Title of Invention

APPARATUS FOR MEASURING THE ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE OF A PORTION OF SKIN, AND FOR DETECTING IMPRECISE PLACEMENT OF THE PORTION OF SKIN ONTO SENSORS ADAPTED FOR SUCH MEASUREMENTS AND DISPOSED ON A SURFACE OF SAID APPARATUS

Abstract The invention relates to a device for determining the non precise placement of measuring sites on measuring sensors (1, 2, 3) and for reducing measuring errors, which result from the movement between the measuring sites and the measuring sensors (1,2, 3) when measuring the most diverse quantities to be measured, with the aim of creating robust measuring systems for recording measured values under real or challenging conditions. The invention is characterized by: detecting whether and which sensor elements (7, 8, 9) are covered and thus in contact with the site to be measured; tracking and/or adapting the sensor elements (7, 8, 9) so that the contact is not interrupted even during movements, and; the resilient arrangement of the contacts for constantly maintaining the mechanical bearing pressure when measuring the electrical skin resistance. The measurement data are processed further by software that determines the area of contact (5) from the signals from the device (4) and from the knowledge of the arrangement of the measuring elements, and uses the completely covered sensor elements (1, 2, 3) determined thereby in order to conduct measurements with the fewest possible number of errors.
Full Text APPARATUS FOR MEASURING THE ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE OF A PORTION OF SKIN AND FOR
DETECTING IMPRECISE PLACEMENT OF THE PORTION OF SKIN ONTO SENSORS ADAPTED FOR
SUCH MEASUREMENTS AND DISPOSED ON A SURFACE OF SAID APPARATUS
1. Description
1.1. Introduction
The present invention applies to acquiring measuring values as accurately as possible from a testing site of interest.
Physiological values from the human or animal body (e.g. skin resistance, temperature, circulation, etc.) may be given
as examples. The sensors for these values can be mounted on items like a steering device or control device, a data
input device, a mobile data processing unit or a mobile telephone, which the user uses while the measurement [is
taken.
This has diverse applications, such as monitoring certain conditions, stress monitoring, relaxation training, fitness
training, games, performance improvement, diagnostics and training of bodily functions to heal and alleviate
discomfort and sicknesses, work ergonomic applications etc.
Skin resistance and temperature are the values exemplarily used to illustrate the descriptions.
As a matter of principle, other values such as circulation, oxygen saturation, surface hardness, electrical activity, heat
dissipation etc. as well as values from other surfaces than the human or animal body surfaces can be measured with
this invention, with a reduction of measuring errors.
The resulting measured values and the auxiliary values are measured and further processed in data processing devices.
1.2. State of the art
1.2.1. Anticipations
As shown in patent JP11118636A (Tokai Rika Denki KK), April 30th 1999 (30.04.99) a multitude of sensor elements
is used in one sensor device, the sensor elements of which are used together. Here sensors of the same type are used
which are correlated with each other and whose signals are processed concertedly. From this output values are
calculated, which otherwise could not be obtained from one sensor alone. The invention describes a method,| to
produce a well-protected and miniaturized sensor array.
The patent JP9215667A (Nippon Koden Corp.), August 19th 1997 (19.08.97) describes a multitude of sensors a
measuring device, which together deliver a summary result. For the described EKG-sensor, three kinds of sensors
work together (inverting contact, not inverting contact and reference contact of an instrumentation amplifier); to
measure a value from the skin as accurately as possible. The joint structure in one device allows easy manageability
and reduces measuring errors. The spring-mounted arrangement of the contacts allows an adaptation to the skin
surface.

The novelty of the present invention when compared to the two anticipations is, that
two kinds of sensors or two kinds of data, which can be derived from sensors, are used
in a shared sensor element. In doing so one sensor's information and the known
geometrical position of the sensors relative to each other are used to evaluate the
correctness of the other sensor's information (if and which sensor elements have
contact, if and which sensor elements are completely covered).
To further reduce measurement errors, the sensor elements are also movable and/or
pliable and therefore can follow the test site during movements. Additionally, for the
measurement of the skin resistance to obtain an as advantageously steady as possible
bearing pressure, the contact areas or the complete sensor are spring-mounted.
1.2.2. Other publications
The measurement of physiological values under difficult circumstances is described in
DE 199 59 576 A1. It does not, however, include the special contact, coverage and
complete coverage, and prevention of interrupted contact assuring mechanisms and, in
the case of the skin resistance, the steady bearing pressure in the framework of such a
device.
In the example of a physiological measurement on the skin in EP1 109 382 A2, assuring
mechanisms are described that ensure contact through two different sensor systems.
However none are described for coverage and complete coverage, prevention of
interrupted contact,and in the case of skin resistance, the steady contact pressure in the framework of such a device.
As shown in US 6067 468, the application of the sensors is taken for granted. The users
usually are advised to be sure to have a correct and steady application of sensor
elements and to make as little as possible or no movements at all during the
measurement.
1.3.Problem
Basically, all measurement values are measured with corresponding measurement
sensors. Sensors do have a geometric dimension and have to be in one way or other in
contact or interaction with the testing site (corresponding to the kind of sensor element
used).
While taking measurement values from a testing site which does not accurately fit the
sensor elements, and/or is moving, as in the case with a user who uses a device with one
or more mounted sensors, the following main problems make a simple and reliable
measurement inaccurate or even impossible:
1. Problem of detecting the contact of the sensor element:
To obtain useful measured values, one has to determine whether a testing site is
contacting the sensor elements at all. If the sensor has multiple sensor elements, it
needs to be determined which of these sensor elements are in contact with the
testing site. Therefore what needs to be detected is, whether and which sensor
elements are in contact with the testing site.
2. Problem of the complete coverage of sensors:
Sensor elements have a geometric dimension, a size. This implies, that under some

circumstances, especially when the testing site is not perfectly fitting the sensors or
during movements, sensors will not be completely covered or not completely
covered at all times by the testing site, although a contact of the testing site with the
sensor elements as such is given. This leads to large measuring errors.
Further problems, preventing a simple and reliable measurement or making it
impossible:
3. Problem of loosing contact during movements:
If sensor elements are completely covered and if a movement between them and the
testing site occurs during the measurement, be it a movement of the sensor or be it a
movement of the testing site, measuring errors can happen due to lost contact. This
is the case when sensor elements are stationary on a testing site as well as when they
are moved on a testing site.
4. Problem of the contact bearing pressure for skin resistance:
In the case of the physiological measuring value skin resistance, changes of the
value of the skin resistance measurement signal are also possible through a change
of the bearing pressure of the sensors on the skin. This happens for example
through having more or less pressure of the skin onto the sensors. This leads to
measuring errors in the skin resistance measurement.
The invention solves the problems described above.
1.4.Invention to solve the problems described above
1.4.1. Solving the problems of detecting sensor element contact and the
complete coverage of the sensor elements
1.4.1.1. By means of main sensor elements and auxiliary sensor
elements
The invention is comprised of the following: The mounted sensor elements are divided
into main sensor elements and auxiliary sensor elements. There are a number of main
and auxiliary sensor elements on the sensor surface, which touches the testing site. The
geometrical position of the main and the auxiliary sensor elements in relation to each
other is known to the measuring system. If necessary, one or more common reference
sensors can be used.
Once it has detected which auxiliary sensors the testing site touches, the measuring
system can deduce the contact area. All main sensors that lie in that ascertained contact
area are completely covered and their signals are used for the actual measurement. For
this, and this is very favorable, the auxiliary sensor elements do not need complete
coverage. This means they only need to give rough values, such as being in contact or
not being in contact.
Differentiation between the signals of the main sensor elements and the signals of the
auxiliary sensor elements for the data processing system has to be ensured. This can be
solved for example by using direct current for the auxiliary sensors and alternating
current for the main sensors. Although the electrical signals superimpose each other on
the testing site they can be distinguished into signals from the auxiliary sensors and
signals from the main sensors and thereby the contact area can be determined.

Alternatively, the measurements that detect the contact of the sensor elements and those
accomplishing the main measurement can be done with the same measurement value
and also with the same sensor elements but in consecutive measurements. In that case
it is assumed that during the main measurements (between the detection measurements)
the contact of the sensors with the testing site does not change.
1.1.1.1.1. Example: Thumb Sensor for a computer mouse
A thumb sensor for a computer mouse is given as an example. See Fig. 1 "schematic
view of the detection of the complete coverage for the thumb sensor of a computer
mouse".
To ensure that all the main sensor elements, (1) and (2) for the skin resistance and (3)
for the temperature, are firstly covered and secondly covered completely, and are
therefore able to fulfill their function as accurately as possible, this sensor is comprised
as follows: Several auxiliary sensor elements are arranged geometrically around the
main sensor elements, e.g. three (7) (8) (9). The auxiliary sensors define the contact
area (5), within which the main sensor elements are located. Once it has been detected
that all the auxiliary sensors are contacted, the main sensor elements (1) (2) (3), which
are arranged geometrically within the contact area, are ensured to be covered and
covered completely by the contacting skin surface. For this effect, the auxiliary sensors
need not to be completely covered. They only need to deliver rough measurement
values, like contact or no contact.
The areas created by the auxiliary sensors and the main sensor elements need not be
completely overlapping. It needs only to be ensured through the design, that by covering
the auxiliary sensors, the contact area for the main sensors is so large that the main
sensors are lying within it and therefore are completely covered. For example, at the
thumb creating a triangular area by the auxiliary sensors necessarily ensures that the
main sensor elements, which extend somewhat beyond that triangular area, are correctly
covered. This is because the pattern of a thumb on a sensor, which is mounted at the
side of a computer mouse, is oval. If all 3 auxiliary sensors are covered, one can deduce
that the main sensors, which extend somewhat beyond the triangular area, are also
completely covered.
The differentiation between the signals of the main sensor elements and the signals of
the auxiliary sensor elements needs to be ensured, see Fig. 2 "example of a signal flow
from auxiliary sensor elements and main sensor elements for a thumb sensor of a
computer mouse". In the case of this example for the measurement of the skin
resistance at the thumb sensor (13) according to Fig. 1 this could be realized by utilizing
a detection with alternating current (10) for the auxiliary sensor elements (7), (8), (9)
and a detection with direct current (11) for the main sensor elements (1) (2). These
signals are relatively easy to distinguish from each other. Auxiliary sensor elements and
main sensor elements both have a measurement module whose output'signals are
delivered for analysis to the data processing system (12). This analysis includes the
coverage detection and the measurement with completely covered main sensors.
Alternatively the measurements with the auxiliary sensors to detect the contact of the
sensor elements and those accomplishing the main measurement can be done with the
same measurement value in consecutive measurements. Thereby it is assumed that
during the main measurements (between the detection measurements) the contact of the
sensors with the testing site is not changing.

Alternatively, the measurements that detect the contact of the sensor elements and those
accomplishing the main measurement can be done with the same measurement value and
also with the same sensor elements but in consecutive measurements. In that case it is
assumed that during the main measurements (between the detection measurements) the
contact of the sensors with the testing site does not change.
Further characteristics of the invention will be made clear by the detailed
description that follows, referring to exemplary embodiments thereof, illustrated in the
accompanying drawings, in which :
Fig. 1 depicts a schematic view of detection of complete coverage for a thumb
sensor of a computer mouse ;
Fig. 2 depicts a block diagram showing an example of a signal flow from
auxiliary sensor elements and main sensor elements for the thumb sensor of the computer
mouse;
Fig. 3 depicts a schematic side view and an upper view of a finger sensor with
common reference electrode for main and auxiliary sensors ;
Fig. 4 depicts a schematic view of sensors to detect a contact area on a steering
wheel;
Fig. 5a depicts a schematic view of a device to detect the contact area through
measurements with sensor elements to each other;
Fig. 5b depicts a schematic view of the contact area after coverage detection with
measurements of the elements to each other ;
Fig. 6 depicts a view of a moving device with sensor elements for tracking ;
Fig. 7 depicts a view onto moveable sensor elements for adjusting to a testing site;
Fig. 8 depicts a view onto a moving, spring-mounted device with the sensor
elements for tracking and in the case of a skin resistance for keeping the pressure
constant;
Fig. 9 depicts spring-mounted contact areas for skin resistance measurement;
Fig. 10 depicts spring-mounted contact areas for measurement in a fixed matrix of
auxiliary sensors to keep the bearing pressure constant during measurement of the skin
resistance.

1.1.1.1.1. Example: Thumb Sensor for a computer mouse
A thumb sensor for a computer mouse is given as an example. See Fig. 1 "schematic
view of the detection of the complete coverage for the thumb sensor of a computer
mouse".
To ensure that all the main sensor elements, (1) and (2) for the skin resistance and (3) for
the temperature, are firstly covered and secondly covered completely, and are therefore
able to fulfill their function as accurately as possible, this sensor is comprised as follows:
Several auxiliary sensor elements are arranged geometrically around the main sensor
elements, e.g. three (7) (8) (9). The auxiliary sensors define the contact area (5), within
which the main sensor elements are located. Once it has been detected that all the
auxiliary sensors are contacted, the main sensor elements (1) (2) (3), which are arranged
geometrically within the contact area, are ensured to be covered and covered completely
by the contacting skin surface. For this effect, the auxiliary sensors need not to be
completely covered. They only need to deliver rough measurement values, like contact or
no contact.
The areas created by the auxiliary sensors and the main sensor elements need not be
completely overlapping. It needs only to be ensured through the design, that by covering
the auxiliary sensors, the contact area for the main sensors is so large that the main
sensors are lying within it and therefore are completely covered. For example, at the
thumb creating a triangular area by the auxiliary sensors necessarily ensures that the main
sensor elements, which extend somewhat beyond that triangular area, are correctly
covered. This is because the pattern of a thumb on a sensor, which is mounted at the side
of a computer mouse, is oval. If all 3 auxiliary sensors are covered, one can deduce that
the main sensors, which extend somewhat beyond the triangular area, are also completely
covered.
The differentiation between the signals of the main sensor elements and the signals of the
auxiliary sensor elements needs to be ensured, see Fig. 2 "example of a signal flow from
auxiliary sensor elements and main sensor elements for a thumb sensor of a computer
mouse". In the case of this example for the measurement of the skin resistance at the
thumb sensor (13) according to Fig. 1 this could be realized by utilizing a detection with
alternating current (10) for the auxiliary sensor elements (7), (8), (9) and a detection with
direct current (11) for the main sensor elements (1) (2). These signals are relatively easy
to distinguish from each other. Auxiliary sensor elements and main sensor elements both
have a measurement module whose output signals are delivered for analysis to the data
processing system (12). This analysis includes the coverage detection and the
measurement with completely covered main sensors.
Alternatively the measurements with the auxiliary sensors to detect the contact of the
sensor elements and those accomplishing the main measurement can be done with the
same measurement value in consecutive measurements. Thereby it is assumed that during
the main measurements (between the detection measurements) the contact of the sensors
with the testing site is not changing.

1.1.1.1.2. Example Finger Sensor
As a further example a finger sensor for a physiological measuring system according to
Fig. 3 "schematic side view and upper view of a finger sensor with common reference
electrode for main and auxiliary sensors" is given to explain, that the main and auxiliary
sensors can have an electrode in common and that through the geometrical arrangement
the complete coverage for the main measurement can be granted nevertheless.
The sensor (4) with a finger stop (25) is applied to the skin of a fingertip with its
contact surface (5), the contact pattern of the contact area is oblong.
When contact is detected between the auxiliary sensor element (7) and the contact area
(2) by means of a measurement, it is assured, that the main sensor element (1) is
completely covered. By virtue of the knowledge of the position and the constructive
size of the sensor which through the resting obstacle can only be applied to a finger tip
it is assured, that the sensor element (2) is completely covered, in this case used as main
sensor element as well as auxiliary sensor element, and thus a correct measurement
between the sensor elements (1) and (2) can be performed.
The differentiation between the signals of the main sensor elements and the signals of
the auxiliary sensor elements again can occur e.g. through the use of alternating current
for the auxiliary sensor elements and through direct current for the main sensor
elements.
Alternatively the measurements with the auxiliary sensor to detect the contact of the
sensor elements and those accomplishing the main measurement can be done with the
same measurement value (e.g. direct current) in consecutive measurements. Thereby it
is assumed that during the main measurements (between the detection measurements)
the contact of the sensors with the testing site is not changing.
1.1.1.1.3. Example Steering Wheel
As a further example for a sensor a steering wheel with a mounted multitude of sensor
elements for the measurement of skin resistance is given. In Fig. 4 "schematic view of
the sensors to detect the contact area on a steering wheel" the area to touch from the
steering wheel is schematically shown unrolled as rectangle. To detect which main
sensor elements (15, white) are covered through the testing site skin (of the touching
hand) and thus are able to fulfill their function as accurately as possible, the main sensor
elements are placed between the auxiliary sensor elements (16, dotted). When it is
detected which auxiliary sensors are touched by the skin, this results for the measuring
system in the contact area (14). All main sensors within this contact area are completely
covered and are used for the actual measurement. For this the auxiliary sensors do not
need to be completely covered, they have to give only rough data such as contact or no
contact.
The differentiation between the signals of the main sensor elements and the signals of
the auxiliary sensor elements again can occur through e.g. the use of alternating current
for the auxiliary sensor elements and through direct current for the main sensor
elements. Or the measurements can be performed with the same measurement value
(e.g. direct current) in consecutive measurements. Thereby it is assumed that during the
main measurements (between the detection measurements) the contact of the sensors
with the testing site is not changing.

1.4.1.5. By means of correlation of the sensor elements with each other
Here the sensor elements are not divided into main sensors and auxiliary sensors. The
invention comprises a multitude of sensors, which are mounted on the sensor surface,
which shall be touched. The geometric position of the sensor elements to each other is
known to the measuring system.
To detect, which sensor elements are covered and can fulfill their function as accurately
as possible this measuring device comprises, that every sensor element is sampled in
the form of a matrix to detect with an auxiliary medium like current, light or the like or
an other characteristic like temperature if and where a contact with the testing site takes
place.
Through this procedure results the contact area of the covered sensor elements. All
sensor elements within this contact area are completely covered and are used for the
actual measurement. Attention needs to be applied to sensor elements at the fringe of
the contact area, their measuring values are either to be rejected or, if possible, to be
corrected.
The information of the position of the contact area itself can also be used for further
processing.
As an example again a steering wheel is given and referred to Fig. 5 a "schematic view
of the device to detect the contact area through measurements with the sensor elements
to each other". Here a small part of the area to be touched is shown unrolled from the
steering wheel as a rectangle, the contact area (15) touched by the skin shall be
detected. The sensor elements are arranged in a matrix, e.g. 100 sensors for each row, in
the figure the number of the sensor element is given in the inside of the respective
sensor element. Now, with one sensor element after the other, here e.g. Nr. 216 with its
geometrically surrounding elements 115, 116, 117, 215, 217, 315, 316 and 317,
measurements are performed, sampled. In the example the processing of the measured
values results in contact across the testing site with the elements 117, 217, 316 and 317.
With this information the system can detect, that the geometrical borderline of the
testing site runs through the elements 117, 216, 316 and (after a measurement with
element 316 and its surrounding elements) 416.
The detected contact area (17, dotted colored sensor elements) in Fig. 5 b "schematic
view of the contact area after the coverage detection with measurements of the elements
to each other" with completely covered sensors is therefore detected to be to the right
from the dotted sensors 118, 217, 218, 317, 318, 417, 418. After the performance of all
measurements of all sensor elements with their respective surrounding sensor elements
the complete contact area can be detected. With this information the actual main
measurement is performed as accurately as possible during which it is assumed that the
contact area is not changing. In addition, if necessary, the information about the
position of the contact area is processed.
As a variation the sampling for each sensor element can be performed as a measurement
with one or more common reference electrodes. Any covered sensor element can be
used as reference electrode. These reference electrodes could even be designated during
a measurement, when in a first measurement sequence one or more covered sensor

elements are detected which are used as reference electrodes for the next measurement
sequence.
1.4.2. Solution of the problem of losing contact during movements through
tracking or molding of the sensor elements
The sensor elements need to make good contact with the testing site, the contact needs
to be warranted (sensor stationary on one testing site or moving on a testing site). In the
case of the first contact and movement during the measurement this is solved by the
invention by tracking and/or a molding of the sensor elements.
Therefore the invention comprises tracking the sensor elements as far as possible
according to the movements to be expected in order to not lose contact with the testing
site and thus to avoid measuring errors.
In addition or alternatively the invention comprises that sensor elements themselves can
be formed to the form of the testing site towarrant a correct contact. Thereby the sensor
elements are pliable and/or track-able and thus fit to the testing site, even during
movements.
This can be done with and without using a fixed matrix of auxiliary sensors. Here the
auxiliary sensors are designed as being not moveable and serve as counter bearing to
bear the mechanical forces of the testing site.
1.4.2.1. Example rocker for a thumb sensor of a computer mouse
In Fig. 6 "view of a moving device with sensor elements for tracking" the sensor
elements (1), (2) for the skin resistance and (3) for the temperature are built into the
vertical surface of a moving device (4) (a teeter). This teeter is inserted into the PC-
mouse (6) in the region of the thumb and follows the thumb in his movements during
work with the PC-mouse. Through this tracking the contact between sensor elements
and skin is granted within a wide range.
Alternatively or additionally the sensor elements (1), (2), (3) can be adjusted to the
surface form of the skin to grant a correct contact to the skin, see Fig. 7 "view onto
moveable sensor elements for adjusting to the testing site". Here the sensor elements
are moving and equipped with springs (18) and adjust themselves to the skin (26), even
during movements.
Alternatively or additionally the sensor elements (1), (2), (3) themselves can be adjusted
to the surface form of the skin to assure a fitting contact to the skin. Here the sensor
elements themselves are pliable. With a lightpressure they take on the form of the skin
site and adjust themselves to the skin even during movements. For this the material of
the sensor elements has to be pliable.
1.4.2.2. Examples of application at joysticks, game consoles, mobile
data processing units and mobile telephones
A joystick is a computer input device operated like a control stick of an airplane, a
game console is usually used to control electronic games with input buttons.
According to Fig. 8 "view onto a moving, spring-mounted device with sensor elements
for tracking and in the case of the skin resistance for keeping the pressure constant", in
this example sensor elements are inserted in a moving device. This is here a teeter (22),

which can be pressed inwards along a vertical guide, which is spring-mounted by the
spring (20). This sensor is for example inserted into the joystick (22), the mobile data
processing unit or the mobile phone in the area of the heel of the hand and follows the
skin during movements as it is used.
Alternatively or additionally the sensor elements (1), (2), (3) themselves can be adjusted
to the surface form of the skin to grant a correct contact to the skin, similar as in Fig. 7
for the computer mouse. Here the sensor elements are pliable and/or spring-mounted
moveable and thus adjust to the skin, even during movements.
For not so strict demands on the precision of the measurement the tracking can be
omitted, the sensor elements then are integrated in a not moveable manner (e.g. in the
region of the device which reaches the palm of the hand).
1.4.3. Solution of the bearing pressure problem through keeping the pressure
constant for the skin resistance measurement
A factor in measuring the electric resistance of the skin is the pressure the contact areas
bear onto the skin. If this pressure changes during the measurement by a more or less
firm grip of the user, changes in the data of the electrical auxiliary physical value to
register the skin resistance can occur, which are not caused by a change of the skin
resistance (measuring error). Therefore the invention comprises spring-mounted contact
areas for the skin resistance. Changes of pressure of the skin site are transferred to the
material surrounding the spring-mounted contact areas. Therefore the bearing pressure
of the contact areas onto the skin depends in a wide range only on the spring, which
produces a constant bearing pressure.
In Fig. 9 "spring-mounted contact areas for the skin resistance measurement" the
spring-mounted sensor elements (1) or (2) are assembled in the sensor (4) onto which
the skin (5) presses. Through the spring (23) the constant bearing pressure of the main
sensors is created, hereby enabling the main sensor to measure as accurately as possible.
Pressure changes are transferred only to the surrounding sensor material (4).
In the example according to Fig. 10 "spring-mounted contact areas for the measurement
in a fixed matrix of auxiliary sensors to keep the bearing pressure constant during
measurement of the skin resistance" this can be performed with a fixed matrix of
auxiliary sensors. Here the skin (5) is positioned through the fixed auxiliary sensors (26,
narrowly dotted), onto which the changes in pressure are transferred. For the measuring
signals of the auxiliary sensors the constant bearing pressure is not so important as long
as they are contacted at all. The (dotted) main sensors (27) are pressed against the skin
with the springs (24). Through the positioning of the skin (5) through contacting the
auxiliary sensors a constant bearing pressure results for the main sensors which now
can measure with a constant bearing pressure as accurately as possible.
Alternatively the invention comprises a spring-mounting of the complete sensor
element to keep the bearing pressure constant. If the skin site can only be in a defined
area it is possible by tracking the complete sensor element to keep the bearing pressure
constant within certain limits and thus to keep the measuring errors small.
An example would be a joystick whose spring-mounted element according to Fig. 8
reaches the skin with a somewhat constant bearing pressure as long as the hand encloses
the joystick.

1.5.Structure of the analyzing software
This describes the structure of software in a data processing unit, which processes the
measuring data of the error reducing measuring sensors.
1.5.1. Detection of coverage with auxiliary sensor elements
The analyzing software for the measuring error reducing sensors comprises, that the
contact area can be determined through the coverage detection according to chapter
1.4.1.1. Along with the positioning of the sensor elements known to the system the
states "no main and auxiliary sensor element covered", "certain main and auxiliary
sensors covered but not completely" and "certain main and auxiliary sensor elements
completely covered " can be distinguished.
In the states "no main and auxiliary sensor element covered" and "certain main and
auxiliary sensors covered but not completely" the measuring data is rejected or, if
possible, corrected, and thus measuring errors eliminated, furthermore a warning can be
given to the user and/or an action to correct the sensors can be demanded, and the
geometric position of the contact area can be processed further.
In the state "certain main and auxiliary sensor elements completely covered" the
detected covered sensor elements can be used for measurements, which are as accurate
as possible, and the geometric position of the contact area can be processed further.
1.5.2. Coverage detection of the sensor elements to each other
The analyzing software for the sensors with measurement error reducing through the
coverage detection to each other comprises that the contact area can be determined
through the coverage detection according to chapter 1.4.1.2. With the positioning of the
sensor elements, which is known to the system it can distinguish between the states "no
sensor elements covered" and "certain sensor elements covered and thus completely
covered".
In the state "no sensor elements covered" the measuring data is rejected or, if possible,
corrected, and thus measuring errors eliminated, furthermore a warning can be given to
the user and/or an action to correct the sensors can be demanded.
In the state "certain sensor elements covered and thus completely covered" the detected
covered sensor elements can be used for measurements as accurately as possible, and
the geometric position of the contact area can be processed further.

I CLAIM :
1. Measuring device to measure physiological values from a human or animal skin
surface and to detect non-precise application of testing sites onto measuring sensors and for
use in robust measuring systems which measure values under realistic and challenging
conditions; and the measuring device is comprised of:
a plurality of sensor elements for the performance of physiological measurements
whereby the sensor elements are disposed on a sensor surface and are divided into a
number of main sensors (1, 2, 3) and auxiliary sensors (7, 8, 9); and
a data processing unit (12) which is designed to differentiate between signals from the
main sensors (1, 2, 3) and the auxiliary sensors (7, 8, 9) to detect non-precise .
application of testing sites onto measuring sensors;
whereby the relative positions of the main sensors and the auxiliary sensors are
known to the data processing unit (12), so that through signals from the main sensors
and the auxiliary sensors a contact area (5) is determined within which all main
sensors are completely covered; and the data processing unit (12) is so designed that it
only uses signals from completely covered main sensors (1, 2, 3) and, if so desired,
uses the signals of completely covered auxiliary sensors (7, 8, 9) within the
determined contact area (5) for actual measurements.
2. The measuring device as claimed in claim 1,
wherein the physiological values include the skin resistance.
3. The measuring device as claimed in claim 1 or 2,
wherein said measuring device contains at least one reference sensor.
4. The measuring device as claimed in one of claims 1 to 3,
whereby the plurality of sensor elements on the sensor surface is arranged in the form
of a matrix, and the sensor elements can serve at the same time or consecutively as
main sensors (15), auxiliary sensors (16) and, if necessary, as reference sensors; and
the sensor elements are designed to measure in matrix fashion to determine a contact
area (14) of the test area which consists only of completely covered sensor elements.
5. The measuring device as claimed in one of claims 1 to 4,

whereby the plurality of sensor elements is moveable so that the contact with the test
area at first contact or during movements can be tracked and sustained, whereby
measuring errors are avoided.
6. The measuring device as claimed in one of claims 1 to 5,
whereby the main sensor elements and the auxiliary sensor elements are pliable.
7. The measuring device as claimed in one of claims 1 to 6,
whereby the plurality of sensor elements is spring mounted so that the contact with
the test area at first contact or during movements can be tracked and sustained,
whereby measuring errors are avoided.
8. The measuring device as claimed in one of claims 1 to 7,
whereby the plurality of sensor elements or the measuring device itself is/are spring
mounted in order to produce a constant as possible bearing pressure to thereby avoid
measurement errors caused by variable bearing pressure of the skin onto the sensor
elements.
9. The measuring device as claimed in one of claims 1 to 8,
whereby the data processing unit can discern between the states "no sensor elements
covered" and "certain sensor elements completely covered".
10. The measuring device as claimed in claim 9,
whereby the data processing unit creates a warning if the state "certain sensor
elements completely covered" is not attained.
11. The measuring device according to one of claims 1 to 10,
whereby the data processing unit can analyze the geometric position of the contact
area.



ABSTRACT


APPARATUS FOR MEASURING THE ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE OF A
PORTION OF SKIN AND FOR DETECTING IMPRECISE PLACEMENT OF
THE PORTION OF SKIN ONTO SENSORS ADAPTED FOR SUCH
MEASUREMENTS AND DISPOSED ON A SURFACE OF SAID APPARATUS
The invention relates to a device for determining the non precise placement of
measuring sites on measuring sensors (1, 2, 3) and for reducing measuring errors, which
result from the movement between the measuring sites and the measuring sensors (1,2,
3) when measuring the most diverse quantities to be measured, with the aim of creating
robust measuring systems for recording measured values under real or challenging
conditions. The invention is characterized by: detecting whether and which sensor
elements (7, 8, 9) are covered and thus in contact with the site to be measured; tracking
and/or adapting the sensor elements (7, 8, 9) so that the contact is not interrupted even
during movements, and; the resilient arrangement of the contacts for constantly
maintaining the mechanical bearing pressure when measuring the electrical skin
resistance. The measurement data are processed further by software that determines the
area of contact (5) from the signals from the device (4) and from the knowledge of the
arrangement of the measuring elements, and uses the completely covered sensor
elements (1, 2, 3) determined thereby in order to conduct measurements with the fewest
possible number of errors.

Documents:

1405-KOLNP-2004-(04-03-2013)-ANNEXURE TO FORM-3.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-(04-03-2013)-CORRESPONDENCE.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-(04-03-2013)-OTHERS.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-(05-03-2013)-CORRESPONDENCE.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-(05-03-2013)-DRAWINGS.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-(05-03-2013)-FORM-2.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-(11-05-2012)-CORRESPONDENCE.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-(15-10-2012)-CORRESPONDENCE.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-(28-07-2008)-FORM 13.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-abstract-1.1.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-abstract.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-CANCELLED PAGES.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-claims 1.1.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-claims-1.1.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-claims.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-CORRESPONDENCE 1.2.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-CORRESPONDENCE-1.1.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-correspondence.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-description (complete)-1.1.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-description (complete).pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-drawings-1.1.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-drawings.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-EXAMINATION REPORT 1.2.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-examination report-1.1.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-examination report.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-form 1-1.1.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-form 1.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-FORM 13 1.2.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-form 13-1.1.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-form 13.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-FORM 18 1.2.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-form 18-1.1.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-form 18.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-form 3-1.1.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-form 3.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-form 5-1.1.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-form 5.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-GPA 1.2.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-gpa-1.1.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-gpa.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-GRANTED-ABSTRACT.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-GRANTED-CLAIMS.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-GRANTED-DESCRIPTION (COMPLETE).pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-GRANTED-DRAWINGS.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-GRANTED-FORM 1.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-GRANTED-FORM 2.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-GRANTED-FORM 3.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-GRANTED-FORM 5.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-GRANTED-SPECIFICATION-COMPLETE.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-OTHERS 1.1.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-others.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-PETITION UNDER RULE 137.pdf

1405-KOLNP-2004-REPLY TO EXAMINATION REPORT 1.2.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-reply to examination report-1.1.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-reply to examination report.pdf

1405-kolnp-2004-specification.pdf


Patent Number 255791
Indian Patent Application Number 1405/KOLNP/2004
PG Journal Number 13/2013
Publication Date 29-Mar-2013
Grant Date 22-Mar-2013
Date of Filing 22-Sep-2004
Name of Patentee STOCKINGER CHRISTIAN
Applicant Address BURGHARDTGASSE 18/13, A-1200 WIEN
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 STOCKINGER CHRISTIAN BURGHARDTGASSE 18/13, A-1200 WIEN
PCT International Classification Number A61B 5/04, 5/0424
PCT International Application Number PCT/AT2003/00073
PCT International Filing date 2003-03-13
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 15 A 459/2002-2,3 2002-03-25 Austria