|Title of Invention||
A BASE STATION ARRANGED TO COMMUNICATE OVER UPLINK AND DOWNLINK RF LINKS WITH A MOBILE STATION OF A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
|Abstract||A communication system that supports multiple modulation and channel coding schemes selects an optimum RF link by measuring link quality parameters, such as C/l ratio. All of the available RF links are characterized based on the measured link quality parameters by calculating mean values and variances of the parameters. Based on the characterization of the RF link, user quality values, such as user data throughput and speech quality values, are estimated. The communication system selects the RF link that provides the best user quality value.|
This invention generally relates to digital communication systems that supports multiple
modulation and channel coding schemes and more particularly to a base station arranged to
communicate over uplink and downlink RF links with a mobile station of a communication
The present application is divided out from Patent Application No.2538/DEL/98.
In wireless digital communication systems, standardized air interfaces specify most of system
parameters, including modulation scheme, channel coding scheme, burst format,
communication protocol, symbol rate, etc. For example. European Telecommunication
Standard Institute (LTSI) has specified a Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)
standard that uses time division multiple access (TDMA) to communicate control, voice and
data information over radio frequency (RF) physical channels or links using Gaussian
Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) modulation scheme at a symbol rate of 271 ksps. In the
U.S., Telecommunication Industry Association (TIA) has published a number of Interim
Standards, such as IS-54 and IS-136, that define various versions of digital advanced mobile
phone service (D-AMPS). a IDMA system that uses a Differential QPSK (DQPSK)
modulation scheme for communicating data over RF links.
Digital communication systems use a variety of linear and non-linear modulation schemes to
communicate voice or data information in bursts. These modulation schemes include. GMSK,
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), etc.
GMSK modulation scheme is a non-linear low level modulation (LLM) scheme with a
symbol rate that supports a specified user bit rate. In order to increase user bit rate, high-level
modulation (HLM) schemes can be used. Linear modulation schemes, such as QAM scheme,
may have different level of modulation. For example, 16QAM scheme is used to represent the
sixteen variations of 4 bits of data. On the other hand, a QPSK modulation scheme is used to
represent the four variations of 2 bits of data.
In addition to various modulation schemes, digital communication systems can support
various channel coding schemes, which are used to increase communication reliability. For
example, General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), which is a GSM extension for providing
packet data service, supports four channel coding schemes. A Convolutional Half-Rate Code
scheme, CS1 coding scheme, which is the "mother" channel coding scheme of GPRS. The
CS1 scheme is punctured to obtain approximately two-third rate and three-fourth rate code
schemes, CS2 and CSS coding schemes. GPRS also supports an uncoded scheme, known as
CS4 coding scheme.
Generally, channel coding schemes code and interleave data bits of a burst or a sequence of
bursts to prevent their loss under degraded RF link conditions, for example, when RF links arc
exposed to fading. The number of coding bits used for channel coding of data bits
corresponds to error detection accuracy, with higher number of coding bits providing higher
bit error detection accuracy. For a given gross bit rate, a high number of coding bits, however,
reduces user bit rate, since coding bits reduce the number of user data bits that can be
transmitted in a burst.
The communication channel typically introduces errors in sequence. In order to improve
coding efficiency, the coded bits are interleaved, before transmission. The purpose of
interleaving is to distribute the errors over several code words. The term perfect interleaving
is used when the sequence of the received data bit errors are uncorrected. The more less
uncoirclated the received data bits are at the receiver, the easier it is to recover lost data bits.
On the other hand, if interleaving is not effective, large portions or blocks of transmitted data
bits may be lost under degraded RF link conditions. Consequently, error correction algorithms
may not be able to recover the lost data.
TDMA systems subdivide the available frequency band into one or several RF channels. The
RF channels are divided into a number of physical channels corresponding to time slots in
TDMA frames. Logical channels are mapped onto one or more physical channels, where
modulation and channel coding schemes are specified. An RF link includes one or more
physical channels that support the logical channels. In these systems, the mobile stations
communicate with a plurality of scattered base stations by transmitting and receiving bursts of
digital information over uplink and downlink RF channels.
The growing number of mobile stations in use today has generated the need for more voice
and data channels within cellular telecommunication systems. As a result, base stations have
become more closely spaced, with an increase in interference between mobile stations
operating on the same frequency in neighboring or closely spaced cells. Although digital
techniques gain more useful channels from a given frequency spectrum, there still remains a
need to reduce interference, or more specifically to increase the ratio of the carrier signal
strength to interference, (i.e., carrier-to-interference (C/I)) ratio. RF links that can handle
lower C/1 ratios are considered to be more robust than those that only can handle higher C/1
Depending on the modulation and channel coding schemes, grade of service deteriorates more
rapidly as link quality decreases. In other words, the data throughput or grade of service of
more robust RF links deteriorates less rapidly than those of less robust RF links. Higher level
modulation schemes arc more susceptible to link quality degradation than lower level
modulation schemes. If a FILM scheme is used, the data throughput drops very rapidly with a
drop in link quality. On the other hand, if a LLM scheme is used, data throughput and grade
of service does not deteriorate as rapidly under the same interference conditions.
Therefore, link adaptation methods, which provide the ability to dynamically change
modulation scheme, channel coding, and/or the number of used time slots, based on channel
conditions, arc used to balance the user bit rate against link quality. Generally, these methods
dynamically adapt a system's combination of channel coding, modulation, and number of
assignable time slots to achieve optimum performance over a broad range of (71 conditions.
One evolutionary path for next generation of cellular systems is to use high-level modulation
(HFM), e.g., 16QAM modulation scheme, to provide increased user bit rates compared to the
existing standards. These cellular systems include enhanced GSM systems with GPRS
extension, enhanced D-AMPS systems, International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-
2000), etc. A high level linear modulation, such as 16QAM modulation scheme, has the
potential to be more spectrum efficient than, for example, GMSK, which is a low-level
modulation (LLM) scheme. Because higher level modulation schemes require a higher
minimum C/1 ratio for acceptable performance, their availability in the system becomes
limited to certain coverage areas of the system or certain parts of the cells, where more robust
links can be maintained.
In order to provide various communication services, a corresponding minimum user bit rate is
required. In voice and/or data services, user bit rate corresponds to voice quality and/or data
throughput, with a higher user bit rate producing better voice quality and/or higher data
throughput. The total user bit rate is determined by a selected combination of techniques for
speech coding, channel coding, modulation scheme, and for a TDMA system, the number of
assignable time slots per call.
Data services include transparent services and non-transparent services. Transparent services,
which have a minimum link quality requirement, provide target user bit rates. A system that
provides transparent communication services varies the gross bit rate to maintain a constant
user bit rate with the required quality. Conversely, in non-transparent services, for example,
GPRS, the user bit rate may vary, because erroneously received data bits are retransmitted.
Unlike non-transparent services, transparent services do not retransmit erroneously received
data bits. Therefore, transparent services have a constant point-to-point transmission delay,
and non-transparent services have a non-constant point-to-point transmission delay.
A communication system may provide a data service through a number of RI; links
supporting different combinations of channel coding, speech coding, and/or modulation
schemes, for example, the system may provide a multimedia service using two or more
separate RL links that separately provide audio and video signals. Under this scenario, one of
the two RL links may use HLM scheme and the other link may use LLM scheme. In order to
provide a constant user bit rate in a TDMA system, lower level modulation schemes may use
a higher number of time slots than higher level modulation schemes.
Moreover, digital communication systems must also select a suitable combination of channel
coding and modulation schemes based on link quality. Lor example, for a high quality link,
higher level modulation or less channel coding results in higher user bit rate, which may be
used advantageously by different communication services, for example, in a non-transparent
data service, user data throughput is increased. For a speech service, the increased user bit rate
may be used for deploying an alternative speech coder with higher quality. Therefore, a
system thai supports multiple modulation and channel coding schemes should provide
sufficient flexibility for selecting an optimum combination of modulation and channel coding
Conventional method for selecting an optimum combination of modulation and channel
coding schemes assume that the link quality parameters are perfectly known at a given instant.
Usually, these methods determine link quality parameters by measuring, at predefined
instances, one or more of received signal strength (RSS) or bit error rate (BHR), etc. Using
these instantaneous measurements, these methods also assume that user quality as a function
of link quality parameters is perfectly known for all combinations of modulation and channel
Because these parameters vary continuously, the mean measurement of link quality
parameters do not give an accurate indication of user quality, especially after a link with a
different combination of modulation and channel coding schemes is selected. One method
dynamically adapts user bit rate of a TDMA system to achieve optimum voice quality over a
broad range of channel conditions. This system continuously monitors link quality by making
instantaneous measurements of a RF link's C/1 ratio. The system dynamically adapts its
combination of modulation and channel coding schemes and the number of assignable time
slots to optimize voice quality for the measured conditions. In addition, the system determines
cost functions to derive at a cost of using RF links with different modulation and coding
schemes to improve voice quality.
User quality, however, varies considerably with variations in link quality parameters. FIG. 1
shows link performance of two modulation schemes, i.e., QPSK and 16QAM schemes, which
arE exposed to three channel conditions: an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel
condition, a fast Rayleigh Fading channel condition, and a slow Rayleigh fading channel
condition. In FIG. 1, link performance is expressed in terms of BHR. For a given C/I ratio, the
AWGN channel provides the best performance, due to the lack of fading dips. In fast
Rayleigh fading channel, where fading varies fast enough to make effective use of
interleaving, link performance is degraded compared to the AWGN channel. In slow
Rayleigh fading channel, where fading varies slowly such that interleaving is not effective,
the worst link performance is obtained. Conventional methods use mean C/1 ratio to
determine the channel condition. As shown in FIG. 1. however, mean C/I ratio for different
channel conditions may be the same, when link performance may be quiet different
Therefore, more information is needed to accurately estimate link performance, if different
combinations of modulation and channel coding is used.
An additional factor affecting user quality is time dispersion. Receiver equalizers can not
effectively handle large time dispersions. As a result, link performance degrades, even when
(71 ratio distribution remains the same. Accordingly, mean measurements of C/I ratio, BHR or
time dispersion alone are not sufficient for estimating performance of a selected link.
Therefore, there exists a need for an effective link selection method in systems that support
various modulation and channel coding schemes.
In the parent application addresses this need is exemplified in a selection method that
statistically characterizes combinations of available modulation and channel coding schemes
using measured link quality parameters to determine which combination provides the best
user quality. The method of the invention measures at least one link quality parameter of at
least one RF link, for example, C/I ratio, BFR, received signal strength, or time dispersion.
Then, at least one channel characteristic measure is calculated based on the measured link
quality parameter by computing both its mean value and variance. By introducing the
variance of for example C/I ratio, it is possible to estimate the type of channel conditions a
transmission is susceptible to. Consequently, it is possible to estimate how a change of
modulation and/or channel coding scheme would effect the link quality. In an exemplary
embodiment, the channel characteristic measure may be calculated for each one of available
combinations of modulation and channel coding schemes of an RF link. Thereafter, a user
quality estimator estimates user quality values, for example, user data throughput or speech
quality values, based on the calculated channel characteristic measure. Finally, the present
invention selects a combination of modulation and channel coding schemes on an RF link that
provides the best user quality.
According to some of its more detailed features, the invention in the parent case maps the
calculated channel characteristic measure with estimated user quality values of the supported
combinations of modulation and channel coding schemes. The mapping function may use
simulation results, laboratory results, or results derived during normal operation of a
According to another aspect of the invention in the parent case , the selection method determines an
optimal transmit power for each combination of modulation and channel coding schemes based on the
measured link quality parameter. Thereafter, the user quality values are estimated based on the optimal
transmit power. Also, data bursts are transmitted on the selected RF link at the optimal transmit power.
SUMMARY OF INVENTION
According to the main aspect of the present invention there is provided a base station (22) arranged to
communicate over uplink and downlink RF links with a mobile station (12) of a communication system,
a user qulity value estimator block (114) for estimating user quality values for each one of combinations
of modulation and channel coding schemes based on statistical measures received from the mobile
station (12) and the corresponding combinations of the modulation and channel coding scheme
supported at the base station, said user quality values including a user data throughput, and said
estimating including estimating block error rates and computing estimates of the user data throughput
based on the estimated block error rates and nominal bit rates ; and
a selector block (118) for selecting a combination of modulation and channel coding schemes on an RF
link that provides the best user quality.
In co pending application no.821/KOL/05 there is provided a mobile station (12) arranged to
communicate over uplink and downlink RF links with a base station (22) of a communication
system, comprising :
means (40,50) for measuring the bit error rate of an RF link ;
means (112) for calculating statistical measures as a channel characteristic measure, over a
predefined period, wherein a first statistical measure includes the variance of the measured bit
rate and a second statistical measure includes the mean value of the measured bit rate ; and
means for reporting the first and second calculated statistical measures to the base station (22)
for further estimation of user quality values for each one of a considered number of
combinations of modulation and channel coding schemes.
Other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the
following description of the preferred embodiment, taken in conjunction with the
accompanying drawings, which illustrate, by way of example, the principles of the invention.
BRIFF DESCRIPTION OF THF DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a diagram of the performance of two variously modulated RF links under three
different channel conditions.
FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a communication system which advantageously uses the present
FIG. 3 is a diagram of a subdivided RF channel that is used in the communication system of
FIG. 4 is a diagram of a normal transmission burst transmitted on the RF channel of FIG. 3.
FIG. 5 is a block diagram of a mobile unit used in the communication system of FIG. 2.
FIG. 6 is a block diagram of a radio base station used in the communication system of FIG. 2.
FIG. 7 is a block diagram of a radio transceiver used in the base station of FIG. 6.
FIG. 8 is a flow chart of a link selection method according to an exemplary embodiment of
FIG. 9. is a block diagram of the selection method of FIG. 8.
FIG. 10 is a flow chart of a power selection scheme according to another aspect of the
FIG. 11 is a graph of link performances of two combinations of channel coding and
Referring to FIG. 2, a communication system 10 according to an exemplary embodiment of
the present invention supports multiple modulation schemes. In an exemplary embodiment of
the invention, the system 10 supports three modulation schemes: a first LLM (LLM1) scheme,
a second LLM (LLM2) scheme, and a HLM scheme. LLM1 scheme is a non-linear
modulation scheme, such as GMSK modulation scheme used in GSM systems. LLM2 scheme
is a linear modulation scheme, such as QPSK. Finally, IILM scheme is a higher level linear
modulation schemes, for example, 16QAM scheme, that could be supported by the second
generation of enhanced GSM systems, which as of yet are not standardized.
The communication system 10 also supports the channel coding schemes of GSM's GPRS
extension. The system 10, therefore, supports CS1, CS2, CS3, and CS4 channel coding
schemes. The system 10 supports various combinations of modulation and channel coding
schemes on a plurality of RF links. Although, the system 10 is described with reference to the
above specified exemplary modulation and channel coding schemes, it should be noted that a
wide range of modulation and coding schemes may be used to implement the present
The mode of operation of GSM communication systems is described in European
Telecommunication Standard Institute (ETSI) documents LTS 300 573, LTS 300 574 and
ETS 300 578, which are hereby incorporated by reference. Therefore, the operation of the
GSM system is described to the extent necessary for understanding of the present invention.
Although, the present invention is described as embodied in a GSM system, those skilled in
the art would appreciate that the present invention could be used in a wide variety of other
digital communication systems, such as those based on PDC or D-AMPS standards and
enhancements thereof. The present invention may also be used in CDMA or a hybrid of
CDMA and TDMA communication systems.
The communication system 10 covers a geographical area that is subdivided into
communication cells, which together provide communication coverage to a service area, for
example, an entire city. Preferably, the communication cells are patterned according to a cell
pattern that allows some of the spaced apart cells to use the same uplink and downlink RF
channels. In this way, the cell pattern of the system 10 reduces the number of RF channels
needed to cover the service area. The system 10 may also employ frequency hopping
techniques, for example, to avoid "dcadspots."
Initial selection of modulation scheme would preferably depend on either measured or
predicted link quality parameters of a new RF" link. Alternatively, the initial selection may be
based on a predefined cell parameter. Due to a possible difference in link robustness for
FFM1, LLM2, and HLM schemes, a mobile station 12 continues to use FFM1 scheme until
the channel characteristic allows the use of other schemes, in which case a link adaptation
procedure is initiated to switch modulation scheme from LLM1 scheme to LLM2, or HLM
When no information is transferred to or from a mobile station 12. for example, during idle
states or wait states of GPRS, the mobile station 12 preferably measures link quality
parameters of different RF links. For instance, the mobile station 12 measures the interference
on RF links that are candidates for use in the future as well as the received signal strength of
its current link. The measurement results are used to determine a distribution of channel
characteristic measures. These measurements serve as the basis for deciding which
combination of modulation and channel coding schemes to use subsequently.
According to the present invention, during an ongoing communication, user quality values are
estimated based on channel characteristics, which are expressed in terms of variations and
mean values of link quality parameters. The channel characteristics are derived based on
measurements of link quality parameters over a predefined period. In this way, the system 10
estimates user quality values provided by available combinations of modulation and channel
coding schemes of one or more RF links. By comparing the estimated user quality values of
these combinations, the present invention selects a modulation and channel coding
combination on an RF link that provides the best user quality value.
For example, for providing a non-transparent service, the system 10 estimates user quality
values of available combinations of modulation and channel coding schemes on the one or
more RF links in terms of data throughput S. For a predefined time period, the system 10
continuously measures link quality parameters and calculates their mean values and variances.
The present invention relics on statistical measures to characterize an RF link. Although the
exemplary embodiment uses mean values and variances, other statistical measures may also
be used, for example, standard deviation, median, etc. The system 10 calculates the mean
values of such link quality parameters as C/1 ratio or BER values that arc obtained over the
predefined time period. Based on measured link quality parameters over the predefined time
period, the system 10 also determines the variances of one or more of the link quality
parameters. Based on the variances, the system 10 estimates the data throughputs S for all
combinations of modulation and channel coding schemes over one or more RF links. The
system then selects a new combination of modulation and channel coding schemes on a RF
link, if switching to the new combination on that RF link provides a higher data throughput S
than that provided by a current combination.
For a speech service, the system 10 may use a different user quality value measure than the
data throughput S used for a non-transparent data service. Preferably, the user quality value in
speech service is expressed in terms of a voice quality value Q, which may be based on
estimated frame erasure rate (FER) and/or residual user bit error rate (RBER) originated from
the use of various speech coding schemes. Under this arrangement, the present invention
estimates voice quality values Q for different combinations of modulation and channel coding
schemes. Then, the system 10 selects a combination that provides the best estimated voice
The system 10 is designed as a hierarchical network with multiple levels for managing calls.
Using an allocated set of uplink and downlink RF links a number of mobile stations 12
operating within the system 10 participate in calls using allocated time slots. At a high
hierarchical level, a group of Mobile Service Switching Centers (MSCs) 14 are responsible
for the routing of calls from an originator to a destination. In particular, they are responsible
for setup, control and termination of calls. One of the MSCs 14, known as the gateway MSC,
handles communication with a Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) 18, or other
public and private networks.
Different operators support different communication standards with different modulation and
channel coding schemes. The same operator may also support different modulation and
channel coding schemes in different cells. For example, one operator may support LLM1
modulation scheme and CS4 channel coding scheme only, whereas, another operator may
support all of the modulation and channel coding schemes. The communication system 10
uses the present invention to select a combination of modulation and channel coding schemes
that provide the best user quality value.
At a lower hierarchical level, each one of the MSCs 14 are connected to a group of base
station controllers (BSCs) 16. The primary function of a BSC 16 is radio resource
management, for example, based on reported received signal strength at the mobile stations
12. the BSC 16 determines whether to initiate a hand over. Under the GSM standard, the BSC
16 communicates with a MSC 14 under a standard interface known as the A-interface. which
is based on the Mobile Application Part of CCITT Signaling System No. 7.
At a still lower hierarchical level each one of the BSCs 16 controls, a group of base
transceiver stations (BTSs) 20. Each BTS 20 includes a number of TRXs that use the uplink
and downlink RF channels to serve a particular common geographical area. The BTSs 20
primarily provide the RF links for the transmission and reception of data bursts to and from
the mobile stations 12 within their designated cell. In an exemplary embodiment, a number of
BTSs 20 are incorporated into a radio base station (RBS) 22. The RBS 22 may be configured
according to a family of RBS-2000 products, which is offered by Fricsson, the assignee of the
With reference to FIG. 3, an RF channel 26 (uplink or downlink) is divided into repetitive
time frames 27 during which information are communicated. Each frame 27 is further divided
into time slots 28 that carry packets of information. Speech or data is transmitted during time
slots designated as traffic channels (TCH1, . . . , TCHn). All signaling functions pertaining to
call management in the system, including initiations, hand overs, and termination are handled
via control information transmitted over control channels.
The mobile stations 12 use slow associated control channels (SACCHs) to transmit associated
control signals, such as an RX-LKV signal, which corresponds to the received signal strength
at the mobile station and RX-QUAL signal, which is a measure of various levels of bit error
rate at the mobile station 12, as defined by the GSM standard. Fast associated control
channels (FACCHs) perform control functions, such as hand-overs, by stealing time slots
allocated for TCHs.
The BSC 16 instructs the RBS 22 based on measures of channel characteristics of RF links
between mobile stations 12 to the RBS 22. As described later in detail, the channel
characteristics may be measured based on a number of parameters, including received signal
strength, bit error rate, the multipath propagation property of the uplink RF channel, for
example, time dispersion, or a combination of them.
The system 10 carries out the transmission of information during a time slot in a burst that
contain a predefined number of coded bits. The GSM specification defines various types of
bursts: normal burst (NB), frequency correction burst (FB), synchronization burst (SB).
access burst (AB), and dummy burst. The normal burst, which has a duration of 576 .m.u.s. is
used both during the traffic and some control signalling channels. The remaining bursts arc
primarily used for access and maintaining signal and frequency synchronization within the
As shown in FIG. 4, a normal burst 29 includes two separate data portions 30 during which
digital data bits arc communicated. The normal burst also includes tail and guard sections 31
and 32 as shown. Among other things, the guard section 32 is used to allow for up-ramping of
the burst and for down-ramping of the bursts. The tail section 31 is used for demodulation
purposes. All burst transmissions, except dummy burst transmissions, include training
sequences. The training sequences are patterned with predefined autocorrelation
characteristics. During demodulation process, the auto correlation characteristic of the
training sequence helps in the synchronization of the received bit sequences over an RF
channel. In the normal burst 29, a training sequence 33 is positioned in the middle of the burst
between its data portions.
In order to compensate for propagation delays over RF links, the communication system 10
uses a time alignment process by which the mobile stations 12 align their burst transmissions
to arrive at the BTSs 20 in proper time relationship relative to other bursts transmissions. As
described later, the mobile station 12 and the RBS 22 incorporate equalizers, which correlate
received baseband bit sequences over the uplink or downlink RF channels with the training
sequences, to provide correlator responses that correspond to the properties of multipath
propagation. Based on the correlator responses, the receiver section of the BTS 20 generates a
timing advance (TA) parameter. The mobile station 12 uses the TA parameter, which is
transmitted from the RBS 22, for advancing or retarding its burst transmissions relative to a
With reference to FIG. 5, the block diagram of a mobile station 12 is shown. The mobile
station 12 includes a receiver section 34 and a transmitter section 36, which arc coupled to an
antenna 38 through a duplexer 39. The antenna 38 is used for receiving and transmitting RF
signals to and from the BTS 20 over allocated uplink and downlink RF channels. The receiver
section 34 includes an RF receiver 40, which includes a local oscillator 41, a mixer 42, and
selectivity filters 43 arranged in a well known manner, for down-converting and demodulating
received signals to a baseband level. The RF receiver 40, which is tuned by the local oscillator
41 to the downlink channel, also provides an RX-LEV signal on line 44 that corresponds to
the received signal strength at the mobile station 12.
The RF receiver provides a baseband signal to a demodulator 46 that demodulates coded data
bits representing the received speech, data and signaling information. Depending on the type
of mobile station 12, the demodulator 46 can support one or more demodulation schemes
corresponding to LLM1, LLM2, and HLM schemes. For example, the demodulator of a
mobile station 12 subscribed to an operator that supports LLM1 scheme may be capable of
demodulating LLM1 modulated signals only. On the other hand, the demodulator of a
mobile station 12 subscribed to an operator that supports all of the three modulation schemes
is preferably capable of demodulating LLM1, LLM2, and HLM schemes.
As described above, the demodulator 46 includes an equalizer (not shown) that processes the
coded bit pattern disposed on the training sequences, to provide correlator response that arc
used for predictive demodulation of the baseband signal. The equalizer uses the correlator
responses to determine the most probable bit sequence for demodulation. As defined by the
GSM specification, a channel decoder/de-interleaver 50 also provides an RX-QUAL signal on
line 48, which is a measure of various levels of bit error rate at the mobile station 12. The
mobile station 12 reports the RX-QUAL signal and the RX-LLV signal to the BSC 16 on a
The channel decoder/dc-interleaver 50 decodes and de-intcrlcaves the demodulated signal.
The channel dccodcr/dc-interleavcr 50 may use a wide variety of channel decoding schemes,
including CS1-CS4 decoding schemes. The speech data bits are applied to a speech decoder
52 that decodes the speech pattern using one of a variety of supported speech decoding
schemes. After decoding, the speech decoder 52 applies an analog speech signal to a output
device 53. e.g., a speaker, via an audio amplifier 54. The channel decoder 50 provides the
decoded data and signalling information to a microprocessor 56 for further processing, for
example, displaying the data to a user.
The transmitter section 36 includes an input device 57, e.g., a microphone and/or keypad, for
inputting voice or data information. According to a specified speech/data coding techniques, a
speech coder 58 digitizes and codes the voice signals according to a variety of supported
speech coding schemes. A channel coder/interleaver 62 codes the uplink data according to a
specified coding/interleaving algorithms, including CS1-CS4 coding schemes. The channel
codcr/intcrlcaver 62 provides an uplink baseband signal to a modulator 64. The modulator 64
modulates the uplink baseband signal according to one or more of supported modulation
schemes. Similar to the demodulator 46, the modulator 64 of the mobile station 12 may
support one or more of LLM1, LLM2, and HLM schemes.
The modulator 64 applies the coded signal to an up-converter 67, which receives a carrier
signal from the up-converted signal local oscillator 41. An RF amplifier 65 amplifies the up-
converted signal for transmission trough the antenna 38. A well known frequency synthesizer
66. under the control of the microprocessor 56. supplies the operating frequency information
to the local oscillator 41. The microprocessor 56 causes the mobile station 12 to transmit the
RX-QUAI.. and RX-FFV parameters to the RBS 22 over the SACCH.
Referring to FIG. 6, an exemplary block diagram of the RBS 22 is shown to include a
plurality of BTSs 20 that serve different geographical areas. Through a timing bus 72. the
BTSs 20 are synchronized with each other. Voice and data information arc provided to and
from the RBS 22 through a traffic bus 74 that may be coupled, through the A-bis interface, to
a public or private voice and data transmission line, such as a T1 line (not shown). Fach BTS
20 includes TRXs 75 and 76 that communicate with the mobile station 12. As shown, two
antennas designated as 24A and 24B are spaced accordingly to cover cells 77 and 78. The
TRXs 76 arc coupled to the antennas 24 through combiner/duplcxers 80 that combine
downlink transmission signals from the TRXs 76 and distribute the uplink received signals
from the mobile station 12. The RBS 22 also includes a base station common function (BCF)
block 68 that controls the operation and maintenance of the RBS 22.
Referring to FIG. 7, a block diagram of a TRX 76 is shown. The TRX 76 includes a
transmitter section 86, a receiver section 87, a baseband processor 88 and a TRX controller
90. Through a corresponding antenna 24 (shown in FIG. 6), the receiver section 87 receives
uplink signals from the mobile station 12. A down-conversion block 91 down-converts the
received signal. After down-converting the received signals, the receiver section 87 samples
its phase and magnitude, via a sampler block 92, to provide received bit sequence to the
baseband processor 88. An RSSl estimator 94 provides an RSSl signal on line 95, which is a
measure of the received signal strength. The RSSl estimator 94 may also measure noise
disturbance levels during idle channels. The TRX controller 90, which is coupled to the traffic-
bus 74, processes the commands received from the BSC 16 and transmits TRX related
information, such as various TRX measurements, to the BSC 16. Under this arrangement, the
TRX 76 periodically reports the RSSI signal and noise disturbance levels to the BSC 16.
The baseband processor 88 includes a demodulator 96 that receives uplink baseband data
from the receiver section 87. The demodulator 96 generates correlator responses that are
processed in a well known manner to retrieve the uplink baseband data. Similar to the mobile
station 12. the demodulator may support demodulation of signals that are modulated using
one or more of LLM1, LLM2 or HLM schemes. The uplink baseband data is applied to a
channel decoder 97 that decodes the baseband signal according to one or more supported
channel decoding scheme, including CS1-CS4 decoding schemes. The channel decoder 97
places the decoded baseband signal on the traffic bus 78, for further processing by the BSC
When transmitting downlink baseband data, the baseband processor 88 receives properly
coded data or digitized speech information from the BSC 16 over the traffic bus 74 and
applies them to a channel coder 102 that codes and inter-leaves speech and data according to
one or more of supported channel coding schemes, including CS1-CS4 channel coding
schemes. The transmitter section includes a modulator 104 that modulates the supplied data
bits according to one or more of LLM1, LLM2, and HLM schemes. The modulator 104
provides downlink baseband signals to an up-conversion block 106 for up-conversion. A
power amplifier 108 amplifies the up-converted signal for transmission through a
The system 10, for example, uses one or a combination of the RX-QUAL, RX-LLV, or time
dispersion parameters, which arc measures of link quality parameters of an RF link, to select
an optimum combination of modulation and channel coding on an RF link. The system 10
also uses these parameters to decide whether a link adaptation procedure should be initiated or
not. The BSC 16 compares the channel characteristic parameter to corresponding thresholds
to determine whether to initiate a link adaptation procedure within coverage areas that support
L1.M1, LLM2, and HLM schemes.
Referring to FIG. 8, a flow chart of a method for selecting a combination of modulation and
channel coding schemes on an RF link according to an exemplary embodiment of the present
invention is shown. In this exemplary embodiment, it is assumed that system 10 provides a
non-transparent data service, for example, a packet data service under GPRS, in which data
blocks, the smallest retransmittable units, are transmitted and erroneously received blocks are
re-transmitted according to an Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) scheme.
The selection method starts by measuring link quality parameters of an RF link at a receiver
that may be in the mobile station 12 or a BTS 20, block 801. If more than one RF links arc
available, the selection method may measure link quality parameters of all available links as
well. Examples of link quality parameter measurements include C/I ratio, received signal
strength, time dispersion on burst level, and raw BHR on block level. The measurements arc
processed to determine the distribution of the channel characteristic measures. For example,
the distribution of the channel characteristic measures may be calculated statically in terms of
mean values and variances of link quality parameters, block 803. The processed measurement
results are reported to a link quality estimator, block 805,
In a preferred embodiment, the link quality estimator performs a mapping function fi. which
maps the channel characteristic measures with estimated user quality values of each one of the
supported combinations of modulation and channel coding schemes i, block 807. For
example, mapping function calculates the mean value and variance of raw BHR, based on
measurement results, and then, based on the mean and variance value estimates BLUR,. The
mapping functions may be implemented using a table that is initially constructed based on
empirical results, such as simulation results, or experimental results, such as laboratory
results, of the various combinations of modulation and channel coding schemes.
Alternatively, the table may include results tuned based on actual measurements during the
normal operation of the system 10.
In this exemplary embodiment, BLHR estimates are used for calculating user quality values in
terms of data throughputs S, for each one of the combinations of modulation and coding
schemes, block 809. The user quality values arc used for selecting an optimum combination
of modulation and channel coding schemes on an RF link by comparing the data throughputs
Si, block 811. If the data throughput of a new combination, other than the one currently used
is significantly higher, a link adaptation procedure is initiated to switch to the new
For selecting the combination of modulation and channel coding scheme on an uplink RF
link, the present invention performs all of the above specified steps at the RBS 22. For
selecting the combination of modulation and channel coding scheme on a downlink RF link,
the mobile station 12 performs the steps of measuring link quality parameters and calculating
mean values and variances and reporting the channel characteristic measures to the RBS 22.
The RBS 22 then performs the link quality estimation function and decides whether a new
combination of modulation and channel coding schemes on an RF link should be selected or
not. For the downline, the link quality estimation may of course also be performed in the
FIG. 9 shows an exemplary block diagram of a means for estimating data throughput for N
combinations of modulation and coding schemes. A channel characteristic estimator block
112 receives the link quality parameter measurements, e.g. C/I ratio, received signal strength,
raw BER, and time dispersion parameter. Based on the measured link quality parameters, the
channel characteristic estimator block 112 provides their mean values and variances. A user
quality value estimator block 114, which operates based on previously obtained statistical link
performance results or actual system measurements, provides estimate of BLHRi through
BLHRN. Based on nominal data bit rates R,, a converter block 116 converts estimates of
BLHRi through BLHRN to estimates of S1 through SN by using liquation (1):
(1)S, R, (1 -BLHRi).
Based on the data throughputs S,, a selector block 118 selects an optimum combination of
modulation and channel coding schemes on an RF link.
According to another aspect of the invention, a power control scheme is used in combination
with the above described link selection method. Assuming that a transmitter has a power
dynamic range between Pmin and Pmax, this aspect of the invention selects an optimum power
level, Popt .epsilon. (Pmm,Pmax) for each combination of modulation and channel coding
schemes. The optimal power is based on a C/I target (C/des) for each combination, which may
be based on a target user quality value, such as BLHR target (BLERdes).
Referring to FIG. 10, a flow chart of the power control scheme of this aspect of the invention
is shown. The system 10 measures the mean value of C/I ratio (or other link quality
parameters), for example using the measure obtained from step 803 of FIG. 8, block 101.
Based on the mean C/I ratio, the system 10 calculates an optimal power | Popt| using liquation
where P is transmit power at a time t and C/Ides (i) ratio is a target C/I ratio for achieving a
desired user quality value for a combination of modulation and channel coding schemes i.
block 103. For example. C/Ides (i) ratio may be a ratio that provides the target BLeRdes (i) for
different combinations of modulation and channel coding schemes. Then, the optimal power
Popt, is truncated for each combination of modulation and channel coding scheme using
The truncation step, block 105, allows for selection of a combination of modulation and
channel coding scheme that provides the best user quality value, provided that the transmitter
can produce the selected Popt without exceeding its Pmax. If the calculated Popt is higher than
the Pmax, the system 10 sets the power of the transmitter at Pmax. On the other hand, if the
calculated Popt is less than the Pmm, the system 10 sets the power of the transmitter at Pmm.
Then, for all combinations of modulation and channel coding schemes, the system 10
calculates, block 107, the mean C/I , ratio using liquation 4 :
This step estimates a corresponding mean C/I , for each combination of modulation and
channel coding scheme by taking into account the dynamic range of the transmit power
between Pmax and Pmin. Once an optimum combination of modulation and channel coding
schemes is selected, using for example, the steps described in blocks 805-811, the system 10
transmits on a selected RF link using the optimum combination at the optimal power Popt,
blocks 109 and 11.
Referring to FIG. 11, a graph of link performances of two combinations of modulation and
channel coding schemes is shown to describe an exemplary power control scheme according
to the above described aspect of the invention. At a given time t, the transmit power of the
transmitter, which, for example, has a dynamic range between Pmin 5 dBm and Pmax 33
dBm. is assumed to be at P, 20 dBm. The measured C/I, ratio is assumed to be 8 dB. The
target C/Ides ratio is determined that gives a desired user quality. For example, C/Ides ratio is 12
dB for the first combination (shown with Graph 1), and it is 27 dB for the second combination
(shown with Graph 2). Jn order to achieve the C/Ides ratio for the first and second
combinations, the transmit power must be increased by 4 dB and 19 dB, respectively. Hence,
for the first combination, Popt is equal to 24 dBm, and for the second combination Popt is 39
dbm, which is beyond Pmax. In this case, the system 10 sets the transmit power to Pmax of 33
dBm and calculates the C/I ratio according to liquation (4). Based on the measured C/I ratio at
Pmax, a link providing the best user quality value is selected.
From the foregoing it would be appreciated that the present invention significantly facilitates
RF link selection process in systems that supports multiple modulation and coding schemes.
By statistically characterizing RF links in terms of distribution and variances of link quality
parameters, the present invention provides a more effective link selection process. In this way,
the present invention improves communication quality of systems that support multiple
combinations of modulation and coding schemes.
Although the invention has been described in detail with reference only to a preferred
embodiment, those skilled in the art will appreciate that various modifications can be made
without departing from the invention. Accordingly, the invention is defined only by the
following claims which are intended to embrace all equivalents thereof.
WE CLAIM :
1. A base station (22) arranged to communicate over uplink and downlink RF links with
a mobile station (12) of a communication system, comprising
a user quality value estimator block (114) for estimating user quality values for
each one of combinations of modulation and channel coding schemes based on
statistical measures received from the mobile station (12) and the corresponding
combinations of the modulation and channel coding scheme supported at the
base station, said user quality values including a user data throughput, and said
estimating including estimating block error rates and computing estimates of the
user data throughput based on the estimated block error rates and nominal bit
rates ; and
a selector block (118) for selecting a combination of modulation and channel
coding schemes on an RF link that provides the best user quality.
2. The base station (22) of claim 1, wherein the user quality values include speech
3. The base station (22) of claim 2, wherein estimating user quality values includes
estimating the speech quality values originating from the use of different speech coding
A BASE STATION ARRANGED TO COMMUNICATE OVER UPLINK
AND DOWNLINK RF LINKS WITH A MOBILE STATION OF A
A communication system that supports multiple modulation and channel coding
schemes selects an optimum RF link by measuring link quality parameters, such as C/l
ratio. All of the available RF links are characterized based on the measured link quality
parameters by calculating mean values and variances of the parameters. Based on the
characterization of the RF link, user quality values, such as user data throughput and
speech quality values, are estimated. The communication system selects the RF link
that provides the best user quality value.
|Indian Patent Application Number||922/KOL/2005|
|PG Journal Number||44/2013|
|Date of Filing||06-Oct-2005|
|Name of Patentee||TELEFONAKTIEBOLAGET LM ERICSSON (PUBL)|
|Applicant Address||TORSHAMNSGATAN 23, S-164 83 STOCKHOLM|
|PCT International Classification Number||H04B7/26|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|