|Title of Invention||
PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF CALCIUM-D-PANTOTHENATE.
|Abstract||The invention relates to an improved process for the preparation of calcium-D-pantothenate from fermentation broths comprising eluting D-pantothenic acid from a strongly basic anion exchange resin with a weak organic acid and neutralising the eluate with a basic calcium salt.|
|Full Text||Process for the Preparation of Calcium-D-pantothenate
The present invention relates to a procedure for the preparation of calcium-D-pantothenate and to compositions based thereon suitable as animal feed supplements.
Calcium-D-pantothenate is the commercially most important product form of D-pantothenic acid. Compared to the pantothenic acid itself and monovalent D-pantothenates calcium-D-pamothenate has the advantage of higher stability and is less hygroscopic. D-Pantothenic acid or vitamin B5 is a member of the vitamin B complex ana is a natural requirement for mammals, including livestock and humans. In cells, pantothenic acid is used primarily for the biosynthesis of co-enzyme A (CoA) and the acyl carrier protein (ACP). These co-enzymes are essential to all cells, participating in over 100 different intermediary reactions in cellular metabolism.
About 6000 tons of D-pantothenic acid and its salts were produced in 2001, of which about 80% were used as animal feed additives. It is also used for pharmaceutical, health care and food products. The conventional chemical synthesis of D-pantothenate (only the D-enantiomer is biologically active) from D-pantolactone and p-alaninate requires an optical resolution step of racemic intermediates to obtain the desired D-enantiomer and is therefore hampered by relatively high production costs.
In order to overcome this drawback and to improve the D-pantothenate production process methods of direct microbial synthesis (e.g. from glucose to pantothenate") have been the subject of intensive research and have been developed in recent years.
Meanwhile several fermentation processes for the microbial preparation of D-pantothenates (i.e. D-pantothenic acid and its salts) have been described and are known, e.g., from EP 0 590 857, WO 96/33283. WO 9710340, EP 1 001 027, EP 1 006 192. EP 1 006 193. WO 01/21772 and others. Some of the processes use microorganisms which have been transformed and genetically manipulated in a highly sophisticated way in order to achieve high yields of D-pantothenate in the fermentation broth.
On the other hand the microbially produced D-pantothenates have to be isolated, purified and have to be converted to the desired product form, viz. calcium-D-pantothenate. Therefore, a variety' of downstream processes have been developed and have been published including process steps like filtration, crystallization, the use of ion selective membranes, charcoal adsorption, cation exchange, anion exchange with subsequent neutralization and concentration or drying until formulation.
WT0 02/066665 describes a process for the preparation of D-pantothenic acid and/or its salts by a transformant microorganism with a deregulated pantothenic acid (pan) and/or isoleucine/valine (ilv) biosynthesis in which the pantothenic acid from the fermentation broth is fixed by an anion exchange resin, eluted with inter alia an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid and the free pantothenic acid obtained in the eluate is converted into a calcium and/or magnesium salt by addition of a calcium and/or magnesium base. The product thus obtained is especially useful as animal feed supplement.
The process of the present invention provides a downstream process, that is carried out after the microbial production of D-panothenic acid and/or its salts and that uses anion exchange resins, however, under conditions different from those described in WO 02/066665. This downstream process provides feed grade material of calcium-D-pantothenate in higher purity and/or more economically than other downstream processes known to date.
IE more detail, the present invention relates to a process for the preparation of calciurn-D-pantothenate comprising isolating and purifying n from a fermentation broth of a pantothenic acid producing microorganism which process is characterized by the steps of
(a.) elutrng-D-pantothenic acid from a strongly basic anion exchange resin with an aqueous solution of a weal: organic acid.
(b) neutralizing the eluate by the addition of a basic calcium salt and
(c) transferring the solution into a free-flowing product capable of being used as
animal feed supplement.
The invention also relates to compositions suitable as animal feed supplements on the basis of calcium-D-pantothenate which can be obtained by the above process.
While the essential step of the present invention is the elution of D-pantothenic acid from the strongly basic anion exchange resin with an aqueous solution of a weak organic acid, the process in specific embodiments may in addition comprise steps commonly used in such downstream processes, in which, e.g., all or only some of the biomass is removed from the fermentation broth before the anion exchange step, the eluate is concentrated prior to neutralization or decolorized at any stage of the process and, finally, formulated.
While by elution of D-pantothenic acid from an anion exchange resin with a strong inorganic acid like hydrochloric acid, as described in WO 02/066665, all other anions bound to the resin are also eluted, the process of the present invention provides a more selective elution of D-pantothenic acid since weaker organic acids, e.g., carboxylic acids, preferably acetic acid, are used. The organic acid is used more or less diluted with water at concentrations of 1 - 99% (w/w), preferably of 5 - 50%. more preferably of 8 — 30% and most preferably of 10 —20%. Despite the use of a weaker acid, the removal of D-pantothenate from the strongly basic anion exchange resin is quantitative. Compared to diluted hydrochloric acid (about 5%), the same volume of diluted acetic acid is sufficient to achieve complete elution of D-pantothenic acid.
Thus, the process of the present invention comprises several benefits when compared with elutions using strong inorganic acids. The use of weaker organic acids gives a more selective removal of D-pantothenic acid from the resin. In contrast to hydrochloric acid,
the application of acetic acid avoids the elution of inorganic anions such as sulfate or phosphate to a large extent. Thus, the amouni of these anions in the final product is reduced by this new technique to a level of A further benefit of the invention results from step (b) of the present process, the neutralization of the eluate. In this step, the eluate containing D-pantothenic acid is neutralized to a pH of 4 - 10. preferably 5-9, more preferably 6-8 and most preferably 6.5 - 7.5 by a basic calcium salt, especially calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. These two salts are favored because no additional anionic side product is added in this step. Neutralization with basic salts having other cations than calcium would not lead directly to the preferred calcium D-pantothenate. The basic calcium salts are added as solids or, more favorably, as aqueous suspensions with contents of 2 - 50%, more preferably 15 - 45% and most preferably 20 — 40% of the basic calcium salt. The addition of suspension allows for a better pH control in this step. As mentioned above, elution with hydrochloric acid does not separate the D-pantothenate from inorganic anions like sulfate of phosphate. Since these anions form hardly soluble calcium salts, suspensions would be obtained in the neutralization step. In contrast, the present invention provides a clear solution after the addition of calcium hydroxide to the eluate. Thus, the neutralized solution can be directly submitted to a drying or formulation step without any additional filtration step.
The fermentation process by which the D-pantothenate containing broth is obtained can be conducted according to any method know in the art. Thus, the process can be conducted batch wise, fed-batch wise, repeated-fed-batch wise or continuously using well-known culture media comprising carbon sources, nitrogen sources and inorganic anions, e.g., chlorides, sulfates or phosphates. For the neutralization of the D-pantothenic acid in the fermentation broth the well-known buffer systems are used, e.g.. phosphate buffers with NaOH, KOH or
All D-pantothenate producing microorganisms can be used including fungi, yeasts and bacteria such as, e.g., represented by the genera Saccharomyces, Corynebacterium,
Escherichia and Bacillus and described in more detail in the references cited above, e.g.. WO 02/066665. Preferred microorganisms are meanwhile those which have been transformed or their pathways have been genetically manipulated (deregulated) in a way that D-pantothenate is overproduced. Several methods how- this can be done are well-known by enhancing expression of genes in the D-pantothenate pathways and/or suppressing the expression of genes involved in side-pathways.
Depending upon the microorganism used and the fermentation conditions the fermentation broth will contain D-pantothenate in concentrations of at least 25 g/L. preferably of at least 50g/L. more preferably of at least 80g/L and most preferably of at least lOOg/L
All known and commercially available strongly basic anion exchange resins can be used in the process of the present invention. This includes all strong!}' basic resins (for example those having quaternized ammonium residues as functional groups), such as Lewatits. Amberlites. Duolite. Dowex and Diaion resins from the following companies, respectively: Bayer. Rohm & Haas. Dow Chemicals, and Mitsubishi Chemicals Corp. The anion exchange resin binds D-pantothenates and other anions while all other components such as cations and neutral compounds pass through and can be discarded. After washing with water the D-pantothenate is then eluted selectively with an aqueous solution of a weak organic acid, preferably acetic acid in a preferred concentration of 10 - 20%.
The eluate is then adjusted to a pH of 4 - 10, preferably 5-9. more preferably 6-8 and most preferably 6.5 - 7.5 by addition of calcium hydroxide or carbonate. In accordance with the present invention an aqueous solution or suspension of 2 - 55% (w/w) preferably 10 - 50% and more preferably 20 - 40% of calcium hydroxide or of 2 - 65% (w/w), preferably 10 - 50% and most preferably 20 — 40% of calcium carbonate is added to the eluate.
hi accordance with step (c) of the process of the present invention the neutralized eluate from the anion exchange resin is transferred into a free flowing product which can directly be used as an animal feed supplement according to methods known in the art, e.g. by drying with or without prior concentration and. if desired, formulation using methods well-known in the art (see, e.g. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 6th edition. 1999) preferably by spray drying or spray granulation. After the drying step, a
yellowish product is obtained with a pantothenate content of >20%. preferabh- >40%, more preferably >65% and most preferabh' >90% with a calcium content compared to monovalent cations of >90%. preferably >92°/c more preferably >96% and most preferably >99%. hi this product the amount of inorganic anions like chloride, sulfate. phosphate is minimized to The process of the present invention can be varied by a single or several additional conventional process steps before step (a), between steps (a) - (c) or even after step (c) if desired. Thus, the solutions, suspensions or products of process steps (a) - (c) can be sterilized by, e.g., heating, filtration or radiation.
If a major amount of acetic acid is present in the eluate. it can be removed right after the elution step (a) by distillation at moderate temperature and low pressure. Because of the low corrosive behaviour of acetic acid compared to strong mineral acids there is no need for special equipment but cheap materials for the distillation equipment can be used. Acetic acid can also be minimized in the eluate using a special set-up of several columns known to a person skilled in the art resulting in acetate levels in the eluate of Before the fermentation broth is sent over the anion exchange resin the biomass is suitably lysed and/or killed and/or more or less separated from the broth. This can be effected by methods known in the art. Especially if a product with a high D-pantothenate content is desired, separation of the biomass is effected by methods such as, decantation, filtration and centrifugation, if desired with previous addition of a commercially available flocculant. If no or only partial separation of the biomass is desired, the broth with the biomass is advantageously sent through the anion exchange column from bottom to top, viz. against gravity.
Finally, another modification of the present process may involve a charcoal treatment of one of the solutions if a less colored product, in the extreme a white product is desired. This charcoal treatment is preferably carried out right after fermentation, more preferably after the removal of biomass from the fermentation broth. Most preferred is the charcoal treatment after the neutralization step (b). For this operation all commercially available powdered or granulated charcoal products can be applied.
The preseni invention is illustrated in more detail by the following examples: Example 1: Fermentation of B. subtilis
The fermentation was carried out in a stirred and aerated 2000 L pilot fermenter.
The initial fermentation medium was sterilised in the fermenter at 121 °C for 30 minutes. the composition is described in Table 1.
j Component Concentration
yeast extract 12,0
sodium glutaraate 0,83
antifoam Clerol FBA 5057 0,2
Table 1: Composition of the initial fermentation medium
After the sterilisation the components shown in Table 2 were autoclaved separately and added aseptically to the fermenter.
Component Concentration M
glucose 24.. 8
MnSO4 • H2O 0,014
CoCl2 • 6 H2O 0,004
(NH4)6Mo7O24 • 4 H20 0,0015
A1C13 • 6 H2O 0,001
CuCl2 • 2 H2O 0,00075
MgSCV "H2O 1
ZnSCv 7H2O 0,004
CaCi2 • 2 H2O 0,0625
FeS04' 7H2O 0,042
Table 2: Components added after sterilisation of initial medium
500 L of the medium were inoculated with 25 L of a preculture of a pantothenate overproducing B. subtilis strain in which the panBCD operon and the panf. gene are overexpressed using a SP01 phage promoter (as described, e.g., in WO 01/21772") with an optical density (OD) of 10,7. The fermentation temperature was 39 °C. the used airflow was 700 L/'min. A pH of pH 6,85 was maintained by adding gaseous ammonia. By strrrer speed control the dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) remained greater than 15 %. The formation of foam was prevented by addition of antifoam Cierol FBA 5057.
The fermentation was carried out as glucose-limited fed-batch fermentation. Over a period of 43 hours 182 L of the feed solution (Table 3) was added to the fermenter.
Component Concentration [g/L]
MgSO4- "H20 i
ZnSO^ • 7 H2O 0,004
antifoam Cierol FBA 5057 0,003
Table 3: Composition of the feed solution
After 48 hours of fermentation the broth was pasteurised at 70 °C for 30 minutes. The concentration of pantothenate in the pasteurised fermentation broth was 32 g/L.
Example 2: Amberlite IRA 900; Elution with 10 % acetic acid
The strongly basic anion exchange resin Amberlite IRA 900 (600 mL) was loaded with 758 mL of the pasteurized and ultrafiltrated bio-broth obtained according to Example 1. The flow rate was regulated to 1 L/h. Using the same flow rate, the column was washed with 1168 mL of demineralized water. Then the pantothenate was eluted with a flow rate of IL/h using 2000 mL of acetic acid (10 %), 1898 mL. of eluate were collected. The column was regenerated with demineralized water (975 mL), 4 % aqueous NaOH solution (1639 mL) and again demineralized water (1000 mL).
The eluate was concentrated on a rotary evaporator at reduced pressure and temperatures from 50-70 °C.
The concentrated crude product was diluted with water (1:1) and then 5.22 g of Ca(OH) (as a 5 % suspension in water) were added to adjust the pH value to 7. The solution was
concentrated and dried on a rotary evaporator. 53.60 g of free-flowing yellow product were obtained consisting of 37.1 % (w/w) D-pantothenate. Example 3: Amberlite ERA 958; Elution with 10 % acetic acid
The strongly basic anion exchange resin Amberlite IRA 958 (600 ml,) was loaded with 1068 mL of the pasteurized and ultrafiltrated bio-broth obtained according to Example 1. The flow rate was regulated to 1 L/h. Using the same flow rate, the column was washed with 617 mL of demineralized water. Then the pantofhenate was eluted with a flow rate of IL/h using 1079 mL of acetic acid (10 %). 1179 mL- of eluate were collected. The column was regenerated with demineralized water (711 mL). 4 % aqueous NaOH solution (747 mL) and again demineralized water (1000 mL).
The eluate was split in two portions, first portion: 601 g, second portion: 567 g.
Portion 1 was concentrated on a rotary evaporator at reduced pressure and a temperature in the range of 50 — 70 °C. The concentrated crude product was diluted with water (1:1'} and then S g of Caf'OH); (as a 25 % suspension in water) were added to adjust the pH value to 7. The solution was concentrated and dried on a rotary evaporator. 36.0 g of free-flowing yellow product were obtained consisting of 42.8% (w/w) D-pantothenate. % magnesium.
Portion 2 was directly submitted to the neutralization step. 21.7 g of Ca(OH)2 (as a 25 % suspension in water) were added to adjust the pH value to 7. The solution was concentrated and dried on a rotary evaporator. 61.1 g of free-flowing yellow product were obtained consisting of 23.3 % (w/w) D-pantothenate, Example 4: Amberlite IRA 958; Elution with 20 % acetic acid
The strongly basic anion exchange resin Amberlite IRA 958 (600 mL.) was loaded with 1453 mL' of the pasteurized and ultrafiltrated bio-broth obtained according to Example 1. The flow rate was regulated to 1 L/n. Using the same flow rate, the column was washed with 606 mL of demineralized water. Then the pantothenate was eluted with a flow rate of
IL/h using 1000 mL of acetic acid (20 %). 781 ml of eluate were collected. The column was regenerated with deminerah'zeti water (773 mL). 4 % aqueous NaOH solution (1200 mL) and again demineralized water (1000 mL).
The eluate was concentrated on a rotary evaporator at reduced pressure and a temperature in the range of 50-70 °C.
The concentrated crude product was diluted with water (1:1) and then 9.53 g of Ca(OH);> (as a 25 % suspension in water) were added to adjust the pH value to 7. The solution was concentrated and dried on arotar}' evaporator, 52.40 g of free-flowing yellow product were obtained consisting of 40.8 % (w/w) D-pantothenate.
1. A process for the preparation of calcium-D-pantothenate comprising
isolating and purifying it from a fermentation broth of a pantothenic acid producing
microorganism which process is characterized by the steps of
(a) eluting-D-pantothenic acid from a strongly basic anion exchange resin with a 10-20%(w/w) aqueous solution of acetic acid,
(b) neutralizing the eluate by the addition of a basic calcium salt and
(c) transferring the solution into a free-flowing product capable of being used as animal feed supplement.
2. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the neutralization of the eluate from the anion exchange resin is effected with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate.
|Indian Patent Application Number||5381/DELNP/2006|
|PG Journal Number||48/2013|
|Date of Filing||18-Sep-2006|
|Name of Patentee||DSM IP ASSETS B. V.|
|Applicant Address||HET OVERLOON 1, NL-6411 TE HEERLEN, THE NETHERLANDS|
|PCT International Classification Number||C12P 13/00|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/EP2005/004067|
|PCT International Filing date||2005-04-18|