Title of Invention  FAULT LOCATION USING MEASUREMENTS OF CURRENT AND VOLTAGE FROM ONE END OF A LINE 

Abstract  1. A method to locate a fault from one end of a section of a power line (AB) by means of measurements of current, voltage and angles between the phases at a first (A) end of said section, and that upon detection of a fault condition between said first end and a second end of said power line, characterised by calculating symmetrical components of currents for said current and voltage measure at said first end, calculating a distance (d) from said first end (2) to the fault (F) the distance (d) to the fault using a quadratic equation of the form: B2d2 + B^ + Bq^O 
Full Text  Fault location using measurements of current and voltage from one end of a line TECHNICAL FIELD. The present invention is concerned with a fault location technique for a section of a power transmission line utilizing measurements of current and voltage made at terminals located at one end of the section of the power line. BACKGROUND ART Several methods and approaches for fault location in high voltage power transmission systems, and power distribution systems, have been developed and employed. One approach has been to use voltage/current transducers located at terminals located at each of two ends of a section of the power line to be monitored. Inductive current transformers are used to provide a measurement of instantaneous current in a transmission line. US 4,559,491 entitled Method and device for locating a fault point on a threephase transmission line, describes a oneend fault location (FL) algorithm. High accuracy of fault location using a fault locator device at one end of a line is achieved by taking into account the actual distribution of a fault current in the transmission network. This algorithm has been successfully implemented into a product in 1982 and is in operation with single and parallel transmission lines in many countries around the world. However, for certain fault conditions it is difficult to obtain accurate prefault quantities, such as prefault currents, in order to calculate an estimate for voltage drop across the fault path. Also, a disadvantage of using phase voltages and currents and zero sequence components of currents is that it is relatively difficult using these values to compensate for shunt disadvantage of using phase voltages and currents and zero sequence components of currents is that it is relatively difficult using these values to compensate for shunt capacitance effects. In addition, the fault locator method described is not suitable for single and parallel line sections which have an extra link across the ends of the sections. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The aim of the present invention is to remedy one or more of the above mentioned problems. This is obtained by a method characterised by claim 1. Specific features of the present invention are characterised by the appending claims. In one aspect of the invention, a method comprising a new formulation of a oneend fault locator algorithm has been proposed. The uniform description of the transmission network in terms of symmetrical components as well as the generalized models of fault loops and faults have been applied. The resulting advantages include the algorithm can be used for locating faults in typical single and parallel transmission lines, and, in addition, fault location may also be carried out for both single and parallel lines with an extra link between the line ends. Another advantage is that a procedure for calculation of a distance to fault is in the form of a compact quadratic equation with the coefficients dependent on a fault type, acquired measurements and impedance data for the transmission network. Another advantage of the invention is that optimal estimation of the voltage drop across a fault path is applied, which has the result that the prefault currents in case of single phasetoground faults and phase tophase faults are no longer required. In an embodiment, compensation for shunt capacitances is facilitated by means of the use of the notation of symmetrical components. The distributed long line model of the line has been applied for that. The compensation is performed individually for all the sequences. The currents for particular sequences are compensated for the shunt currents and then the fault loop compensated current is composed. In another embodiment improved accuracy has been obtained by means of an option to measure the source impedance at the remote end instead of using a representative value. The source impedance measured at the remote end may be considered as sent to the fault locator by using a simple communication means. In another embodiment, a method for one end fault location for parallel lines to locate single phasetoground faults is described under a plurality of conditions. In another further embodiment a method is described for one end fault location with standard availability of the measured signals for ground faults including both single phasetoground faults and phase tophase toground faults. In another aspect of the invention, a fault locator device for carrying out the method of the invention is characterised by claim 18. Specific features of the inventive fault locator device are characterised by the appending claims. In another aspect of the invention a computer program is described for carrying out the method according to the invention. In another aspect of the invention a computer program product comprising a computer program for carrying out the method of the invention is described. In another, further aspect of the invention a graphical user interface is described for displaying a distance to a fault from one' end of a section of a power line. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS A more complete understanding of the method and system of the present invention may be had by reference to the following detailed description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein: Figure 1 shows in a single schematic diagram a method of fault location in power transmission and/or distribution systems for parallel lines and single lines according to an embodiment of the invention; Figure 2a shows a schematic circuit diagram for a parallel transmission network for the positive sequence component in which the fault loop is marked for the case of a fault locator installed at the terminal AA. Figures 2b, 2c show corresponding diagrams for the negative sequence and zero sequence components, respectively; Figure 3a is a schematic block diagram for obtaining and calculating the phasors of the symmetrical components of voltages and currents used for composing the fault loop voltage. Figure 3b shows a corresponding diagram for composing the fault loop current; Figure 4 shows a circuit diagram for determining the fault current distribution factor for the positive sequence of a single line, in which diagram quantities for the negative sequence are shown indicated in brackets; Figure 5 shows a circuit diagram corresponding to Figure 4 for single lines for determining the fault current distribution factor for the positive sequence of parallel lines, in which quantities for the negative sequence are also shown indicated in brackets; Figure 6 shows a schematic diagram for an embodiment of the invention in which source impedance measured at a remote end B may be communicated to a fault locator at the first end. A; Figure 7 is a circuit diagram of an embodiment in which the shunt capacitances are taken into account, and shows a positive sequence circuit diagram during a first iteration; Figure 8 shows a negative sequence circuit diagram for taking the shunt capacitances effect into account during a first iteration; Figure 9 shows a zero sequence circuit diagram for taking the shunt capacitances effect into account during a first iteration; Figure 10 shows a flowchart for a method for locating a fault in a single line according to an embodiment of the invention; Figure 11 shows a flowchart for a method for locating a fault in parallel lines according to an embodiment of the invention; Figure 12 and Figures 13a, 13b, 14, 15a and 15b show schematic diagrams of possible faulttypes (phasetophase, phaseto ground and so on) with respect to derivation of coefficients for Table 2 in Appendix A2. Figure 12 shows fault types from ag, and Figures 13a, 13b faults between phases ab. Figure 14 shows an abg fault. Figures 15a and 15b show symmetrical faults abc and abcg respectively; Figures 16 and 17 show schematic diagrams for the derivation of the complex; coefficients in the fault current distribution factors for the positive (negative) sequence included in Table 3. Figure 16 shows the case of a single line with an extra link between the substations. Figure 17 shows the case of parallel lines with an extra link between the substations; Figure 18 shows a fault locator device and system according to an embodiment of the invention; Figure 19 shows a flowchart for a method for locating a single phasetoground fault in parallel lines in the case of • measurements from the healthy line being unavailable, according to an embodiment of the invention; Figure 20 shows a schematic diagram for a method of fault location for parallel lines with different modes of the healthy parallel operation; Figures 21a, shows a schematic equivalent circuit diagram for a parallel network for the incremental positive or the negative sequence. Figure 21b shows an equivalent circuit diagram for the zero sequence while both parallel lines are in operation. Figure 21c shows the equivalent circuit diagram for the zero sequence with the healthy parallel line switched off and grounded; Figure 22 shows a flowchart for a method for locating phase tophase and phasetoground faults in parallel lines in the case of providing the zero sequence currents from the healthy parallel line according to another embodiment of the invention; Figure 23 shows a schematic diagram fault location for parallel lines with standard availability of measurements according to another embodiment of the invention; Figures 24 a,b,c show the equivalent circuit diagrams of parallel lines for positive, negative and zero sequence currents respectively. DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Fig.l presents a schematic diagram for oneend fault location applied for parallel lines and for a power transmission or distribution system with a single line. A fault locator 1 is positioned at one end 2 of a single line AABA 3 or parallel lines AABA, ABBB, 4. A fault F is shown at FA with a corresponding fault resistance, 5, denoted as RF . A value for distance to the fault d from one end 2 determined and provided by the fault locator 1 is indicated with the reference number 7. Components such as parallel line ABBB and quantities such as a parallel line value zero sequence current Jabo shown with dotted lines are excluded when considering a single line case. The fault locator 1 positioned at the first end 2, or 'A' end, is supplied with the following input signals:  threephase voltages (VAft) of the faulted line,  threephase voltages (IRA) of the faulted line,  zero sequence current (Iabo) from the healthy parallel line (zero sequence is not present when the single line only is considered). Fig.2 a,b,c show circuit diagrams of a parallel transmission network for the positive 2a, negative 2b, and zero sequence 2c components. Fault loops for the sequence components 21a, 21b, 21c are shown for the case of a fault locator installed at the terminal AA. An extra link 25 between the terminals A, B is shown.. A generalized model of the fault loop considered for different fault types is stated as: VM_v ~dZUAI_M_p RF{aFlLn + aF2lF2 +aFOlFO) = 0 (D where: d  unknown and sought distance to fault, —im ~ positive sequence impedance of the faulted line, ^MJP> LAAJP ~ fault loop voltage and current compo.sed according to the fault type, RF  fault resistance, IFi ~ sequence components of the total fault current (i = 0, i = 1, ±=2), aFi  weighting coefficients (TABLE 2) . Fault loop voltage and current can be expressed in terms of the symmetrical components of measured voltages /currents: VM_P =a1VAAl +azVAA2 +a0VAA0 (2) lAAj^&lLM+^L^+ao^LMO+aOm^lABO il\LA 4±\ LA where: AA, AB  subscripts used for indicating measurements acquired from the faulted line (AA) and from the healthy line (AB), respectively, «0' fii' Sl2 ~ coefficients which are gathered in TABLE 1 (the Tables are arranged below at the end of the description of embodiments and derivation of these coefficients is shown in APPENDIX Al, also attached). ZOLA > Z0m  impedance of the faulted line and mutual coupling between the lines for the zero sequence, respectively, &om=£o ~ parallel lines, £om=0 ~ for single lines. The phasors of symmetrical components of voltages, positive: V_AA\> negative: VM2 and zero sequence: VM0 as well as the phasors of symmetrical components of currents, positive: /M1, negative: LAA% > zero sequence from the faulted line: I A/to and zero sequence from the healthy line: 1AB„ are calculated from the acquired measurements as shown schematically in schematic block diagrams Figures 3a and 3b. Figure 3a shows an input of instantaneous phase voltages 30a, filtering stage 33a, phasors of phase voltages 31a, calculation of phasors of symmetrical components 33b and phasors of symmetrical components of voltages output at 32a. It may be seen from Fig 3a that acquired phase voltage measurements are subjected to a filter, then calculations are made to find the symmetrical components of the fault loop voltage. Figure 3b shows correspondingly stages used to find the symmetrical components of the fault loop current. Figure 3b shows instantaneous phase currents and instantaneous zero sequence current from the healthy line 30b, filtering 33b, phasors of phase currents and phasor of zero sequence current from the healthy line 31b, calculation 34b and phasors of symmetrical components of currents output at 32b. Fault loop signals may be composed according to formulae (2) (3) and TABLE 1, which is the alternative to the classic approach (TABLE 1A, fault loop voltage (VM_f) and current ( Za4_p ) ' which was used in the fault locator from [12]. Voltage drop across a fault path resistance, the third term in (1) , can be expressed in terms of the current distribution factors and local measurements of currents which results in: Km,  dZ^LM^  L ^ + + 0 W)«0 (4) v, tF2 —FQ J Formula (4) has been obtained from the following relations between the symmetrical components of a total fault current and measured currents: where: LFI ; LF2; LFO  symmetrical components of a total fault current, kFi > k.F2 , kF{j  fault current distribution factors for particular sequence quantities, ^IAAI = LAAI ~LMIPRE' LAA2> LAAO ~ symmetrical components of currents measured in the line A at the station A (subscript AA) ; note that in case of the positive sequence the incremental quantity (postfault current minus prefault current) is used. Voltage drop across the fault path, as shown in the third term in equation (1) , is expressed using sequence components of the total fault current. The weighting coefficients aF0, aF1, aF2, can accordingly be determined by taking the boundary conditions for particular fault type. See TABLE 2, Alternative sets of the weighting coefficients for determining a voltage drop across the fault path resistance. Examples of derivation of these coefficients are contained in APPENDIX A2. There is some freedom for setting the weighting coefficients. It is proposed to utilize this freedom firstly for avoiding zero sequence quantities, since the zero sequence impedance of a line may be considered as an unreliable parameter. This can be accomplished by setting aFO=0 as sllown in TABLE 2 Secondly, the freedom in establishing the weighting coefficients can be utilized for determining the preference for using particular quantities. The negative sequence (TABLE 2, set I) or the positive sequence (TABLE 2, set II) can be preferred as well as possibly both types of the quantities (TABLE 2, set III) can be used for determining the voltage drop across the fault path. The set I is recommended for further use, thus avoiding, the positive sequence, and thus avoiding the prefault positive sequence current, for the largest number of faults. Avoiding the prefault positive sequence current is highly desirable since sometimes the prefault currents  due to certain reasons  can not be recorded or registered, but may be contaminated by one or more the symptoms of the occurring fault. Moreover, the accuracy of recording the prefault currents, which are basically lower than the postfault currents, is not very great. This is so since the A/D converters operate with less accuracy in the low range. Fault current distribution factors depend on the configuration of the transmission network, Figures 4, 5, and impedance parameters. Basically, all impedances for the positive and for the negative sequence are equal to each other and thus one obtains: k k M±kL (6) FL F 2 ^ Coefficients in a fault current distribution factor (6) for a single (Figure 4) and for parallel lines (Figure 5) are gathered in TABLE 3, Coefficients for determining a fault current distribution factor, (note that derivation of the coefficients is shown in APPENDIX A3). Figure 4 shows a circuit diagram of a single line for determining the fault current distribution factor for the positive sequence currents and with the negative sequence currents such as shown in brackets. Similarly Figure 5 shows a circuit diagram of parallel lines for determining the fault current distribution factor with positive sequence currents wherein the negative sequence currents are shown in brackets. In Fig.4 the extra link 45 between the terminals A, B having impedance for the positive sequence equal to: ZXAB can be considered as existing ) or as not present (ZlAB >«=). In Fig. 5 the extra link 55 between the terminals A, B having impedance for the positive sequence equal to: ZlAB can be Z Z considered as existing ( Z.ILB&AB  —1LB—LAB ) or as not present ZLILB ( —XLB&AB ~ Z.XLB ) • Substituting (6) into (4) and adjusting flF0=O (as in TABLE 2) results in: Em pdZlIAI_M^  kn^AAX +&F2lAA2)=0 (7) K,d + L After multiplying both sides of (7) by: =± and some —AAjp rearrangements, the quadratic formula with two unknowns, d [p.u.] sought fault distance from A, RF  fault resistance, is obtained: K^D* + (LJZ1L K^D  LIZM 9+RFM* KN^FLMLL^L = 0 (8) —M_p where: y., 2a. _ calculated fault loop impedance. —AA_p J Writing formula (8) in more compact form results in: calculated fault loop impedance coefficients gathered in TABLE 3. * Formula (8a) can be written separately for real and imaginary parts: Combining (8b) and (8c) in such the way that fault resistance is eliminated [that is, equation (8b) is multiplied by /loo_:foi and equation (8c) by ^o_Re and then subtracting them] yields the quadratic formula for a sought fault distance: Equation (9) has two roots (di, d2) for the distance to fault: The root which fulfils the condition (0£d In another embodiment of the invention, the method of fault location is carried out by using a measurement of source impedance at the second end remote from the fault locator 1, instead of a representative value for the source impedance at the remote end, and by communicating that measured value to the local end using a communication means. Coefficients from (9) are determined with the local measurements and the impedance data for the transmission line, the extra link between the line terminals and the equivalent systems at the line terminals. Impedance of the equivalent system at the local substation (ZllA) can be traced online with the local measurements. In contrast, the remote system impedance (ZljB) is not measurable locally from A. Thus, the "representative" value of this impedance may be provided for the algorithm [1 2] . The alternative solution for the single line case is shown in Figure 6, which shows a fault locator 1 at the first end 2 near to system A, and another device 10 located at the temote end 3 close to system B, indicated as RD. A communication signal 9 is shown being sent from the 10 at the remote end to the fault locator 1 at the local end. The remote source impedance (ZUB) is measured by the remote device RD, 10, which may be another fault locator or any suitable device such as a digital relay or digital fault recorder, in the remote substation and the measurement 9 is sent via a communication channel 60. Synchronization of measurements at the line terminals is not required. The source impedance is calculated from the known relation between the incremental positive voltage {AV_m) and the incremental positive sequence current (AI_Bi) [34]: bimnarly, the fault locator 1 calculates the local source impedance 7 A¥A1 (11a) In another and preferred embodiment of the invention, compensation is carried out for the shunt capacitance of the line. Compensation for shunt capacitances effect can be accomplished by taking into account the lumped model (only the longitudinal RXL parameters are taken into account) or the distributed long transmission line model. The distributed long line model [5] as providing higher accuracy of fault location, has been considered here. The compensation for the single line is presented further. This means that when composing fault loop current (3) the term reflecting the mutual coupling effect disappears [a0m= 0). Moreover, the single subscript {A instead of AA) is used. Fault location procedure with compensating for shunt capacitances of a transmission line requires the following additional input data: ClL  shunt capacitance of a whole line for the positive and the negative sequences (parameters of a line for the positive and the negative sequences are identical and thus: C2L = ClL) C0L  shunt capacitance of a whole line for the zero sequence, I  total line length (km), used for expressing impedances/capacitances of the line per km length. The compensation of shunt capacitances may be introduced while determining the voltage drop across the faulted line segment  the second term in the generalized fault loop model (1) . This requires compensating the components of the calculated currents for particular sequences. Thus, the original measured currents: IAl , /A2 , IAQ have to be replaced by the currents after the introduced compensation: I_M_conip, LA2comp , I_A,_comp . At the same time the original fault loop voltage, the first term in the model (1), is taken for a distance to fault calculation. As concerns determining the voltage drop across the fault resistance, the third term in (1), it is assumed here, which is a standard practice, that the effect of line capacitances at the location of the fault (point F) , may be neglected. This is justified as the impedance of the capacitive branch at that location is much greater than the fault resistance. This means that the voltage drop across the fault resistance is determined without taking into account the shunt capacitances. Calculating a distance to fault the following impedances (defined below) are taken as: ?LILS ~ positive sequence impedance of a line with taking into account the distributed long line model, ZLQL  as above, but for the zero sequence. The compensation procedure requires iterative calculations, performed until the convergence is achieved (i.e. iterated until the location estimate ceases to differ from the previous estimate). However, the studies conducted revealed that results of acceptable accuracy may be obtained using a fixed number of iterations, for example, 23 iterations. The calculated distance to a fault from a particular (say, present iteration) is utilized for determining the shunt current in the next iteration. The determined shunt current is then deduced from the measured current. A distance to fault, calculated without considering the shunt effect (10), is taken as the starting value for the first iteration. A way of conducting the first iteration of the compensation is shown in Figures 7, 8, 9 for the positive sequence, negative sequence and zero sequence respectively with taking into account the shunt capacitances effect. As a result of performing the first iteration for the positive sequence (Figure 7) the compensated current LAi_comp_i is calculated and the last index in the subscript denotes the first iteration. The calculation is based on deducing the shunt current from the calculated positive sequence current calculated from the measured phase currents  Fig.2: LAl_comp^\ = LAI  °5dvl&.\L£txritil¥.Al (12 ) where: dv  distance to fault calculated without taking into account the shunt capacitance effect (10) , I  total line length (km) tanhj^ 0. 5ZlL BlLdvl^j —tanhl = I , — V0.5ZlLB1LdJ B[L =  positive sequence admittance (capacitive) of a line per km length (S/km) =  positive sequence impedance of a line per km length (ft/km) Positive sequence impedance of a faulted line segment, between points A and F, without taking into account the shunt capacitances effect and considering the lumped line model equals: dJZ1L (13) while for the considered here distributed long line model: where: _ sinh(jzlLBlLdvl) yZlLBlLdvl Thus, the positive sequence impedance of a line with taking into account the distributed long line model [Z'^s ) equals: ZlilS =AsiahlZ.lL (15) As a result of performing the first iteration for the negative sequence (Figure 8) the compensated current LA2_comp_i calculated and the last index in the subscript denotes the first iteration. This is based on deducing the shunt current from the calculated negative sequence current I_AZ , calculated from the measured phase currents  Fig.2): where, taking into account that the line parameters for the positive and for the negative sequences are identical ( C2L = ClL , Z2h = ZXL ) : ^tanh2 ~ ^tanhl M2L = &\L AS a result of performing the first iteration for the zero sequence (Figure 9) the compensated current lAo_comp_calculated, last index in the subscript denotes the first iteration. This calculation is based on deducing the shunt current from the calculated zero sequence current ZA0, calculated from the measured phase currents  Fig.2: X ao _ comp _ i = LAO  0.5dvi5OLAtanh0VAo *17 ^ —sinhl ~ where WO 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091 _ tanh^0.5ZQLB0Ldvl} —tanhO a/0.5Z0LB;0Ldvl y, JtVCnr 2 Zero sequence impedance of a faulted line segment, that is between points A and F, without taking into account the shunt capacitances effect and considering the lumped line model 10 equals: dvlZol (18) while for the considered here distributed long line model: dvlg0LAsinb0 (19) —sinliO —' 15 where: sinhl JZQLB0Ldvl ■ 20 Z'oT =Asinh0Z0L (20) The quadratic complex formula (8) with two unknowns (dcompl[p.u.]  sought fault distance, RF  fault resistance) after introducing the compensation (first iteration) takes the 25 following form: Kx&V^J + K^Ko^i = ° UjMX dj 1 Luv —IL 8  4sinhl2.lL I Asinhl = 1 =  fault loop impedance calculated with: Y.A_P ~ original fault loop voltage (2) , 5 IaT1 =«i^i_COmp_i + (21a) where: 1 = Acojfl + jA3_! = K[zlong Acomp_ 1 _ Acomp_ 1 , icompj. _ r nrlong „ 7comp_l ~Al_Re + JAl_Im ~ idl^lL ~ 15 Al°mp1 = ^Te1 + WZJ = hZAj1 Acomp_ 1 _ icomp_l , Acomp_ 1 __. M.\{QLF\ALAA\ + Tcomp_ 1 ZJTP~1 = ~ fault loop impedance calculated with: LT%~ VA_v  original (uncompensated) fault loop voltage (2), L7'TL =ZDAX_CO,NP_I +A2LA1_COMP_X + A^LA{)_COMP_L  fault loop current 20 composed of the positive (12), negative (16) and zero (17) sequence currents obtained after deducing the respective capacitive currents from the original currents, KX, LX, M_I ~ coefficients gathered in TABLE 3. Formula (21a) can be written down separately for real and 25 imaginary parts: W° 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091 + A^Xdcomp_r + A?*1 + =0 (2lb) A27&l(dc»mp_02 + A?Z~ldcomp_x + + =0 (21c) Combining (21b) and (21c) in such the way that fault resistance is eliminated, that is, equation (21b) is multiplied by and equation (21c) by Afiffi^ and then subtracting them, yields the quadratic formula for a sought fault distance: Bi°mpXWcomp_l? +BrPldcomp_1 +Brpi=0 (22) where: j£Comp__l _ ^comp_lj^comp_ 1 _ j^compcomp_l n comp ^ comp .1 i comp _ 1 A comp _1 a comp _ 1 ~ l_Re /i00_lm ~ Al_Im ^O.Re r>comp _ 1 _ j comp A comp_ 1 A comp 1 A comp 1 °0 /10_Re /100_lm ^O.Im /100_Re Equation (22) has two roots [ (d^^, (dcompl)21 for the distance to fault: _gcomp_i _^j(BC0"ip^1)2 — 4ftcomPiJ}comP (dcomp i)i  2Bco,np1 ~ ,  (23) _j^comp_ 1 /(Q comp _ I j 2 ^ ^ com/) _ 1 g comp _ 1 (.dcomp_ j)2 = 2Bcomp1 The root, which corresponds to the selected previously root (10) for d (uncompensated) is taken as the valid result. The compensation procedure requires iterative calculations, performed until the convergence is achieved (i.e. until the location estimates cease to change from the previous estimates) or as with a fixed number of iterations such as 23 iterations. The calculated distance to a fault from a particular (say, present iteration) is utilized for determining the shunt current in the next iteration. The method of the invention is illustrated in two flowcharts of the FL algorithm, Figure 10, single line and in Figure 11, parallel lines. As shown in the flowchart in Figure 10 the following measurements are utilized:  voltages from the side A from particular phases a, Jb, c: VA_a ' vA_b , vAc 10  currents from the side A from particular phases a, b, c: iA_a The input data utilized at step 101, Input data and measurements, are as follows:  impedances of the line for the positive (Z1£i) and zero (Z0L) 15 sequences,  impedance of the extra link 25, 45, 55 between the substations A, B for the positive (negative) sequences (Z1AB)  source impedances for the positive (negative) sequences (ZUA , ZUB ) : the representative values or the measured values 20 are used, and a communication means is used for sending the measured remote source impedance as previously described,  information on the fault type (from the protective relay) . The measured fault quantities (voltages and currents) undergo 25 adaptive filtering at step 104, Adaptive filtering of phase quantities, aimed at rejecting the dc components from currents and the transients induced by Capacitive Voltage Transformers (CVTs). In the next step the symmetrical components of voltages and 3 0 currents are calculated, step 105, which is equivalent to that as shown in Figures 3a, 3b. The fault loop signals are WO 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091 composed: the fault loop voltage as in (2), while the fault loop current as in (3)  but with taking a0m=0. The distance to fault without taking into account the shunt capacitances effect (d) is calculated at step 106 by solving 5 the quadratic formula (9) . The solution of (9) is presented in (10) . The result obtained without taking into account the shunt capacitances effect d following 106 is treated as the starting value for performing the compensation for shunt capacitances. 10 The distributed long line model is applied for the compensation. The following additional data is required for the calculating the compensation for shunt capacitance, step 107:  positive sequence capacitance of the line (Cj£)  zero sequence capacitance of the line (C0L)  line length (I) , which is used to express line impedances / capacitances per km length. The first iteration of the compensation leads to the quadratic equation (22), which is solved in (23). The next iterations are performed analogously. Iterative calculations are performed until the convergence is achieved or a fixed number of iterations, i.e. 23 iterations, may be made. The calculated distance to a fault from a particular (say, present iteration) is utilized for determining the shunt current in the next iteration. After completing the iterative calculations the distance to fault dcomp is obtained. As shown in the flowchart in Figure 11 for parallel lines the following measurements are utilized: 30  voltages from the side A and line LA from particular phases 20 25 a, b, c: vM a , v^j,, vM c WO 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091  currents from the side A and line LA from particular phases a, b, c: a , iM_e  zero sequence current from the healthy parallel line LB: iAm 5 The input data utilized in step 111, Input data and measurements, are as follows:  impedances of the faulted line for the positive (Z1LA) and zero (Z0LA) sequences  impedance of the healthy line for the positive (negative) 10 sequence (Z1LB)  impedance of the extra link between the substations A, B for the positive (negative) sequences (Z1AB)  zero sequence impedance for the mutual coupling (Z0m) 15  representative values of the source impedances for the positive (negative) sequences ( ZlsA ' ZlsB )  information on the fault type is obtained from the protective relay. 20 The measured fault quantities, the voltages and currents, undergo adaptive filtering at step 114 for the purpose of rejecting the dc components from currents and the transients induced by Capacitive Voltage Transformers (CVTs). In the next step 115 the symmetrical components of voltages 25 and currents are calculated as shown in Figures 3a, 3b. The fault loop signals are composed: the fault loop voltage as in (2), while the fault loop current as in (3)  but with taking Som = —o • The distance to fault without taking into account the shunt 30 capacitances effect (d) is calculated in step 116 by solving WO 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091 the quadratic formula (9). The solution of (9) is presented in (10). The result obtained without taking into account the shunt capacitances effect (d) is treated as the starting value for 5 performing the compensation for shunt capacitances. The distributed long line model is applied for the compensation. The following additional data for the faulted line is required for the compensation for shunt capacitances step 117:  positive sequence capacitance of the line (C1L) 10  zero sequence capacitance of the line (C0L)  line length (1) , which is used to express line impedances / capacitances per km length. In the case of a single line, the compensation is performed 15 analogously. Iterative calculations are performed until the convergence is achieved or by using a fixed number of iterations, e.g. 23 iterations. The calculated distance to a fault from a particular iteration, for example the present iteration, is utilized for determining the shunt current in 20 the next iteration. After completing the iterative calculations the distance to fault dcomp is obtained. Figure 18 shows an embodiment of a device for determining the distance from one end, here shown as end A of a section of power transmission or distribution line AB, to a fault F on 25 the power line according to the method of the invention described. The fault locator device 1 receives measurements from measuring devices located at one end A such as current measuring means 14, and voltage measurements from voltage measurement means 11. The fault locator device may comprise 30 measurement value converters, members for treatment of the calculating algorithms of the method, indicating means for the calculated distance to fault and a printer or connection to a printer or facsimile machine or similar for printout of the calculated fault. In a preferred embodiment of the device the fault locator comprises computer program means for providing a display of the information provided by the method of the invention, such as distance to a fault d or dcomp on a terminal 5 which may be remote from the location of the line and/or the fault locator. Preferably the computer program means receives information from the fault locator and makes it available to provide information for a display of a computer such that an operator or engineer may see a value for the calculated 10 distance to a fault displayed. The value may be displayed relative to a schematic display of the line or network in which the fault has taken place. In the embodiment shown, measuring device 14 for continuous 15 measurement of all the phase currents, and measuring device 11 for measurement of voltages are arranged at one end, station A. Optionally, measuring devices such as 15, 13 may also be arranged at station B but they are not necessary to practise the invention. The measured values such as: the threephase 20 voltages (V^) of the faulted line, threephase voltages (Im) of the faulted line and zero sequence current (Jabo) from the healthy parallel line (note that zero sequence is not present when the single line only is considered), and a value representative of the source impedance at B, ZUB as a are all 25 passed to a calculating unit comprised in fault locator 1, filtered such as described in relation to figure 3a, 3b, and stored in memory means. The calculating unit is provided with the calculating algorithms described, and programmed for the processes needed for calculating the distance to fault. 30 Optionally, the source impedance for the remote end, ZlsB may be measured by the remote device RD, 10, and the information sent via a high speed communication means 60 to the fault locator at A. In some applications it will be preferable to use a measured value sent from B instead of a representative 35 value stored at A. It may be seen in Figure 18 that current WO 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091 measuring means' 15 and voltage measuring means 13 at remote end B may provide a RD 10, a fault locator, or any suitable device with measurements to calculate the remote source impedance 5 The calculating unit of fault locator 1 is provided with pre fault phase currents and also with known values such as shunt capacitances and the impedances of the line. In respect of the occurrence of a fault, information regarding the type of 10 fault, phasetophase, phasetoground etc., may be supplied to the calculating unit of the fault locator. When the calculating unit has determined the distance to fault, it is displayed on the device and/or sent to display means which may be remotely located. A printout or fax of the result may also 15 be provided. In addition to signalling the fault distance, the device can produce reports, in which are recorded measured values of the currents of both lines, voltages, type of fault and other measured and/or calculated information associated with a given fault at a distance. 20 The method and a fault locator device according to any embodiment of the invention may be used to determine distance to a fault on a section of power transmission line. The present invention may also be used to determine a distance to 25 a fault on a section of a power distribution line, or any other line or bus arranged for any of generation, transmission, distribution, control or consumption of electrical power. 3 0 The fault locator device and system may comprise filters for /"V filtering the signals, converters for sampling the signals and one or more micro computers. The microprocessor (or processors) comprises a central processing unit CPU performing the steps of the method according to the invention. This is 3 5 performed with the aid of a computer program, which is stored WO 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091 in the program memory. It is to be understood that the computer program may also be run on one or more general purpose industrial computers or microprocessors instead of a specially adapted computer. 10 15 The computer program comprises computer program code elements or software code portions that make the computer perform the method using equations, algorithms, data and calculations previously described. A part of the program may be stored in a processor as above, but also in a ROM, RAM, PROM or EPROM chip or similar. The program in part or in whole may also be stored on, or in, other suitable computer readable medium such as a magnetic disk, CDROM or DVD disk, hard disk, magnetooptical memory storage means, in volatile memory, in flash memory, as firmware, or stored on a data server. A computer program according to the invention may be stored at least in part on different mediums that are computer readable. Archive copies may be stored on standard magnetic disks, hard drives, CD or DVD disks, or magnetic tape.. The databases and libraries are stored preferably on one or more local or remote data servers, but the computer program and/or computer program product may, for example at different times, be stored in any of; a volatile Random Access memory (RAM) of a computer or processor, a hard drive, an optical or magnetooptical drive, or in a type of nonvolatile memory such as a ROM, PROM, or EPROM device. The computer program may also be arranged in part as a distributed application capable of running on several different computers or computer systems at more or less the same time. 20 25 In another preferred embodiment, the fault locator may be used with parallel lines to locate single phasetoground faults (ag, bg, cg faults) in case of unavailability of WO 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091 measurements from the healthy parallel line. Two modes of the healthy line operation are taken into account:  the healthy line being in operation,  the healthy line switchedoff and grounded at both the ends. 5 Figure 19 shows the flowchart of the algorithm for locating faults in parallel lines under unavailability of measurements from the healthy parallel line. The unavailable, here healthy line zero sequence current, is required for reflecting the mutual coupling effect under single phasetoground faults (a 10 g, bg, cg faults) . The unavailable current is thus estimated. The other faults can be located with the standard fault location algorithm (such as the algorithm from reference [1]) • t The sequence of computations for the presented oneend fault 15 location algorithm is as follows. As shown in the flowchart in Figure 19 the following measurements are utilized:  voltages from the side A and line LA (faulted) from particular phases: vM_a , vM_b , vAi4_c 20  currents from the side A and line LA (faulted) from particular phases: iMa , iM_t, i'm_c The utilized input data are as follows:  impedances of the faulted line for the positive (ZIM) and zero (Z0L4 ) sequences 25  impedance of the healthy line for the zero sequence (Z0LB) ~ zero sequence impedance for the mutual coupling (Z0m)  information on the fault type (from the protective relay)  mode of the healthy line operation: in operation or switchedoff and grounded at both ends). 30 The measured fault quantities (voltages and currents) undergo adaptive filtering aimed at rejecting the dc components from WO 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091 currents and the transients induced by Capacitive Voltage Transformers (CVTs). The following equations are used in the method of the present parallel line embodiment. In addition to the algorithm (1) described above .for estimating distance to fault (d [pu]) by considering the Kirchhoff's voltage law for the fault loop as seen from the locator installation point: =0 (24) V. KPI F^FL !£FO J the fault loop voltage ( V_AA_p) and current ( LAA_P ) CAN 1:56 expressed in terms of the symmetrical quantities: YAA_ P +O2VM2 and T — Tsl ■ —Out T (25) iM.J —AA_ p ~~ry ABO KA=>> —11A where: Lm_ p = adAA 1 + M LA is the fault loop current without compensating for the mutual coupling effect (i.e. composed as for the single line  superscript SL), complex coefficients gathered in TABLE 1 (the derivation as in APPENDIX Al), YAA.l' Y.AA2' YAA0  positive, negative and zero sequence of measured voltages, LAAI' IAA2> LAAO ~ positive, negative and zero sequence current from the faulted line LA, LABO ~ unavailable zero sequence current from the healthy parallel line LB (to be estimated), WO 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091 —im ' 2om ~ positive and zero sequence impedance the whole line LA, —Om ~ zero sequence impedance for mutual coupling between the lines LA and LB, 5 RF ~ unknown fault resistance. In the next step the symmetrical components of voltages and currents are calculated as shown in Figures 3a, 3b. The fault loop signals are composed: the fault loop voltage as in (2), while the fault loop current as in (25). The formulae (2)(25) 10 present the fault loop signals expressed in terms of the symmetrical components of the measured signals. However, one can use the classic way for composing the fault loop signals. The presented method covers single phaseto ground faults (a 15 g, bg, cg faults) . The other remaining faults have to be located with the fault location algorithms described above or standard fault location algorithm [1] • Distance to fault (d) for the considered here single phaseto ground faults is calculated by solving the quadratic formula for a sought 20 distance to fault (26) . Equation (26) is the same as equation (10) except that the values for Bl,B1,B3 are different to the values determined in (10). The solution gives two roots: "i ^ (26) do = 1 2 2B2 (as above, the root which fulfils the condition (0 B0 =reaI(A0)imag(A00)real(A00)imag(A0) where: A„ = —7. , V jSL —Om V T ~Qm /> ±0 i_0 £0 5 io^VVp 400 = ~M\SLF2LaA2 AAl+kFzl/UU.) fThe recommended SET of the coefficients bn, bF2 are taken from 10 TABLE 4 and the recommended SET of the coefficients aFl, aF2, aF0 from TABLE 5. Fault loop voltage in this embodiment is found from the TABLE below Fault loop voltage composed in terms of symmetrical components Fault loop voltage composed as in the classic approach =«IKMI +«0KA40 ag fault: al=a2=aQ=bg fault: Qy=a , a2 =a, a0 = 1 cg fault: Qy=a , a2—a a0 = 1 a = exp(j2;r / 3) , j = VT ag fault: VM_p ~VM_a ag fault: ag fault: Fault loop current LAA_Pcomposed as for the single line is found from the TABLE below 5!L » LAA_p terms of symmetrical components p as in the classic approach SL ^ ADML +"2LAA2 + 2o 70M IA40 —ILA ag fault: al=a2=a0=1 jbg fault: aj = a , a2=a , a0 = 1 2 cgr fault: = a , a2—a , a0 = 1 a = exp(j2;z7 3), j = V=4 ag fault: IM_a ag fault: Z^_p =LAA_0 + £oLmo SL ag fault: JM_p =LAA_U + £oLuo where: ifc0 = Z«""ZuA The complex coefficients dependent on the mode of the healthy parallel line operation: a) healthy line LB is in operation: N _ Z.QLB 0M " 7  7 L\ ~~K.\ +zlLBzlsB M. i =zlLAz1Uj +zX[A(ZhA +zUB)+zlLB (ZhA +zlsB) b) healthy line LB is switchedoff and grounded: p _ —OLB Z —0m —1 =——1LA ~ — 1LA + WO 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091 In another embodiment, which is presented here, the method is applied for the standard availability of the measured signals and is only valid for ground faults, including both:  single phasetoground faults 5  phasetophasetoground faults. Fault location procedures obtained for these faults under the Standard availability of the fault locator input signals are extremely simple and compact. Distance to a fault is calculated with a first order formula. 10 Figure 22 shows a flowchart of the developed algorithm for locating ground faults in parallel transmission lines. The sequence of computations for the presented oneend fault locator is as follows. As shown in the flowchart in Figure 22.B3 the following measurements are utilized: 15  voltages from the side A and line LA from particular phases a, b, c: vAA_a , vMJ, vM c  currents from the side A and line LA from particular phases a, b, C: i/Ua , lAA_b' iAA_c  zero sequence current from the healthy parallel line LB: iAB0 20 The utilized input data are as follows:  impedances of the faulted line for the positive (ZlLA) and zero (Z0LA) sequences,  impedance of the healthy line for the zero sequence i.ZQLB)  zero sequence impedance for the mutual coupling (Z0m) 25  information on the fault type from the protective relay. The measured fault quantities (voltages and currents) undergo adaptive filtering aimed at rejecting the dc components from currents and the transients induced by Capacitive Voltage Transformers (CVTs) , preferably as described and shown in 30 relation to Figures 3a, 3b. WO 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091 A generalized model of the fault loop, used for deriving the algorithm of the present embodiment, is stated as follows: ¥M_p DZLLALAA_V rF(O.FIIF\ +S.FILF2 +0.FOIFO) = 0 D) where: d  unknown and sought distance to fault, —lLA ~ positive sequence impedance of the faulted line, YAA_p> Laa p ~ fault loop voltage and current composed according to the fault type, RF  fault resistance, lFi  sequence components of the total fault current (i=0  zero sequence, i=l positive sequence, i=2  negative sequence), aFi  weighting coefficients {TABLE 2) . Fault loop voltage and current can be expressed as in classic distance protection technique or, as in this document, in terms of the local measurements and with using the coefficients (a0, a} , a2) which are gathered in TABLE 1 (derivation of the coefficients is contained in APPENDIX APP.1) : Y.AA_p=£l¥AA} +Q.2^AA2+^0YAA0 (2) £.1 LA —ILA where: AA, AB  subscripts used for indicating measurements acquired from the faulted line (AA) and from the healthy line (AB) , respectively, Z0ZA , ZQm  impedance of the faulted line and mutual coupling between the lines for the zero sequence, respectively. In the next step the symmetrical components of voltages and currents are calculated as shown in Figure 3a, 3b. The fault WO 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091 loop signals are composed: the fault loop voltage as in (2), while the fault loop current as in (3). The formulae (2)(3) present the fault loop signals expressed in terms of the symmetrical components of the measured signals. However, one may instead use the classic way for composing the fault loop signals, as shown in APPENDIX Al. The presented method covers single phaseto ground, faults (a g, bg, cg faults) and phasetophasetoground faults (ab g, bcg, cag faults), thus, the faults for which the highest fault resistance can be expected. The other remaining faults have to be located with the fault location algorithms described above or a standard fault location algorithm, such as for example the fault locator from reference [1] ) . (27a) Distance to fault (d) for single phasetoground faults is calculated as follows: ag fault: d_ imag p [3(7^0 Pq/^q)]*} imag {(Z1M 7 M_p)[3(7M0  PQLABQ)I*} where: Fault loop signals composed in terms of symmetrical components Fault loop signals composed as in the classic approach ¥AA_ p +"2YAA2 +«0^/U0 YAA_P ~YAA_A LM_P = %OLA T , _ 2oM T + ~ LMO 1 ~ IAB0 —UA —1LA LAA_P LAA_O +KOLAAO —0m—ABO where *. at = a2 = a0 = 1 TT1, L ZOLA ~Z.\LA » _ —om where: K0  ■ , . I£0M L\LA PQ = 0LB ~0M (for symmetrical lines: £0 = 1) 2.0LA 2.0m bg fault: d _ imag{V_M_p[3a 2(/aaoPQIABQ))*} i>™g{(ZiiAlM_P)[3 VAA^P =&IYAA\ +a2 VM2 +a0VM0 ¥AA_PYAA_b LAA_ p =QL\IAA\ +3LILAA2 + , _ —OLA T , „ Z0m + Oo  LAAO 1 «o 7 LABO LA —ILA —AA_p ~iAA_b + ^OM^ABO where: al = a2 , a2 — a , a0 = 1 a = exp(j2fl73) t where: = , —ILA —ILA P0 = ~0LB ~0m (for symmetrical lines: PQ = 1). S.0LA ~ —0m cg fault: _ imag{VAA_pL3&(lAA0 fol^o)]*} imag {(Z1M /M p )[3a(/M0  P0Zabo)1*} where: Fault loop signals composed in terms of symmetrical components Fault loop signals composed as in the classic approach p = —1—AAl +a2Y.AA2 + «oKaAO YAA_p~YAA_c LAA_P QL\LAAY + U2LAA2 + , „ —OLA R , _ 2oM R + «o Y LAAO 1 ^o 7 LABO £T\LA ZTILA p = IAA_c + KOLAAO + K■Qm^ABA where: at=a , a2 = a , aQ = 1 a — exp(j2;z7 3) r. ZLOLA~^\LA LR 2.0m where: , ^.ltA —ILA Z —Z P =Z=QLB—=M (for symmetrical lines: P0 = D —OLA m Distance to fault (d) for phaseto phaseto ground faults can be calculated in two different ways, depending whether the prefault currents can be used or have to be avoided. 1. Procedure for distance to fault calculation with the use of prefault measurements: abg fault: d __ imagiVM pMlMO ~EOLABO)Y} ^ i*™g{(ZlIAlAA_P)\K(lM0P0LAB0)Y} ^^ 10 where: W=A4Lmi+~AA2 , ~ CAl^+Dl^ A = 1  a2 , B  1a , C = l + a2, ,0 = 1 + 0 Fault loop signals composed in terms of symmetrical components Fault loop signals composed as in the classic approach Ym_ p = «iKaA1 2—AA2 + «O^AAO EAA_P =¥AA_a — — AA_fc £AA_P ~Q.\LaA\ —2—AA2 + , „ ZOLA r ■ _ 2OM r + «0 _ 1.AA0 1 ~ —ABO —AA_p = LAA_U ~ —AA_b Twhere: a = exp(j2tf/3) p0 = ~0LB (for symmetrical lines: PQ = l) . —OLA ~~ 2.0m 15 bcg fault: . pfc(lM0 ~ A10 )F } a f—; ~~ UoD) Where: = , A = A2A , B = AA\ C = 1, D = 1 — —AAl + DIAA2 Fault loop signals composed in terms of symmetrical components Fault loop signals composed as in the classic approach —AA_p =£lilMl +«oZmo —AA_p = — AA_i EAA_c —AA_p = QIIMI +SLILAA2 + . _ ^OiA r . _ j + a0  —aao 1 " LABO —ILA ^UA —AA_p = —AA_b ~Lm_C where: a} = a2  a , a2 = aa2 , a0 = 0 a =exp(j27z73) Z —Z P0 = (for symmetrical lines: PQ=L) . 2.0M "~2.0m cag fault: d _ ™?(EyiA.pfe(ly»0ZqZaHO^} imag t (Z1LA / ^ _ p )W (/^oPQLABO where: = MIAAL+SLAAZ  CAL^ + DLAAI' A = a1, 5 = C = a + 1 , £ = a2+l Fault loop signals composed in terms of symmetrical components Fault loop signals composed as in the classic approach ZAA_P =«IKAAI +^OKAAO YAA_P YAA_C ~Y.AA_A IAA_P = ^lXAAl +«2IM2 + , . ^OLA R , _ —0M J + ~ LMO+ZO7 LABO IK\LA —ILA —AA_p = LAA^C ~ LAA_A where: aj = al, a20. 1/ 2o=0 a = exp(j2tf/3) z — z —0=1Z (for symmetrical lines: P0 = D. 4ola ~£.0m 2. Procedure for distance to fault calculation without the use of prefault measurements: 5 abg fault: D= IMAGKVG +YB)(LAA0PQLABQ)*] (29A) imag[ZllAaa +lb + 2koLM0 + 2ko,nLABo)(LAAOPoLABo)*l bcg fault: d= imag[(Vb +VCMAAO £qZabo)*3 (29b) imag[£lIA(Lb +Lc+2LoLMO + 2komIABo)(lMoPoLABo)*~i 10 cag fault: d= imag[(V, +VA)(LAA0 ~ £ QLABQ)*] {29c) imag[ZLUAC +la+2kolAAo+2komLABo)(LAAoIOLABO)*] where: = kQm=§^ —ILA —ILA 15 It is also noted that while the above describes exemplifying embodiments of the invention, there are several variations and 20 modifications which may be made to the disclosed solution without departing from the scope of the present invention as defined in the appended claims. WO 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091 Tables TABLE 1. Coefficients for determining the fault loop voltage (¥AA_P) and current {LAA_v) in terms of symmetrical components as defined in (2) and (3). Fault type ag 1 1 bg a2 a 1 cg a 2 a 1 a~b, abg abc, abcg 1 a 0 bc, bcg a2 a 2 aa 0 ca, cag a1 a2 1 0  a = exp(j2^r/3) , j = Vl TABLE 1A. Fault loop voltage (VAA_p) and current (LAA_p) e:xpressed with using the classic approach. Fault type ¥~AA_P LAA_ p ag ¥AA_a LaA^O +TOIAAO + KOm—ABO bg Y.AA_b lAA_b +£ cg YAA_C LaA^C + £oXa40 + —0m IABO ab, abg abc, ab cg YAA_a ~YAA_b LAA_a~—AA_b bc, bcg ¥AA_b ~YAA__C IAA_b ~LAA_C ca, cag YAA_C ~YAA_a LAA_C~ LAA_O i, _ ZLQLA ~ Z.UA lr _ —Q>» KQ— „ ' —0m — ' —ILA LA a = exp(j2^/3), j = JT TABLE 2. Alternative sets of the weighting coefficients for determining a voltage drop across the fault path resistance Fault Set I (recommended) Set XI Set III type aF i 3.F2 ■ QLFX &F2 —F0 &FI —F2 —F0 ag 0 3 0 3 0 0 1,5 1,5 0 bg 0 3a 0 3i 0 0 1,5a2 1,5a 0 cg 0 3a2 0 3a 0 0 1,5a 1,5a2 0 1 ajb 0 1a 0 1a2 0 0 0,5(la2) 0,5(1 a) 0  bc 0 a —a2 0 2 a —a 0 0 0,5(«2a) 0 ca 0 2 i a 1 0 a1 0 0 0,5(fll) 0,5(a2l) 7 / 0 abg 1a2 1 a 0 1a2 1a 0 1a2 1a 0 bcg 2 a a 2 a —a 0 2 a ~a a~a2 0 a2  a a —a2 0 cag a1 a2I 0 a1 a2 I 0 a1 a2l 0 abcg (abc) 1 2 1a 0 0 0 0 l«2 0 0 a = exp(j2x/3), j = VT  TABLE 3. Coefficients for determining a fault current distribution factor (6) SINGLE LINE (Fig.4) — MB ^ K\  ~Z1LZ1AB  (zhA + zUB )z1L Li =ZlL(ZUA +zUB)+zlAB(zlL +zUB) M, = (ZhA + z lsB )(z1AB + zlL) + zlLzlAB K\  ~Z.il LI = Z.iL + ZLISB M,=zlis4+ZUB+Zlt PARALLEL LINES (Fig.5) K\ = ~Z1M (ZlsA + ZlsB +Z.ILB&AB) L\ =ZliA(Z1M + ZUB + Z1LB&AB)+ZlLB&ABZUBi Ml =zUAz1LB&AB +zllA(zlsA +zUB)+zlLB&AB(zUA+zUB) mhrrr "  Z) LB ZlAB wbere. lXLBSlAS ~  WO 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091 Table 4 The recommended SET of the coefficients bFl,bF2 in relation to (26) Fault j bFl ■ — F2 ag 0 1 1° a j a = exp(j2flV3) , j = VT Table 5 The recommended SET of the coefficients Q.Fi, &F2> QFO 5 in relation to (26) FAULT »F1 «F2 «F0 ag 0 3 0 bg 0 3a 0 cg 0 3a2 0 I a = exp(j2;r/3) WO 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091 References [1] Eriksson L., Saha M.M., Rockefeller G.D.: An accurate fault locator with compensation for apparent reactance in the fault resistance resulting from remoteend infeed, IEEE Transactions on PAS, Vol. PAS104, No. 2, February 1985, pp. 424436. [2] Saha M.M. : Method and device for locating a fault point on a threephase power transmission line. United States Patent, Patent Number: 4,559,491, Date of Patent: Dec.17, 1985. [3] MCLAREN P.G., SWIFT G.W. , ZHANG Z., DIRKS E. , JAY AS INGHLE R.P., FERNANDO I., A new positive sequence directional element for numerical distance relays, Proceedings of the Stockholm Power Tech Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, 1995, pp. 540545. [4] SAHA M.M. , IZYKOWSKI J. , KASZTENNY B. , ROSOLOWSKI E., PALKI B.S., Relaying algorithms for protection of series compensated lines, Proceedings of the International Conference on Modern Trends in the Protection Schemes of Electric Power Apparatus and Systems, October 2830, 1998, New Delhi, India, pp. V5061. [5] NOVOSEL D., HART D.G., UDREN E., GARITTY J., Unsynchronized twoterminal fault location estimation, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 11, No. 1, January 1996, pp. 130 138. APPENDICES Al DERIVATION OF THE COEFFICIENTS a,, fl2, aQ (TABLE 1) Single phasetoground fault: ag fault VAA_P =Y.AA_A +Y.AA2 +Y.M0 = + ^YAA2 LAA_P =LAA_A +KOLAAO+KAMLAM=LAM+I^ + I IIN + ^I^N+^I ~\LA ■I +•=»«iAao = —liA r , 4/7 —Qw r IMO +H0M ^ IABQ 5 Interphase faults: ajb, abg, abc, abcg faults ^ Thus: aj=la2, a2 = 1a , a0=0 10 A2. Derivation of coefficients aFl, aF2, aF0 (TABLE 2) TABLE 2 contains three alternative sets (Set I, Set II, Set III) of the weighting coefficients, which are used for determining a voltage drop across a fault path. The coefficients are calculated from the boundary conditions  15 relevant for a particular fault type. This is distinctive that in all the sets the zero sequence is omitted (aFO=0) . This is advantage since the zero sequence impedance of a line is considered as the uncertain parameter. By setting aF0=0 we limit adverse influence of the uncertainty with respect to the 20 zero sequence impedance data upon the fault location accuracy. To be precise one has to note that this limitation is of course partial since it is related only to determining the voltage drop across a fault path. In contrast, while determining the voltage drop across a faulted line segment the 25 zero sequence impedance of the line is used. Thus: at = a2 = a0 = 1 ag fault, Figure 12: WO 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091 Taking into account that in the healthy phases: JF b=lFc = 0 what gives: I_n= + aLF_„ + + aO + a2o)=/f._a Ln = f +gjF c)=~{iF a +a2o+ao)=±/F a IFO +XF3 + lF_c) = (iFa +0 + 0) = i/F_a 5 The sequence components are related: IPJ IF2=LFO AND finally: LF = Xf_o ?>LF2 • thus: aF1=0, = 3 , AFO=0 (as in the Set I from Table 2} or 10 lF =IF a =31 Fl, thus: aFi = 3, aF2=0, aF0=0 (as in the Set II from Table 2) or Lf ~LF_A = 1>5/F1 + 1,5IF2 , thus: aF1 =1,5 , aF2=l,5, ^fo^0 aJb fault Figure 13a, 13b: The fault current can be expressed as: LFLF_A OR AS: LF = — (JF_A~LF_b) Taking into account that in the healthy phase: LF_C~0 a"*3 20 for the faulted phases: LF_b=LF_A LPI +"LF_B +«2LF_J=(LF_A + &(LP _A)+ ~ (la) WO 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091 Finally: 3 F2 LF = LF _A thus: af2=la, af0=° (as in the Set I from Table 2) or thus: aFl=l~a2 , aF20, aFQ= 0 (as in the SET 2 from Table 2) or lF = 0,51 F a +0,5IF a =0,5(1 ~a)lF2 + 0,5(la2^, thus: aF1 =0,5(la2), aF2=0,5(la) , aF0= 0 (as in the Set III 10 from Table 2) (abg) fault. Figure 14: = (la2)/F1 + (la)/i F 2 15 Thus: aFl = I —a2 , aF2\a, qFQ = 0 (as in the Sets I, II, III from Table 2) (abc) or (abcg) symmetrical faults, Figure 15a, 15b, 15c: 20 Taking the first two phases (a, b) for composing the voltage drop across a fault path one obtains: LF =lF_a~lF_b~UFl+lF2+lFo)yLLFl+oLF2+LFo) = = (la%i + {la)LF2 Thus: A PI = 1 — a , AF2 = 1 —^ > S.FO~ 0 25 Additionally, if a fault is ideally symmetrical the positive sequence is the only component, which is present in the signals. Therefore, we have: an = l~az, aF2~0, aF0 = 0 (as in the Sets I, II, III from Table 2) . A3. Derivation of the complex coefficients in the fault 5 current distribution factors for the positive (negative) sequence (Table 3) a) Case of the single line with extra link 45 between the substations (Figure 4) 10 Let us determine the fault current distribution factor for the positive sequence (the fault current distribution factor for the negative sequence is the same) . The equivalent circuit of Figure 4 with indicated flow of currents for the incremental positive sequence is presented in Figure 16. 15 Considering the closed mesh containing: the local segment of the faulted line, the remote segment of the faulted line and the extra link between the substations, one can write down: DZLLAI_AL + (1  d)ZXL (ALMLFL)ZIABALABI = 0 20 From the above equation the unknown current from the extra link between the substation can be determined as: AB Considering the closed mesh containing the source impedances (ZlsA , ZUB) and the extra link (ZlAB) one can write down: 25 ZUA(ALai + ALABI) + ZIABALABI +ZUB(ALAI + AIABI ~/f1) = 0 Substituting the previously determined unknown current from the extra link into the above equation one obtains: LR A£AL _ K^+LL Kp J  — — LFI MI where, as in TABLE 3 (Single line, Z ) , we have: = z1LzUB  (Z1M + ZlsB )Z1L 5 Xi =zlLizlsA + ZlsB)+ZlAB(ZlL +ZisB) Ml = (Z1M +Zil)+Z1lZub If there is no extra link between the substations (ZMfl ) one has to consider the closed mesh containing the source impedances (ZUA, ZlsB) and both the segments of the faulted 10 line [dZlL and (ld)ZlL] . For this mesh one can write: (Z+ dZ lt) AI_ Al + [Z lsB + (1  d)Zx l\AI_ A1  / K i) = 0 After rearrangements one obtains: where, as in TABLE 3 (Single line, ZlAB ) , we have: 15 Kx=ZlL Mi =zlsA+zlsA +zlL b) Case of the parallel lines with extra link between the 20 substation (Figure 5) Let us determine the fault current distribution factor for the positive sequence (the fault current distribution factor for the negative sequence is the same). The equivalent circuit of 25 parallel lines from Fig.5 with indicated flow of currents for the incremental positive sequence is presented in Figure 17. WO 2004/001431 PCT/SE2003/001091 The healthy parallel line (LB) and the extra link 55 (AB) , which are in parallel connection, have been substituted by the equivalent branch with the equivalent impedance: 7 _ —ILB—lAB MLB&AB  ' ,RY • LB LAFL 5 Considering the closed mesh denoted by (AA, F, BA, BB, AB) one can write: DZILA^L/M + (1  D)Z\LA WIAAX IFO  —ILB&AB^—LB&ABL = 0 From the above equation the unknown current from the equivalent branch can be determined as: 10 AlLB&ABl=^L{ALAAl(Xd)LFl) —ILB&.AB Considering the closed mesh containing the source impedances SA> ZL\SB ) and THE equivalent branch (ZLLB&AB) one can write down: Z.ISA(ALAAI + ALLB&.AB0+SILB&AB^LLB&ABI +ZLSB(ALMI + ALLB&ABI ~LF\)=° 15 Substituting the previously determined unknown current from the healthy line into the above equation one obtains: k =ALAAI =K1d + Ll ~F1 LFX MI where, as in TABLE 3 (Parallel lines), we have: Kt = ~£ILA(ZISA SB +Z±ILB&AB) ' 20 =Z1LA(Z1M + ZljB+Z1ZiB&AB)+Z1LB&AfiZljB1 MI ~^ALAZILB&AS + ZLLA(ZLSA + ZLSB) + ZLLB&AB(ZUA+ZLSB) where: ZILBSLAB =  . LB + £\AB in case if the extra link between the substations (Z1AB) is not present one has to substitute: Z1LB&AB =ZLLB CLAIMS 1. A method to locate a fault from one end of a section of a power line (AB) by means of measurements of current, voltage and angles between the phases at a first (A) end of said section, and that upon detection of a fault condition between said first end and a second end of said power line, characterised by calculating symmetrical components of currents for said current and voltage measure at said first end, calculating a distance (d) from said first end (2) to the fault (F) the distance (d) to the fault using a quadratic equation of the form: B2d2 + B^ + Bq^O where: = A_ReA)0_Im ~ A_ImA)0_Re B0 = A)_ReA)0_Im ~ A)_Im A)0_Re 2. A method according to claim 1, characterised by calculating the distance (d) to the fault using an equation of the "form: K,ZlLd2 + iL,ZXL KxZ^)d L,ZM 9 + Rri£ibn*LAAl+&nl*z)Is0 (8, —AA_p where: V ZM_p =  calculated fault loop impedance. —AA_p 3. A method according to any of claims 1 or 2, characterised by calculating the distance ha ~ A2_Re + j^2_ Im = KlS.UA —0  A)_Re + jA)_Im = UZLAAJ? 4>0_Re + iA.O.M iAAjp £AAjp=~Z = calculated fault loop impedance AA_ p ^lr Xa' M.i = coefficients gathered in TABLE 3. 4. A method according to any of claims 13, characterised by determining source impedance at said first end as a representative value, and determining a value for source impedance at said second end as a representative value. 5. A method according to any of claims 14, characterised by calculating a value for impedance of an extra link (45, 55) between the terminals A, B, as having impedance for the positive sequence equal to: I 7  —ILB—1AB > I —ILBSLAB ' ) —1LB + SLIAB where Zi/iB = impedance for the positive sequence of the extra link, ZiLA ~ positive sequence impedance of the healthy line. 6. A method according to any of claims 15, characterised by calculating symmetrical components of currents for said current and voltage measured at said first end by: inputting instantaneous phase voltages (30a), filtering (33a) the values to determine the phasors, and calculating (34a) phasors of symmetrical components of voltages. 7. A method according to any of claims 16, characterised by calculating symmetrical components of currents for said current and voltage measured at said first end by inputting instantaneous phase currents and instantaneous zero sequence current from a healthy line(30b), filtering (33b) the values to determine the phasors, and calculating (34b) phasors of symmetrical components of' currents. 8. A method according to any of claims 17, characterised by determining a compensation for shunt capacitance by means of an equation of the form: Kmp~\dcnmp]f + Brpldcomp_, + Br"1 = 0 (22) where: ncomp_l _ t comp_ 1 a comp_ 1 tcomp_l tcomp_l 2 ~ 2_ Re /100_lm ^OO.Re DComp_l _ » comp _L A comp _ 1 A compA comp_ 1 D\ ~ l_Re •"00_lm ^l.Im /100_Re ncomp_l _ A comp_ 1 A comp_ 1 i comp_1 i comp_ 1 nU ~ /10_Re /1«0_lm "o.Im /i00_Re 9. A method according to claim 8, characterised by determining a compensation for shunt capacitance by means of an equation of the form: A'r'i.d^)2 +MompldComp_i + AT1 + =0 (21a) where: Al0,np1 = ^Te1 + JAZRr1 = + =hz[7 KiZT/1 Acrp1=+W=urrj .compJ _ Acomp_l , iAcomp_ 1 _ MI{QLFI^LAA\ + ^FllAAl) £100 ~ A)0_ Re f J*00_lm ~ Tcomp_l iA_ p jcomp_l _ ¥A_p _ fault loop impedance calculated from: —A_p Tcomp_l c —A_p V.  original (uncompensated) fault loop voltage, —A_p irp1=^liAi_COmp_i + «2i:A2_cO«1p_l + «0lA0_COTnp_i  fault loop current composed of the positive (12), negative (16) and zero (17) 10. A method according to any of claims 19, characterised by measuring the source impedance ZUA at said first end A. 11. A method according to any of claims 19, characterised by measuring the source impedance ZlsB at said second end B, sending a communication of the measured value of source impedance ZUB at said second end B to a fault locator at said first end A. 12. A method according to any of claims 111, characterised by determining the zero sequence current from the healthy line of a section of parallel power lines, calculating a distance to a fault for the parallel line section. 13. A method according to claim 12, characterised by determining distance to a single phase to ground fault without measurements from an operating healthy parallel line by means of complex coefficients PQ according to a formula of the form: p _ —OLB ~ —0m Z —OLA —0m and Kx, Lv , M_x according to K\ ~~ZL\LA^\SA SB +2]zb) LI +21LBzlsB Mi =z1IAziLB +zllA(ZlsA +ZUB)+ZILB(ZUA +zlsB) 14. A method according to claim 12, characterised by determining distance to a single phase to ground fault without measurements from switched off and grounded parallel line by means of complex coefficients P0 according to p _ LB —Om and Klt Lx, according to 1 = —ILA M^zlsA+zlsA + zllA 15. A method according to claim 12, characterised by determining distance to a single ground fault using a first order formula (27a,b,c) of the form: d __ imag{VM P[3(LAAO ~EQLABO^*) imag{(Zi[ALAA_P)l3(lM0 £oIa/h>)]*} 16. A method according to claim 12, characterised by determining distance to a phasetophase ground fault using prefault measurements and a first order formula (28a,b,c) of the form: imagiYAAvMLAAo £o Iabo)] } imag{(ZlLAlAA. —ABO 17 . A method according to claim 12, characterised by determining distance to a phasetophase ground fault avoiding prefault measurements and using a first order formula (29a,b,c) of the form: d= imag[(Va +Vb)dAA0 ~£OIabq)*] imag[ZlLA(la + Lb + ZkOlAAO + 2£OMI/tBo)(I/WO  £oIabo)*1 18. A device for locating a fault from one end of a section of a power line (AB) having means for receiving and storing measurements of current, voltage and angles between the phases at one first end (A), means for receiving and storing a letectionpf a fault condition between said first and second ends (A,B1, characterised by: means fot calculating symmetrical components of currents for said current and voltage measured at said first end, means for calculating a distance (d) from said first end (2) to the fault (F). 19. A device according to claim 18, characterised by comprising: means for determining a value for source impedance at said first end, means for determining a value for source impedance at said second end. 20. A device according to any of claims 1819, characterised by comprising: means for receiving a measurement of source impedance at said first end A. 21. A device according to any of claims 1820, characterised by comprising: means for receiving a measurement of source impedance made at said second end B. 22. A device according to any of claims 1821, characterised by comprising means to receive a measured value (9) for remote source impedance at said second end (B) communicated by. means of a communication channel (60). 23. Use of a fault locator device according to any of claims 1822, by a human operator to supervise a function in an electrical power system. 24. Use of a fault locator device according to any of claims 1822, by means of a process running on one or more computers to supervise and/or control a function in an electrical power system. 25. Use of a fault locator device according to any of claims 1822, to locate a distance to a fault in a power transmission or distribution system. 26. Use of a device according to any of claims 1822, for locating a fault on parallel power lines. 27. A computer program comprising computer code means and/or software code portions for making a computer or processor perform any of the steps of claims 117. 28. A computer program product according to claim 27 comprised in one or more computer readable media. 29. A data communication signal for locating a fault in a section of a power line included in a data transmission comprising a value of a measurement of source impedance made in respect of a remote and second (B) end of said section of a power line. 30. A graphic user interface for displaying a location of a fault in a section of a power line wherein a value is displayed for a distance (d) of said fault from a first end (A) of said power line. 31. A graphic user interface according to claim 30, characterised in that the value displayed for the distance (d) is combined with a graphical representation of the relevant power line section or network. 32. A graphic user interface according to claim 30, characterised in that the value, displayed for the distance (d) is arranged to be displayed upon activation of a part of the graphical representation of the relevant power line section or network using a computer mouse or similar computer display selection means. 

2858CHENP2004 AMENDED PAGES OF SPECIFICATION 30112012.pdf
2858CHENP2004 AMENDED PAGES OF SPECIFICATION 10012012.pdf
2858CHENP2004 AMENDED CLAIMS 30112012.pdf
2858CHENP2004 AMENDED CLAIMS 10012012.pdf
2858CHENP2004 AMENDED CLAIMS 10072013.pdf
2858CHENP2004 CORRESPONDENCE OTHERS 03072013.pdf
2858CHENP2004 CORRESPONDENCE OTHERS 10012012.pdf
2858CHENP2004 CORRESPONDENCE OTHERS 10072013.pdf
2858CHENP2004 CORRESPONDENCE OTHERS 11022013.pdf
2858CHENP2004 EXAMINATION REPORT REPLY RECEIVED 30112012.pdf
2858CHENP2004 FORM1 11022013.pdf
2858CHENP2004 FORM3 30112012.pdf
2858CHENP2004 FORM5 11022013.pdf
2858CHENP2004 OTHER PATENT DOCUMENT 30112012.pdf
2858CHENP2004 CORRESPONDENCE OTHERS 03012012.pdf
2858CHENP2004 CORRESPONDENCE OTHERS 20042012.pdf
2858chenp2004 correspondence others.pdf
2858chenp2004 correspondence po.pdf
2858chenp2004 power of attorney.pdf
Patent Number  257241  

Indian Patent Application Number  2858/CHENP/2004  
PG Journal Number  38/2013  
Publication Date  20Sep2013  
Grant Date  17Sep2013  
Date of Filing  16Dec2004  
Name of Patentee  ABB AB  
Applicant Address  721 83, VASTERAS, SWEDEN  
Inventors:


PCT International Classification Number  G01R31/08  
PCT International Application Number  PCT/SE03/01091  
PCT International Filing date  20030618  
PCT Conventions:
