|Title of Invention||
CONVERSION OF ORGANIC WASTE TO SMALLER HYDROCARBONS
|Abstract||The present invention concerns a method and a device for conversion of organic waste, in particular, waste plastics, in which the charge is liquefied and then cracked giving the product in the gaseous phase, wherein the charge is introduced into a reactor with a hot bath, in the decomposition zone and then the gaseous products of the decomposition are collected at the top. According to the present invention is characterized in that the decomposition reactions are carried out catalytically above the hot bath, advantageously in the form of the system.|
|Full Text||(See section 10 and rule 13) CONVERSION OF ORGANIC WASTE TO SMALLER HYDROCARBONS
DR. DHESINGH SIVARAJ
an Indian National
of 5/407, Honni Mam, Kannadasan Street, Mogappair (West), Chennai 600 037, Tamil Nadu, India
THE FOLLOWING SPECIFICATION PARTICULARLY DESCRIBES THE INVENTION AND THE MANNER IN WHICH IT IS TO BE PERFORMED.
Conversion of organic waste to smaller hydrocarbons
FIELD OF INVENTION
The present invention relates to a method and a device for conversion of organic waste, in particular chopped waste plastics. The present method constitutes a process of liquefying waste, which takes place in the presence of inorganic medium, e.g. combination of silicates with Zeolites and transition metal particles. The process of cracking of waste is carried out in order to obtain a mixture of hydrocarbons in the liquid form, which could be utilized as liquid fuels or for the production of liquid fuels.
Zeolite is an inorganic porous material having a highly regular structure of pores and chambers that allows some molecules to pass through, and causes others to be either excluded, or broken down. It is in many ways, the inorganic equivalent of organic enzymes, many of which also have specific sized chambers that trap chemicals within our bodies, holding them where they either break down, or react with specific chemicals. What Zeolite does, and how it does it, depends upon the exact shape, size, and charge distribution of the lattice structure of the Zeolites. There are hundreds of different Zeolites found in nature and made by man.
A defining feature of Zeolites is that their frameworks are made up of 4-connected networks of atoms. One way of thinking about this is in terms of tetrahedra, with a silicon atom in the middle and oxygen atoms at the corners. These tetrahedra can then link together by their corners (see illustration) to from a rich variety of beautiful structures. The framework structure may contain linked cages, cavities or channels, which are of the
right size to allow small molecules to enter - i.e. the limiting pore sizes
are roughly between 3 and 10 A in diameter.
In all, over 130 different framework structures are now known. In addition
to having silicon or aluminum as the tetrahedral atom, other compositions
have also been synthesized, including the growing category of micro
porous aluminophosphates, known as ALPOs.
Zeolites have the ability to act as catalysts for chemical reactions which
take place within the internal cavities. An important class of reactions is
that catalyzed by hydrogen-exchanged Zeolites, whose framework-bound
protons give rise to very high acidity. This is exploited in many organic
reactions, including crude oil cracking, isomerisation and fuel synthesis.
Zeolites can also serve as oxidation or reduction catalysts, often after
metals have been introduced into the framework. Examples are the use of
titanium ZSM-5 in the production of caprolactam, and copper Zeolites in
Underpinning all these types of reaction is the unique micro porous nature
of Zeolites, where the shape and size of a particular pore system exerts a
stearic influence on the reaction, controlling the access of reactants and
products. Thus Zeolites are often said to act as shape-selective catalysts.
Increasingly, attention has focused on fine-tuning the properties of Zeolite
catalysts in order to carry out very specific syntheses of high-value
chemicals e.g. Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.
Adsorption and Separation
The shape-selective properties of Zeolites are also the basis for their use
in molecular adsorption. The ability preferentially to adsorb certain
molecules, while excluding others, has opened up a wide range of
molecular sieving applications. Sometimes it is simply a matter of the size
and shape of pores controlling access into the Zeolite. In other cases
different types of molecule enter the Zeolite, but some diffuse through the
channels more quickly, leaving others stuck behind, as in the purification
of Para Xylene by silicate.
Cation-containihg Zeolites are extensively used as desiccants due to their
high affinity for water, and also find application in gas separation, where
molecules are differentiated on the basis of their electrostatic interactions
with the metal ions. Conversely, hydrophobic silica Zeolites preferentially absorbs organic solvents. Zeolites can thus separate molecules based on differences of size, shape and polarity. Mechanism of pyroiysis
1. End Chain cracking: The polymer is broken up from the end group
successively yielding the corresponding monomer.
2. Random chain cracking: The polymer chain is broken up
randomly into fragments of uneven length.
3. Chain stripping: Elimination of reactive substitutes or side groups
on the polymer chain leading to evolution of a cracking product on
one hand and charring polymer chain on the other.
4. Cross linking: Formation of a chain network which often occurs for
thermosetting polymer when heated.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
International patent WO95/06682 disclosed a method of utilization of plastics, which proposes to supply a mixture of plastics, mainly polyolefin type, by means of an extruder, to a reactor, at heightened temperature and in the presence of a catalyst suitable for catalytic cracking. The de-polymerization product undergoes a fractioning into fractions of diesel fuel and gasoline. The total efficiency reaches 70% in relation to raw materials introduced into the process.
US patent 3,770,419 discloses a pyroiysis process for recycling of organic and non-organic refuse including metals, which comprises feeding the refuse into a closed retort having a molten metal bath, submerging the refuse in said bath, collecting vapors, separating any remaining solid residue from the molten metals, conveying the solid residue out of the retort and collecting some molten metals by skimming and conveying skimmed molten metals out of the retort.
US patent 1,658,143 discloses an apparatus for distillation of oil shale comprising a distillation chamber having a corrugated floor, a burner beneath the floor, a series of drums extending across and rotatably mounted within the chamber, a conveyor at the discharge end of the bath
reaching into the gangue receiving chamber and the means for introducing raw shale material into the distillation chamber.
European patent application EP 0395486 discloses a method for continuous thermal conversion of organic waste, in the form of contaminated waste plastics and worn out vehicle tyres, to the gas-vapour mixture form, in which the charge in closed perforated box containers is introduced into a hot bath, preferably molten lead bath, by means of a conveyer. After transferring the box containers with the charge through the melting zone and the decomposition zone, by means of the same conveyer, the containers with the remaining impurities are removed from the bath, wherein the gaseous products of decomposition are collected through a circular top aperture. The device disclosed in this publication comprises a casing, including a vat and a conical head, a heating system comprising only a multitude of heating pipes surrounding the containers transported on the conveyer, an endless conveyer surrounding the bottom of the vat and constituting, at the same time, the loading device, the charge moving device and the impurities removal device. There is also a product collecting pipeline for collecting the gaseous product by means of a vertical pipe placed in the circular top aperture of the conical head.
The method and device described in the patent mentioned above, are particularly difficult and expensive, in an industrial scale execution, owing to the huge, reaching tens of tons, weight of the molten lead bath as well as the complex system for the charge loading and transporting in closed containers, by means of a single conveyer surrounding the bottom of the vat and also is complicated, and less effective. Heating system will require a separate bath agitating device to agitate such a big volume of the bath.
Indian patent application 102/MUM/2001 and 535/MUM/2001 discloses an improved process and an apparatus to convert waste plastic into value added products like liquid fuels, coke and petroleum gases consisting of a cylindrical /rectangular coking vessel made from stainless steel heated up to 600 °C connected to condenser, the other end of the condenser is connected to the receiving section to collect the distillate in batches or
continuously using Alumina or Benzoquinon in the range of 0.001% to 5.0%.
In particular, these methods and devices do not present an opportunity to apply a catalyst to improve the process and increase its efficiency as well as the quality of the final product.
This process lacks the means to control the displacement and the temperature of the liquid fraction formed while melted charge leaves the containers and undergoes the transformation into the gaseous fraction, whereas it may also form a liquid surface layer, depending on the character of the charge and the temperature of the bath.
Additionally, an apparatus according to the US patent 1, 658,143 and a process according to the US patent 3,770, 419 apart from disadvantages of the system described in EP 0 395 486 stemming from the application of the molten lead and complicated construction has disadvantages resulting from the phenomenon of "fouling" by lead, in which moving steel elements (paddles) in contact with lead are covered by this metal because of its low thermal conductivity. Besides applied means for introduction of charge in the form of screw conveyors require very precise comminuting of the charge, whereas means to remove any remaining solid residue are easily blocked by solidifying lead.
OBJECT OF THE INVENTION
The object of the invention is to provide an effective method and a highly efficient device, for conversion of various organic wastes, particularly waste plastics, advantageously in the presence of catalyst, to form gas, liquid mixture of smaller hydrocarbons and solid coke fuel, whereas the device is not heavy.
Another object of the invention is to provide decomposition products suitable to be recycled as raw materials for polymers or liquid fuels or other chemical industry processes or serve directly as fuel for combustion engines, e.g. electric generators and boilers.
Yet another object of the invention is to solve the mounting problem of disposal of waste plastics.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
According to this invention, therefore there is provided a method for conversion of waste plastics to usable liquid fuel, gas fuel and solid fuel comprising
a) introducing a charge of waste plastics having size in the
range of 0.1 to 100 mm into a reactor having a hot bath for
b) introducing a mixture of inorganic catalyst in the reactor,
said inorganic catalyst is of the particle size in the range of
0.1 to 10 mm,
c) decomposing the waste plastics in the reaction carried out at
the temperature ranging from 300 to 400°C,
d) collecting gaseous products of decomposition at the top of
the reactor and cooling the gaseous products by initially
passing through cooled pipelines and collecting said gaseous
products in a reservoir maintained at near 0°C.
In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, the charge
consisting of chopped waste plastic with inorganic catalyst medium are
heated directly by means of hot bath.
In accordance with another embodiment of the invention, air is removed
from reactor with the help of vacuum at the start of reaction.
In accordance with another embodiment of the invention, chopped waste
plastic consists of at least one plastic selected from a group of plastics
consisting of Polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene,
Polyethylene Terpthalate, polycarbonate and Acrylonitrile butadiene
Preferably, the reactor is a twin naked stainless steel cylindrical container
having internal dimensions of inner diameter 205 mm, outer diameter 210
mm and the height 437 mm.
In accordance with another embodiment of the invention, the catalyst is a
compound selected from a group of compounds consisting of aluminium
silicate, barium silicate, beryllium silicate, calcium silicate, iron silicate,
magnesium silicate, manganese silicate, potassium silicate, sodium silicate, zirconium silicate, copper silicate, tin silicate, iron silicate, lead silicate, tungsten silicate, , cesium silicate lithium silicate, Aluminium, Bismuth, Copper (Cuprum), Iron (Ferrum), Lead, Magnesium, Manganese, Nickel, Tin (Stannum), Tungsten, Zinc, Aluminium Oxide, Bismuth Oxide, Copper (Cuprum) Oxide, Iron (Ferrum) Oxide, Lead Oxide, Magnesium Oxide, Manganese Oxide, Nickel Oxide, Tin (Stannum) Oxide, Tungsten Oxide, Zinc Oxide, Aluminium Carbonate, Calcium carbonate, Sodium carbonate, Bismuth Carbonate, Copper (Cuprum) Carbonate, Iron (Ferrum) Carbonate, Lead Carbonate, Magnesium Carbonate, Manganese Carbonate, Nickel Carbonate, Tin (Stannum) Carbonate, Tungsten Carbonate, Zinc Carbonate, Silicone carbide, Calcium carbide, natural Zeolite, Alumina, fuller's earth and bauxites. In accordance with another embodiment of the invention, the catalyst mixture includes Charcoal.
Preferably, the catalyst comprises pieces of natural zeolitic bauxites, granules of aluminium, platinum, Iron and Copper having size in the range of 0.1 to 10 mm.
Preferably, the catalyst quantity is in the ratio of 0.05:1 to 0.20:1 of the total mass of the reactants in the reactor.
Preferably, the composition of catalyst is preferably 10 - 80 % Silicate, 0 - 45 % Zeolite, 0-10 % transition metals, 0-25 % metal oxides, 0 -10 % metal carbonates and 0-50 % fuller's earth.
Preferably, the catalyst mixture includes 0-40 % activated Charcoal.
The objects of invention are achieved by a method for conversion of organic waste, in particular, chopped waste plastics, in which the charge is liquefied and then cracked giving the product in the gaseous and liquid phase, wherein the charge is introduced into a reactor with a hot bath, then the gaseous products of the decomposition are collected at the top as expressed in claims, in which the decomposition reactions are carried
out catalytically above the hot bath in the layer of the charge formed around melting elements.
The present invention provides an effective and highly efficient large-scale industrial process of conversion of various organic wastes. The special method, conducting the decomposition reactions catalytically in the presence of a novel, cheap and inexpensive catalyst around melting elements provides the full control over the temperature of the liquid fraction, and greatly improves the efficiency of the process and the quality of the final product. The decomposition product, in the form of gaseous and liquid mixture of smaller hydrocarbons, is suitable to be recycled as raw material for polymers or liquid fuels or other chemical industry processes or serves directly as fuel for combustion engines, e.g. electric generators boilers, raw material for petroleum industry, Bunker fuel. The solid product obtained in the reactor is coke which can be used as fuel for thermal power plants and metallurgical industries.
The present invention concerns also a device for conversion of organic waste, in particular chopped waste plastics, in which the charge is liquefied and then cracked giving the product in the gaseous phase, wherein the charge is introduced into a reactor with a hot bath, then the gaseous products of the decomposition are collected at the top, the said device containing a housing, a heating system and a product collecting system as expressed in claims.
The novel construction of the housing ensures right isolation and at the same time gives easy access to the interior of the device. The novel construction of the heating system allows to fully utilize the heating energy and its supply to the whole volume of the inorganic medium and the reacting. It provides the full control over the temperature of the liquid fraction and prevents the reaction mass and impurities from entering in the cooling pipes which ensures the long life of the bath.
The method and the device according to the present invention have been realized in the industrial scale. According to the present invention, the process of catalytic conversion takes place continuously. The thermo-
catalytic reactions in the reaction vessel do not require high pressure or addition of hydrogen. The catalyst is cheap. Spent catalyst can be recycled 1 to 2 times. Plastic wastes used as the charge do not require commissioning (except pre-cutting), purification or fractionation. Only one heating source is used to heat all apparatuses in the technological production line. The output product is of high quality and the waste /by product/ is potentially useful as wax for starting material for candle production.
DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
Plastics after cleaning are shredded into small pieces, charged into a sealed reactor with a proportionate amount of catalyst and is reacted in closed atmosphere under vacuum at a temperature of about 300 to 400 °C.
Figure 1 shows the laboratory setup for pyrolysis of about 2 kg of waste plastics wherein shredded plastics and catalyst 14 is charged into a 2 necked round bottom flask 1 placed in heating mantle 8 regulated by a temperature regulator 9. The round bottom flask 1 is sealed and have a thermometer 10 and a fume outlet 2 connected to cold water condenser 3 running cold water from inlet 11 to outlet 12. The liquid condensed 13 is collected in second 2 necked round bottom flask 4 placed in an Ice bath 7. The second round bottom flask 4 is fitted with extra fitting 5 and a gas burner 6 to test the highly volatile gases.
Figure 2 describes the pyrolysis reactor for large scale operation. The reactor is made of stainless steel with the capacity to convert 10 KG waste plastics. The reactor is cylindrical in shape with the inner diameter of 205 mm and outer diameter of 210 mm. The height of reactor is 437 mm and with the support the height is 586 mm. The height of the total reactor including magnetic stirrer and stand is 746 mm. Shredded plastics and catalyst is charged into a Distillation flask 37 with heating mantle 34. The Distillation flask 37 is sealed and sludge drain 15, washer thermocouple 36, catalyst baffle 33, insulation jacket 35, safety valve 18, stirring mechanism 31 and a fume outlet 29 connected to cold water condenser 26 running cold water from inlet 25 to outlet 27. The liquid condensed is collected in receiver vessel 23 placed in an Ice bath and having drain
valve 21, level indicator 22, pressure gauge 24 and is connected to
vacuum pump 17 by silicon tubing 16 through a vacuum valve 20. The
receiver vessel 23 is fitted with safety valve 18 through silicon tubing 16
to a secondary glass vessel of 2 litres for the collection of highly volatile
After addition of plastic waste material in the reactor all valves are closed
and air removed from the system with the help of a vacuum pump.
Figure 3 describes the receiver vessel and is self explanatory.
Figure 4 describes the distillation flask and is self explanatory.
Figure 5 describes the complete distillation unit and is self explanatory.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
According to the present invention, the catalyst is charged into a pyrolysis hot bath. Waste plastic is charged into the sealed pyrolysis reactor, and it is directly mixed with the hot catalyst to perform a reaction of pyrolysis and catalytic cracking in absence of oxygen. The materials are decomposed into gaseous hydrocarbons and residues. Gaseous substances from the reaction are collected by means of the conventional methods as described in the prior arts so as to obtain lower hydrocarbons (gasoline, diesel and the like).
In the above-mentioned process, the feedstock is mixed directly with
catalyst, where pyrolysis and the catalytic cracking takes place at the
Said catalyst is made as follows: 10 - 80 % Silicate, 0-45 % Zeolite, 0 -10 % transition metals, 0-25 % metal oxides, 0-10 % metal carbonates and 0-50 % fuller's earth.
Catalyst is charged into pyrolysis reactor heated to 350 °C continuously with a hot bath. The materials are mixed directly with the catalyst in the reactor to undergo a pyrolytic reaction and a catalytic cracking. Gaseous hydrocarbons generated from the reaction move forward to enter a condenser maintained at lower temperature with the help of cold water.
Gaseous hydrocarbons with small molecules may be fractionated in a fractional column to obtain gasoline, kerosene, diesel, lubricant oil and heavy oil by means of a conventional process.
The reaction of pyrolysis and catalytic cracking is conducted under vacuum, and the temperature of the catalyst is controlled at 300 - 400 °C, preferably at 375 °C.
The charge is in the form of all types of waste plastics. The technological process is described, in examples, for waste polyolefin plastics. The plastics are delivered in the form of bales and rolls and they are stored in a warehouse. The bales undergo pre-cutting or could be loosened. The charge of waste plastics is fed in portions of 0.50 kg. The compressed portion of plastics is then introduced into the reactor vessel, containing catalyst mixture. In the presence of the catalyst and under the influence of temperature, the process of bond cleavage takes place in the polymers components of the charge. In the decomposition of the polyolefin waste, the mixture of hydrocarbons from methane CH4 to C30H62 is obtained. At the process temperature of 300 - 400 °C the decomposition products comprises of the gas/vapour phase. The vapours formed on catalytic cracking are condensed through a condenser and the liquid is collected in a separate container through a receiving tank. Catalytic cracking delivers to a wide range of products that are subjected to subsequent separations at different temperatures. Faster heating leads to more gases whereas slow and steady heat increases the yield of liquids.
Catalyst can be reused 1 to 2 times. Spent catalyst can be removed from sludge by gravity and washing.
Following catalysts are used
1. Silicates: 10 to 85 % Silicates help in breaking / cleavage of higher hydrocarbons to lower hydrocarbons. Silicates have more surface area available for hydrocarbons cracking because of porosity.
2. Zeolite: 0 to 45 % Zeolites help in breaking / cleavage of higher
hydrocarbons to lower hydrocarbons. Zeolites have more surface
area available for hydrocarbons cracking.
3. Metal Oxides: 0 to 25 % Metal Oxides are good for side chain
cleavage and random cleavage resulting in large number of
4. Metal carbonates: 0 to 10 % Metal carbonates are good for side
chain cleavage resulting in large number of monomer molecules.
5. Metal carbide: 0 to 10 % Silicone carbide is good for side chain
cleavage resulting in large number of monomer molecules.
6. Charcoal: 0 to 40 %. Charcoal helps in decolourisation.
7. Fuller's earth: 0 to 50 % Fuller's earth helps in decolourisation and
Total quantity of the catalyst to be used is 2 to 10 % of the total mass of the reactants in the reactor. As the quantity of catalyst is increased with the proportion of the total mass, the total reaction time is reduced and the yield is more. As the temperature of the reaction is increased the yield percentage is more. However the temperature should not exceed 400 °C as more of gases will be produced resulting in the reduction of liquid fuel yield.
Total time for the completion of reaction ranges from 1.5 to 3 hours, which is visibly indicated by stopping of liquids being collected in the receiver vessel.
Random depolymerisation of the plastic materials gives
1. Liquid fuel: 80 - 85 % Mixture of gasoline, diesel, kerosene and
2. Gaseous fuel: 5 to 10 %.
3. Solid fuel: 2-10 % coke.
All types of plastic waste like Polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyethylene terpthalate, ABS, polycarbonates, polyvinyl chloride, hospital waste and the like can be used to produce liquid fuel. About 1 kg of plastic waste gives about 1.1 litre of liquid fuel with density 0.725 to 0.8 along with by products of gas and coke.
While using PVC waste Dioxin formation is ruled out because the reaction is carried out in the absence of oxygen (under vacuum), which is the prime requirement for Dioxin formation. Chlorine produced is removed by scrubbing the gases in water.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons can be treated with H2 in the presence of platinum to get saturated hydrocarbons.
Thus it is apparent that there has been provided, in accordance with the invention, a process and a device that fully satisfies the objects, aims, and advantages set forth above. While the invention has been described in conjunction with specific embodiments thereof, it is evident that many alternatives, modifications, and variations will be apparent to those skilled in the art in light of the foregoing description. Accordingly, it is intended to embrace all such alternatives, modifications, and variations as fall within the spirit and broad scope of the appended claims.
The catalytic decomposition was performed in hot bath, usually at temperatures between 250 and 400 degree C.
A laboratory setup was used for preliminary experimentation which consisted of a thermally regulated flask with water condenser. The flask temperature was regulated to within 350 degree C and the overhead distillate condensed with 30 degree C water.
The range of temperatures was 250 to 400 degree C for most plastics and the reaction time varied up to 3 hour in 30 minute increments.
The important individual results which varied with the type of plastic were as follows:
PE: With 5 % catalyst and 95 % PE starting and a 90 - 120 minute operating time, little overhead distillate was condensed below 15 degree. C but here 82 % of the total product mix was overhead distillate. At 365 degree C 82 % was distillate indicates 82 % process efficiency. Heavy oil containing some decomposition products remained in the flask. For all temperatures small amount of coke was produced and the overhead gas was less than 10 %. For the time varying experimentation at 365 degree C, the overhead distillate increased with time peaking at 82 % at one hour. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry detailed study of the 350 degree C overhead distillate indicated over 15 organic compounds and the 48 % majority was classified as a mixture of C7 to Cu substituted carbon compounds.
PP: With 10 % catalyst and 90 % PP starting and a 90 - 180 minute operating time, little overhead distillate was condensed below 25 degree C but here 85 % of the total product mix was overhead distillate. At 385 degree C 85 % was distillate indicates 85 % process efficiency. Heavy oil containing some decomposition products remained in the flask. For all temperatures small amount of coke was produced and the overhead gas
was less than 10 %. For the time varying experimentation at 385 degree C, the overhead distillate increased with time peaking at 83 % at one hour. A gas chromatography / mass spectrometry detailed study of the 385 degree C overhead distillate indicated over 15 organic compounds and the 48 % majority was classified as a mixture of C7 to Cu substituted carbon compounds.
PVC: With 10 % catalyst and 90 % PVC starting and a 90 - 150 minute operating time, little overhead distillate was condensed below 15 degree C but here 78 % of the total product mix was overhead distillate. At 325 degree C 85 % was distillate indicates 85 % process efficiency. Heavy oil containing some decomposition products remained in the flask. For all temperatures small measurable coke was produced and the overhead gas was less than 8 %. For the time varying experimentation at 360 degree C, the overhead distillate increased with time peaking at 83 % at one hour. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry detailed study of the 360 degree C overhead distillate indicated over 15 organic compounds and the 45 % majority was classified as a mixture of C7 to Cu substituted carbon compounds.
PET: With 8 % catalyst and 92 % PET starting and a 90 - 180 minute operating time, little overhead distillate was condensed below 15 degree. C but here 90 % of the total product mix was overhead distillate. At 385 degree C 90 % was distillate indicates 90 % process efficiency. Heavy oil containing some decomposition products remained in the flask. For all temperatures small amount of coke was produced and the overhead gas was less than 10 %. For the time varying experimentation at 385 degree C, the overhead distillate increased with time peaking at 83 % at one hour. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry detailed study of the 385 degree C overhead distillate indicated over 15 organic compounds and the 48 % majority was classified as a mixture of C7 to C11 substituted carbon compounds.
With 2 to 4 % of metal silicates and metal oxides (1: 0.25) and 2 to 5 % of Fullers Earth and lkg of plastic as starting material and a 90 - 180 minute operating time, little overhead distillate was condensed below 15 degree. C but here 85 % of the total product mix was overhead distillate. At 375 degree C 85 % was distillate indicates 85 % process efficiency. Heavy oil containing some decomposition products remained in the flask. For all temperatures 5 to 10 % coke was produced and the overhead gas was less than 10 %. For the time varying experimentation at 350 to 400 degree C, the overhead distillate increased with time peaking at 83 % at one hour. A detailed study of the 375 degree C overhead distillate indicated yields as below.
Liquid hydrocarbons 80 to 90 %
Gas 5 to 15 %
Solid coke 2 to 10 %
With 2 % of metal silicates and metal (1: 0.25) and 2 to 4 % of Fullers Earth and lkg of plastic as starting material and a 90 - 180 minute operating time, little overhead distillate was condensed below 25 degree. C but here 85 % of the total product mix was overhead distillate. At 375 degree C 85 % was distillate indicates 85 % process efficiency. Heavy oil containing some decomposition products remained in the flask. For all temperatures 5 to 10 % coke was produced and the overhead gas was less than 10 %. For the time varying experimentation at 375 to 400 degree C, the overhead distillate increased with time peaking at 86 % at one hour. A detailed study of the 375 degree C overhead distillate indicated yields as below.
Liquid hydrocarbons : 75 to 85%
Gas - LPG type 5 to 10 %
Solid coke 5 to 15 %
Calorific Value of Liquid hydrocarbons : ~ 11000 KCal/ Kg
Solid fuel ~ 6000 kcal/kg
|Indian Patent Application Number||1281/CHE/2006|
|PG Journal Number||35/2013|
|Date of Filing||24-Jul-2006|
|Name of Patentee||DR. DHESINGH SIVARAJ|
|Applicant Address||5/407, HONNI ILLAM, KANNADASAN STREET, MOGAPPAIR (WEST), CHENNAI-37.|
|PCT International Classification Number||B29B|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|