fat throughout. It renders the product to mimic like a deep fat fried product. This dual treatment has facilitated a low fat product with good taste and texture after baking.
The following examples are given by way of illustrations of the present invention and therefore should not be constructed to limit the scope of the present invention.
Maida 100 gm, salt 400 gm, sugar 16 gm, groundnut oil/vanaspathi 12 gms, curd 16 ml, khoa/whole milk powder 15 gms, were taken in a glass bowl and dough made using water 20 ml. The dough was sheeted and cut into diamond shapes. The thickness of diamonds were maintained between 1-2 mm. The diamonds were deep fried in refined groundnut oil at 175-180°C till golden yellow colour. Three different control shakarpara were prepared using 1) maida, salt, sugar, desighee (milk fat) and curd, 2) maida, salt, sugar, vegetable fat, whole milk powder and curd and 3) maida, salt, sugar, and khoa to represent the regional variations as the common recipe is not followed everywhere. The dough preparation, diamond cutting and deep frying process were same in all the three cases. The product was evaluated for sensory profile by a panel of 6 experts and results are given in Table-1.
TABLE 1: FAT, MOISTURE CONTENT AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROFILE OF DEEP FRIED AND BAKED SHAKARPARA.
Preparation of baked shakarpara was standardized using maida 100 gms„ salt 400 mg, sugar 16 gms, groundnut oil 35 gms, baking powder 2 gms, curd 50 ml and water nil, making it in the dough form. The dough was rolled into patties and cut into diamond shapes as described earlier. The diamonds were baked in an electric oven at 180C for 20-25 mts. or till the upper crust become light brown and a little puffing is notices. Fat, moisture % and organoleptic profile is given in Table-1. The deep fried shakarpara were found to contain fat up to 37% similar to other deep-fried products available in the market. However, baked shakarpara was prepared for the first time following the normal baking procedure. The control-baked shakarpara has fat up to 22% and moisture up to 4.1%. As expected the organoleptic profile of control baked shakarpara was not as good as that of control deep fried shakarpara with respect to mouthfeel and texture.
Baked shakarpara was prepared using maida 100 gms, salt 400 mg, sugar 16 gms, baking powder 2 gms, curd 15 gms and glycerol mono stearate, carboxy methyl cellulose and sodium stearoyl lactalate and groundnut oil as per Table-2, 3 & 4 respectively. Additives were dispersed in hot water, 5 ml, at 90°C and added to dough in the gel form along with fat. Water was used as per requirement (10-15 ml) to prepare the dough. The dough was conditioned at room temperature for half-an-hour by spreading and increasing the surface area for better homogenization of additives and air trapping. Rolling, sheeting and cutting and baking of shakarpara diamonds were done as given in example-2.
TABLE 2: FAT, MOISTURE CONTENT AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROFILE OF LOW FAT BAKED SHAKARPARA WITH GMS AS INDIVIDUAL ADDITIVE.
GMS = Glycerol Mono Stearate; GNO: Groundnut oil refined
TABLE 3: FAT, MOISTURE CONTENT AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROFILE OF LOW FAT BAKED SHAKARPARA WITH CMC AS INDIVIDUAL ADDITIVE.
CMC = Carboxy Methyl Cellulose; GNO: Groundnut oil refined.
TABLE 4: FAT, MOISTURE CONTENT AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROFILE OF LOW FAT BAKED SHAKARPARA WITH SSL AS INDIVIDUAL ADDITIVE.
SSL = Sodium Stearoyl Lactalate; GNO: Groundnut oil refined.
Baked shakarpara were prepared using maida 100 gms, salt 400 g, sugar 16 gms, baking powder 2 gms, curd 15 gms and mixed additive i.e. (GMS + CMC + SSL 1:1:1 wt/wt) in the same proportion as given in Table-5. Additive mixture was dispersed in hot water, 5 ml, at 90°C and added to the dough, in the gel form, at the time of dough preparation along with fat. Water was used as per requirement (10-15 ml) to prepare the dough. Dough conditioning, rolling, sheeting and diamond cutting was done as given in example-3. Fat %, moisture % and organoleptic profile is given in Table-5.
TABLE 5: FAT, MOISTURE CONTENT AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROFILE OF LOW FAT BAKED SHAKARPARA WITH GMS, CMC, SSL AS MIXED (1:1:1) ADDITIVES
Two sets of products were prepared using 0.1 and 0.15% of additives with varying
degree of shortening i.e. 30, 25, 20% with 0.1% additive and 25, 20, 15% with 0.15%
additive. It was done primarily to assess the quality of the product specially with respect to fat content and organoleptic behaviour. Table-5 further showed that additive mixture did show synergestic effect as the organoleptic acceptability improved with higher level (0.15%) of additive.
TLC plates (20 x 20 cm) were prepared (0.5 mm thickness) by coating slurry of silica gel -G in water. Plates were air dried and subsequently activated at 1 IOC for 1 hour before use. One percent chloroform solution of oil samples left over after deep frying of shakarpara and oil extracted from the baked shakarpara were spotted on TLC plates. The plates were developed in pet. ether : diethyl ether: acetic acid 60:40:1 v/v and solvent front was allowed to move for a distance of 15 cms. After development the plates were air dried and sprayed separately with 3% of 2,4-dinitro phenyl hydrazine, 2% of aqueous solution of potassium iodide followed by 5% of starch solution and acidic solution of 1% ammonium molybdate to detect the presence of carbonyls, peroxides / hydroperoxides and hydroxy present in the oils. Partial glycerides and other related degraded products were separated by column chromatography using silicic acid as adsorbent and hexane and diethyl ether as eluent. Results are given in Table-6.
TABLE 6: COLOR-TLC PROFILE AND COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY OF COMPONENTS FORMED DURING FRYING AND BAKING OF SHAKARPARA WITH AND WITHOUT ADDITIVES
D: Detected; ND: Not Detected
Table 6 shows that oil left over after deep frying (sample 1) has shown the onset of oxidative rancidity and also the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol at a very low level. But the oil isolated from shakarpara was found to be better as it was devoid of epoxides and peroxides. However, oil isolated from baked shakarpara (sample-2) with and without additive did not show any noticeable oxidation.
Baked namakpara was prepared using maida 50 gms, salt 500 mg, baking powder 1 gm, curd 10 gms, white gingelly seeds 5 gms, mixed additive i.e. GMS + CMC + SSL 1:1:1 wt/wt./wt. and groundnut oil in the proportion of 0.1%, 30% and 0.15%, 15% respectively. Water was used as per requirement. The dough were prepared as in the case of shakarpara and conditioned before sheeting and cutting into diamonds. The diamonds were baked at 180-185C till the namakpara becomes golden yellow in colour. Fat and moisture percent and organoleptic behaviour were assessed and given in Table-7.
Besan 50 gm, salt 500 mg, chilly powder 1 gm, mixed additives i.e. GMS + CMC + SSL 1:1:1 wt/wt and groundnut oil in the proportion of 0.1%, 30% and 0.15%, 15% were taken separately. The dough were prepared using water 10-25 ml. The dough were thoroughly kneadled after adding hydrated additives in the gel form along with the fat and conditioned for 45 minutes before sheeting and cutting into diamonds. The diamonds were baked at 180-190C for 15-12 minutes until sev patties started getting brown in color. The baked sev patties were light brown in color. It had a hard texture compared to namakpara. Fat, moisture% and organoleptic behaviour is given in Table-7.
TABLE 7: FAT, MOISTURE CONTENT AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROFILE OF LOW FAT BAKED NAMAKPARA, SEV PATTIES WITH GMS, CMC, SSL AS MIXED (1:1:1) ADDITIVES.
The main advantage of the present invention are:
1. A process has been developed which produces low fat snacks and savories using' baking.
2. These traditional low fat snacks and savories have -50% less fat compared to their deep fried counterparts.
3. The sensory attributes of these products are comparable to their deep fried counterparts.
4. The additives like GMS, CMC and SSL which are known emulsifier, stabilizer and hydrocolloid are made to improve the texture and organoleptic properties of the snacks.
5. A conditioning step has been introduced to improve the texture of the products.
We claim :
1. A process for production of low fat baked snacks which comprises the
(a), mixing the following ingredients thoroughly and transforming the resulting mixture into dough by adding water
Maida flour 90-110g
Baking powder 1.5-2.5 g
Ground nut oil 30-40 g
Curd 10-20 g
Additive(s) 0.1 -0.15% dry wt of Maida
Salt 350-450g, optional
Sugar 14-18 g, optional
(b). conditioning the dough obtained in the step (a) at ambient temperature for a period in the range of 15-30 minutes in order to achieve the homogeneous distribution of additive(s)
so as to attain colloidal form and emulsification of oil and water achieve better texture.
(c). transforming the dough obtained in step (b) into sheets of thickness in the range of 1-2 mm and subsequently cutting the said sheets into diamond and /or Patti shapes; and
(d) baking the products obtained in step (c) at a temperature in the range of 160-200 deg C for a period in order to obtain a golden yellow color snacks selected from shakarpara, namakpara and sev patties.
2. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the additive(s) are selected from
the group consisting of glycerol mono stearate, carboxy methyl cellulose and
sodium stearoyl lactalate or mixture thereof.
3. A process as claimed in claims 1 and 2 characterized in that the said low
fat snacks are prepared using additives of claim 2 and dough conditioning
technique of step (b) of claim 1 in order to obtain deep fried mimics.
4. A process as claimed in claims 1-3, wherein the additive(s) is/are used by adding to hot water and mixing with fat at the level in the range of 0.05 to 1.0% dry weight of the maida flour.
|Indian Patent Application Number||750/DEL/2005|
|PG Journal Number||07/2014|
|Date of Filing||31-Mar-2005|
|Name of Patentee||COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH|
|Applicant Address||ANUSANDHAN BHAWAN, RAFI MARG, NEW DELHI-110 001, INDIA|
|PCT International Classification Number||C11B3/14|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|