Title of Invention


Abstract Resources for IP networking are managed. A field is added to an operating system kernel software procedure. The field references a virtual router context (1020). Packet processing software code is modified to cause the packet processing software code to execute in accordance with the virtual router context (1070).
Cross-Reference To Related Applications
This application claims the benefit of United States Provisional Application
Serial No. 60/416,151 entitled LINUX KERNEL CHANGES FOR VIRTUAL
incorporated herein in its entirety.
This invention relates to managing resources for IP networking.
An operating system such as Linux plays an important role in a computer,
including facilitating application software's use of hardware and other resources of the
computer. In some cases, the operating system or related software may allow
resources of the computer to be shared or combined in being brought to bear on
computing tasks.
For example, various systems have been proposed to allow sharing of
computer resources. These include virtual machine monitors, machine simulators,
application emulators, operating system emulators, embedded operating systems,
legacy virtual machine monitors, and boot managers. Each of these systems is
described briefly below.
Virtual Machine Monitors
One system that was the subject of intense research in the late 1960's and
1970's came to be known as the "virtual machine monitor" (VMM). See, for example,
R- P. Goldberg, "Survey of virtual machine research," IEEE Computer, Vol. 7, No. 6,
1974. During that time, moreover, IBM Corp. adopted a virtual machine monitor for
use in its VM/370 system.

A virtual machine monitor is a thin piece of software that runs directly on top
of the hardware and virtualizes all the resources of the machine. Since the exported
interface is the same as the hardware interface of the machine, the operating system
cannot determine the presence of the VMM. Consequently, when the hardware,
interface is compatible with the underlying hardware, the same operating system can
run either on top of the virtual machine monitor or on top of the raw hardware.
Virtual machine monitors were popular at a time where hardware was scarce
and operating systems were primitive. By virtualizing all the resources of the system,
multiple independent operating systems could coexist on the same machine. For
example, each user could have her own virtual machine running a single-user
operating system.
The research in virtual machine monitors also led to the design of processor
architectures that were particularly suitable for virtualization. It allowed virtual
machine monitors to use a technique known as "direct execution," which simplifies
the implementation of the monitor and improves performance. With direct execution,
the VMM sets up the processor in a mode with reduced privileges so that the
operating system cannot directly execute its privileged instructions. The execution
with reduced privileges generates traps, for example when the operating system
attempts to issue a privileged instruction. The VMM thus needs only to correctly
emulate the traps to allow the correct execution of the operating system in the virtual
As hardware became cheaper and operating systems more sophisticated,
VMMs based on direct execution began to lose their appeal. Recently, however, they
have been proposed to solve specific problems. For example, the Hypervisor system
provides fault-tolerance, as is described by T. C. Bressoud and F. B. Schneider, in

"Hypervisor-based fault tolerance," ACM Transactions on Computer Systems
(TOCS), Vol. 14. (1), February 1996; and in U.S. Pat. No. 5,488,716 "Fault tolerant
computer system with shadow virtual processor," (Schneider, et al.). As another
example, the Disco system runs commodity operating systems on scalable
multiprocessors. See "Disco: Running Commodity Operating Systems on Scalable
Multiprocessors," E. Bugnion, S. Devine, K. Govil and M. Rosenblum, ACM
Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS), Vol. 15, No. 4, November 1997, pp. 412-
Virtual machine monitors can also provide architectural compatibility between
different processor architectures by using a technique known as either "binary
emulation" or "binary translation." In these systems, the VMM cannot use direct
execution since the virtual and underlying architectures mismatch; rather, they must
emulate the virtual architecture on top of the underlying one. This allows entire virtual
machines (operating systems and applications) written for a particular processor
architecture to run on top of one another. For example, the IBM DAISY system has
recently been proposed to run PowerPC and x86 systems on top of a VLIW
architecture. See, for example, K- Ebcioglu and E. R. Airman, "DAISY: Compilation
for 100% Architectural Compatibility," Proceedings of the 24th International
Symposium on Computer Architecture, 1997.
Machine Simulators/Emulators
Machine simulators, also known as machine-emulators, run as application
programs on top of an existing operating system. They emulate all the components of
a given computer system with enough accuracy to run an operating system and its
applications. Machine simulators are often used in research to study the performance
of multiprocessors. See, for example, M. Rosenblum, et al., "Using the SimOS

machine simulator to study complex computer systems," ACM Transactions on
Modeling and Computer Simulation, Vol. 7, No. 1, January 1997. They have also
been used to simulate an Intel x86 machine as the " VirtualPC" or "RealPC" products
on a PowerPC-based Apple Macintosh system.
Machine simulators share binary emulation techniques with some VMMs such
as DAISY. They differentiate themselves from VMMs, however, in that they run on
top of a host operating system. This has a number of advantages as they can use the
services provided by the operating system. On the other hand, these systems can also
be somewhat constrained by the host operating system. For example, an operating
system that provides protection never allows application programs to issue privileged
instructions or to change its address space directly. These constraints typically lead to
significant overheads, especially when running on top of operating systems that are
protected from applications.
Application Emulators
Like machine simulators, application emulators also run as an application
program in order to provide compatibility across different processor architectures.
Unlike machine simulators, however, they emulate application-level software and
convert the application's system calls into direct calls into the host operating system.
These systems have been used in research for architectural studies, as well as to run
legacy binaries written for the 68000 architecture on newer PowerPC-based
Macintosh systems. They have also been also been used to run x86 applications
written for Microsoft NT on Alpha workstations running Microsoft NT. In all cases,
the expected operating system matches the underlying one, which simplifies the
implementation. Other systems such as the known Insigna's SoftWindows use binary
emulation to run Windows applications and a modified version of the Windows

operating system on platforms other than PCs. At least two known systems allow
Macintosh applications to run on other systems: the Executer runs them on Intel
processors running Linux or Next and MAE runs them on top of the Unix operating
Operating System Emulators
Operating system (OS) emulators allow applications written for one given
operating system application binary interface (ABI) to run on another operating
system. They translate all system calls made by the application for the original
operating system into a sequence, of system calls to the underlying operating system.
ABI emulators are currently used to allow Unix applications to run on Window NT
(the Softway OpenNT emulator) and to run applications written for Microsoft's
operating systems on public-domain operating systems (the Linux WINE project).
Unlike virtual machine monitors and machine simulators, which are essentially
independent of the operating system, ABI emulators are intimately tied with the
operating system that they are emulating. Operating system emulators differ from
application emulators in that the applications are already compiled for the instruction
set architecture of the target processor. The OS emulator does not need to worry about
the execution of the applications, hut rather only of the calls that it makes to the
underlying operating system.
Embedded Operating Systems
Emulating an ABI at the user level is not an option if the goal is to provide
additional guarantees to the applications that are not provided by the host operating
system. For example, the VenturCom RTX Real-Time subsystem embeds a real-time
kernel within the Microsoft NT operating system. This effectively allows real-time
processes to co-exist with traditional NT processes within the same system.

This co-existence requires the modification of the lowest levels of the
operating system, that is, its Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL). This allows the RTX
system to first handle all I/O interrupts. This solution is tightly coupled with
WindowsNT, since both environments share the same address space and interrupts
entry points.
Legacy Virtual Machine Monitors
Certain processors, most notably those with the Intel architecture, contain
special execution modes that are specifically designed to virtualize a given legacy
architecture. This mode is designed to support the strict virtualization of the legacy
architecture, but not of the existing architecture.
A legacy virtual machine monitor consists of the appropriate software support
that allows running the legacy operating system using the special mode of the
processor. Specifically, Microsoft's DOS virtual machine runs DOS in a virtual .
machine on top of Microsoft Windows and NT. As another example, the freeware
DOSEMU system runs DOS on top of Linux.
Although these systems are commonly referred to as a form of virtual machine
monitor, they run either on top of an existing operating system, such as DOSEMU, or
as part of an existing operating system such as Microsoft Windows and Microsoft NT.
In this respect, they are quite different from the true virtual machine monitors
described above, and from the definition of the term "virtual machine monitor"
applied to the invention described below.
With respect to combining resources, such combinations can be used to handle
demanding computing tasks that may be difficult or impossible to handle in the
absence of the combination. For example, telecommunications networks are
increasingly required to support high bandwidth, low delay information flow. The

bandwidth required is rapidly progressing towards, for some applications, gigabits per
second (particularly, for example, for video on demand; animated shared simulations,
and distributed computing).
To provide "intelligent network" facilitates such as call redirection to particular numbers, computer programs run on a number of host computers (up to 100,
for example) connected with switching centers. The way in which services are to be
provided for particular customers (for example, a particular number to which calls for
a customer are to be routed) depends upon data stored in relation to that customer on
the host computers. Thus, there may be many millions of subscriber records on tens or
hundreds of host computers.
In "Twenty-twenty vision—software architectures for intelligence in the 21st
century", P. A. Martin, BT Technol J Vol 13 No. 2 April 1995, the author proposed
the use of object-oriented techniques to implement the distributed processing required.
A description of object oriented technology will be found in, for example, BT
Technol J Vol. 11 No. 3 (July 1993), "Object oriented technology", edited by E. L.
Cusack and E. S. Cordingley. Although the term is not always used with precision,
object oriented computing here refers to the computing technique in which data is
stored in "encapsulated" form in which, rather than being directly accessible by a
calling program.or routine, the data is accessible only-by a limited part of a program
which can read, write and edit the data. A record of data and its associated computer
code arc referred to as an "object". Communication to and from an object is generally
by "message passing"; that is, a call to the object passes data values and invokes the
operation of one of the programs comprised within the object, which then returns data

Various languages are available for programmers who wish to use the objected
oriented approach. Of these, the commonest at present is C++.
Distributed processing differs from single processor operation in several
respects. Firstly, different access techniques may be required depending on whether
other programs or data are located on the same host computer as a calling program or
on a different host computer. The location of a program or data will also affect the
speed with which it can be reached from another program. Also, one or more host
computers may fail whilst leaving others in operation.
Distributed computing is conventionally performed, by using a "client-server"
arrangement in which a "client" program on one computer interrogates a "server"
program on another computer which then performs the function or returns the data
required by the client program.
Object oriented techniques have not widely been applied to distributed processing. A summary of the state of the art in this respect may be found in "Object
oriented programming systems"; Blair G., Pitman Publishing, London, 1991 (ISBN 0-
273-03132-5) and particularly in Chapter 9 at pages 223-243; "Distributed systems
and objects"; David Hutchison and Jonathan Walpole. Previous attempts have
generally added new syntax to an existing computer language, or have created new
computer languages, to extend conventional object oriented programming to deal with
distributed processing.
Although the particular application may vary, the components of a wireless
communication system are generally similar, as described in more detail below. For
example, a wireless communication system usually includes a radio terminal or
mobile station, a radio base station, a switch or network control device, often referred
to as a mobile telephone switching office (MTSO), and a network to which the

wireless communications system provides access, such as the Public Switched
Telephone Network (PSTN).
The various wireless communication applications use any of multiple
modulation techniques for transmitting information to efficiently utilize the available
frequency spectrum. For example, frequency division multiple access (FDMA), time
division multiple access (TDMA), and code division multiple access modulation
techniques are used to build high-capacity multiple access systems.
Telecommunication systems designed to communicate with many mobile stations
occupying a common radio spectrum are referred to as multiple access systems.
For example, in an FDMA analog cellular system, such as an AMPS analog
cellular radio system, the available frequency spectrum is divided into a large number
of radio channels, e.g., pairs of transmit and receive carrier frequencies, each of which
corresponds to a message transmission channel. The bandwidth of each transmit and
receive frequency channel is narrowband, generally 25-30 kHz. Thus, the FDMA
system permits information to be transmitted in a bandwidth comparable to the
bandwidth of the transmitted information, such as a voice signal. The cellular service
area in the FDMA system is generally divided into multiple cells, each cell having a
set of frequency channels selected so as to help reduce co-channel interference
between cells.
Frequency division is often combined with time division so that transmission
circuits are distinguished in both the frequency and time domain, e.g., in a FD/TDMA
system. In a digital FD/TDMA (commonly referred to as TDMA) cellular system, a
narrowband frequency channel is reformatted as a digital transmission path which is
divided into a number of time slots. The data signals from different calls are
interleaved into assigned time slots and sent out with a correspondingly higher bit rate,

the time slot assigned to each mobile station being periodically repeated. Although
the TDMA bandwidth may be somewhat larger than the FDMA bandwidth, a
bandwidth of approximately 30 kHz is generally used for AMPS-D digital TDMA
cellular systems.
Another approach to cellular multiple access modulation is CDMA. CDMA is
a spread spectrum technique for transmitting information over a wireless
communication system in which the bandwidth occupied by the transmitted signal is
significantly greater than the bandwidth required by the baseband information signal
(e.g., the voice signal). Thus, CDMA modulation spectrally spreads a narrowband
information signal over a broad bandwidth by multiplex modulation, using a
codeword to identify various signals sharing the same frequency channel.
Recognition of the transmitted signal takes place by selecting the spectrally-coded
signals using the appropriate codeword. In contrast to the narrowband channels of
approximately 30 kHz used in FDMA and TDMA modulation techniques, a CDMA
system generally employs a bandwidth of approximately 1.25 MHz or greater.
Typically, the mobile communication systems described above are arranged
hierarchically such mat a geographical "coverage area" is partitioned into a number of
smaller geographical areas called "cells." Referring to Fig. 1, each cell is preferably
served by a Base Transceiver Station ("BTS") 102a. Several BTS 102a-n are centrally
administered via fixed links 104a-n by a Base Station Controller ("BSC") 106a. The
BTSs and BSC are sometimes collectively referred to as the Base Station Subsystem
("BS") 107. Several BSCs 106b-n may be centrally administered by a Mobile
Switching Center ("MSC") 110 via fixed links 108a-n.
MSC110 acts as a local switching exchange (with additional features to
handle mobility management requirements, discussed below) and communicates with

the phone network ("PSTN") 120 through trunk groups. U.S. mobile networks
include a home MSC and a serving MSC. The home MSC is the MSC corresponding
to the exchange associated with a Mobile Subscriber (also referred to above as a
mobile station or "MS") 114; this association is based on the phone number, suiph as
the area code, of the MS. Examples of an MS include a hand-held device such as a
mobile phone, a PDA, a 2-way pager, or a laptop computer, or Mobile Unit
Equipment, such as a mobile unit attached to a refrigerator van or a rail car, a
container, or a trailer.
The home MSC is responsible for a Home Location Register ("HLR") 118
discussed below. The serving MSC, on the other hand, is the exchange used to
connect the MS call to the PSTN. Consequently, sometimes the home MSC and
serving MSC functions are served by the same entity, but other times they are not
(such as when the MS is roaming). Typically, a Visiting Location Register ("VLR")
116 is co-located with the MSC 110 and a logically singular HLR is used in the
mobile network (a logically singular HLR may be physically distributed but is treated
as a single entity). As will be explained below, the HLR and VLR are used for storing
subscriber information and profiles.
Radio channels 112 are associated with the entire coverage area. As described
above, the radio channels are partitioned into groups of channels allocated to
individual cells. The channels are used to carry signaling information to establish call
connections and related arrangements, and to carry voice or data information once a
call connection is established.
Mobile network signaling has at least two significant aspects. One aspect
involves the signaling between an MS and the rest of the network. In the case of 2G
("2G" is the industry term used for "second generation") and later technology, this

signaling concerns access methods used by the MS (such as TDMA or CDMA),
pertaining to, for example, assignment of radio channels and authentication. A second
aspect involves the signaling among the various entities in the mobile network, such
as the signaling among the MSCs, BSCs, VLRs, and HLRs. This second part is
sometimes referred to as the Mobile Application Part ("MAP") especially when used
in the context of Signaling System No. 7 ("SS7"). SS7 is a common channel signaling
system by which elements of the telephone network exchange information, in the form
of messages.
The various forms of signaling (as well as the data and voice communication)
are transmitted and received in accordance with various standards. For example, the
Electronics Industries Association ("EIA") and Telecommunications Industry
Association ("TIA") help define many U.S. standards, such as IS-41, which is a MAP
standard. Analogously, the CCTTT and ITU help define international standards, such
as GSM-MAP, which is an international MAP standard. Information about these
standards is well known and may be found from the relevant organizing bodies as well
as in the literature, see, e.g., Bosse, SIGNALING IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS
NETWORKS (Wiley 1998).
To deliver a call from an MS 114, a user dials the number and presses "send"
on a cell phone or other MS. The MS 114 sends the dialed number indicating the
service requested to the MSC 110 via the BS 107. The MSC 110 checks with an
associated VLR 116 (described below) to determine whether the MS 114 is allowed
the requested service. The serving MSC routes the call to the local exchange of the
dialed user on the PSTN 120. The local exchange alerts the called user terminal, and
an answer back signal is routed back to the MS 114 through the serving MSC 110

which then completes the speech path to the MS. Once the setup is completed the call
may proceed
To deliver a call to an MS 114, (assuming that the call originates from the
PSTN 120) the PSTN user dials the MS's associated phone number. At least according to U.S. standards, the PSTN 120 routes the call to the MS's home MSC
(which may or may not be the MSC serving the MS). The MSC then interrogates the
HLR 118 to determine which MSC is currently serving the MS. This also acts to
inform the serving MSC that a call is formcorning. The home MSC then routes the
call to the serving MSC. The serving MSC pages the MS via the appropriate BS. The
MS responds and the appropriate signaling links are set up.
During a call, the BS 107 and MS 114 may cooperate to change channels or
BTSs 102, if needed, for example, because of signal conditions. These changes are
known as "handoffs," and they involve their own types of known messages and
Fig. 2 shows in more detail the signaling and user traffic interfaces between a
BS 107 and an MSC 110 in a CDMA mobile network. The BS 107 communicates
signaling information using an SS7-based interface for controlling voice and data
circuits known as the "A1" interface. An interface known as "A2" carries user traffic
(such as voice signals) between the switch component 204 of the MSC and the BS
107. An interface known as "A5" is used to provide a path for user traffic for circuit-
switched data calls (as opposed to voice calls) between the source BS and the MSC.
Information about one or more of Al, A2, A5 may be found in CDMA
Internetworking - Deploying the Open-A Interface, Su-Lin Low, Ron Schneider,
Prentice Hall, 2000, ISBN 0-13-088922-9.

Mobile communications providers are supplying newer services, e.g., "data
calls" to the Internet For at least some of these services, MSCs are not cost effective
because they were primarily designed for voice calls. Integration of new services into
the MSC is difficult or infeasible because of the proprietary and closed designs used
by many MSC software architectures. That is, the software logic necessary to provide
the services is not easy to add to the MSC 110. Often, a switch adjunct is used to
provide such services. For example, an Inter-Working Function ("IWF") is an adjunct
to route a data call to the Internet Either approach - integrating functionality into the
MSC or adding a trunk-side adjunct — involves the MSC in the delivery of service.
Integrating new services via MSC design changes or through trunk-side adjuncts can
increase network congestion at the MSC and consume costly MSC resources.
Data calls typically make use of the Internet, which is an example of a packet-
switching medium. A packet-switching medium operates as follows. A sequence of
data is to be sent from one host to another over a network. The data sequence is
segmented into one or more packets, each with a header containing control
information, and each packet is routed through the network. A common type of
packet switching is datagram service, which offers little or no guarantees with respect
to delivery. Packets that may belong together logically at a higher level are not
associated with each other at the network level. A packet may arrive at the receiver
before another packet sent earlier by the sender, may arrive in a damaged state (in
which case it may be discarded), may be delayed arbitrarily (notwithstanding an
expiration mechanism that may cause it to be discarded), may be duplicated, and may
be lost
At least one wireless Internet system has been proposed that provides reliable
access to tens of megahertz of bandwidth across a wide geographic area, using local

wireless transceiver technology (e.g., in a nanocell system). In contrast to the cellular
wireless voice system, which relies on tens or hundreds of cells in a region, the local
wireless transceiver system relies on thousands or tens of thousands of transceivers in
the region. In such a system, each transceiver may cover, e.g., 0.05 square kilometers,
which is about one-hundredth the coverage of a conventional cell. High spatial reuse
of the radio frequency (RE7) spectrum allows the local wireless transceiver system to
accommodate many more active devices at a given data rate than a conventional cell
system. In addition, since users are closer to access points, the local wireless
transceiver system accommodates lower-power transmissions. The local wireless
transceiver system can support large numbers of devices, running at high speeds, with
relatively little drain on the devices' batteries.
For example, in a citywide local wireless transceiver system network of 10,000
transceiver access points (cell centers), if each point provides its users with 1-Mfb/s
collective throughput, 10 active devices per transceiver can be supported at 100 kb/s
each, which amounts to 100,000 active devices in the city. If each device is active 10
percent of the time, such a network can support a million devices, although some
accounting would need to be made for bandwidth consumed by overhead for channel
access, handoffs, and any provision for asymmetric traffic (e.g., in which more bits
flow toward a device than from it).
Each local wireless transceiver system access point may be or resemble access
points for wireless local area network (LAN) technology such as IEEE 802.11. An
asynchronous digital subscriber line (ADSL), or a cable modem line may be used to
provide a link between each access point and the Internet (a wireless link may be used
as well or instead). With respect to the siting of access devices, since each device
requires electrical power and is preferably elevated for adequate radio frequency

coverage, sites on utility poles and buildings are typical candidates, with the high-
speed neighborhood Internet access infrastructure serving as a backbone.
In an aspect of the invention, resources for IP networking are managed,', A
field is added to an operating system kernel software procedure. The field references a virtual router context Packet processing software code is modified to cause the packet processing software code to execute in accordance with the virtual router context
Implementations of the invention may provide one or more of the following
advantages. Multiple hosts may be implemented onthe same processor or the same
instance of the operating system. The same IP address may be used in two different
contexts such that the IP address serves as two different entities. One piece of
equipment may participate in multiple private networks without leaking information
between the private networks. A host implementation for one Internet Protocol (IP)
address may be spread across multiple, loosely coupled processors running separate
instances of an operating system. Combined processing power may be used for one IP
host A distributed host may be compatible with an existing configuration or existing
protocols that require actions to be done on one host The distributed host may be
used with an existing configuration such that a customer need not change the general
design of the customer's implementation.

Accordingly, the present invention provides a method for use in
managing resources for IP networking, the method comprising: adding a field
to an operating system kernel software procedure, the field referencing a
virtual router context; and modifying packet processing software code to
cause the packet processing software code to execute in accordance with the
virtual router context.
The present invention also provides a gateway platform residing in a
communication network comprising: a storage medium, in communication
with at least one processor, storing: an operating system instance whose
kernel is adapted to include a field to indicate an appropriate virtual router
context within the gateway platform to handle an incoming data packet; and
packet processing code that determines the virtual router context of the
ingress packet received at the gateway platform, and selects a routing table
based on the virtual router context before sending a packet.
Other advantages and features will become apparent from me following
description, including the drawings, and from the claims.
Brief Description of the Accompanying Drawings
Figs. 1-2,3A-3B, 4 are block diagrams of communications systems.

Figs. 5-6 are flow diagrams of methods for use in managing resources for IP
Detailed Description
A communications system provides communications features including
features relying on sharing or combining computing resources. The communications
system has an Internet media gateway mechanism ("IMG") and a Softswitch
mechanism as described below. Fig. 3A illustrates an example system 400 having an
MG 410A connected between BSC 415A and MSC 420A and communicating with a
Softswitch 425A. IMG 410A communicates with BSC 415A by A1, A2, and A5
interfaces. As described below, Softswitch 425A coordinates pathway setup and
communication between BSC 415A and MSC 420A through IMG 410A. IMG 410A
also communicates with the Internet 430, through which IMG 410A is able to direct
messages to a mail server 440, as described below. Other IMGs and Softswitches may
be provided similarly in connection with other BSCs and MSCs as exemplified in Fig.
3A by IMG 410B, Softswitch 425B, BSC 415B, and MSC 420B. MSCs 420A, 420B
are connected to, and can communicate with each other through, PSTN 460.
SoftSwitches 425A, 425B are connected to, and can communicate with each other
through, SS7. system 470. (Fig. 3B illustrates an alternative arrangement 402 in which
MSC 420A is connected between IMG 410A and BSC 415A, and MSC 420B is
connected between IMG 410B and BSC 415B.)
Fig. 4 illustrates a system 1010 that can support and help to provide voice and
data services on one or more mobile wireless networks. In a particular
implementation, system 1010 may include Starent Networks Corporation's ST-16
IMG product, which is a carrier class, high performance platform that can support

multiple data types including time division multiplexed (TDM) data, Asynchronous
Transfer mode (ATM) cell data, and Internet protocol (IP) packet data. The ST-16
architecture uses accelerator cards (e.g., card 1020) such as Packet Accelerator cards
(PACs) for packet processing and Telephony Accelerator cards (TACs) for voice
processing. Each PAC can perform data processing and each TAC can perform voice
processing. In the ST-16, physical input/output (I/O) interfaces are terminated on
industry standard line cards (e.g., cards 1030A, 1030B) and can carry TDM, packet or
ATM cell data types in accordance with various physical interface standards. Since
TDM interfaces primarily carry voice traffic, TDM line cards communicate with a
TAC. Ethernet line cards carry packet data traffic and can communicate with a PAC.
An optical line card supports ATM cells, which can carry bom voice and data traffic,
and can communicate with a PAC or a TAC. The ST-16 also has Redundant Crossbar
Cards (RCCs) (e.g., cards 1040A, 1040B) which are used to allow a line card inany
slot to communicate with an accelerator cards in any slot in the ST-16.
The ST-16 uses a card to card communication system ("STARChannel") to
provide links to connect the accelerator cards to the line cards and the RCCs. In an
example implementation, a STARChannel link has 4.0 Gbps data capacity and
includes two physical serial links operating in channel locked mode. Each physical
serial link is clocked at 2.5 Gbps (8B/10B coded) andean carry 2.0 Gbps data.
In the ST-16, it is desirable to implement virtualization and a distributed host.
With respect to virtualization, multiple hosts are implemented on the same
processor or the same instance of the operating system, with possibly more than one
IP address implemented on the same system and with different contexts as described
below. With respect to IP networking, each context is well isolated from each other
context Accordingly, the same IP address may be used in two different contexts such

that the IP address serves as two different entities. This is desirable at least in the case
of private networks which are isolated from the Internet. Different private networks
may use the same IP address, but because the private networks are separated from
each other, the same IP address has a different meaning in each of the private "
It is sometimes desirable to have one piece of equipment participate in
multiple private networks without leaking information between the private networks.
For example, the equipment may provide a set of functionality to each private network
in a set of private networks simultaneously without turning the private networks into
one network. The contexts allow two pieces of software to run on the same physical
piece of equipment, and possibly on the same instance of the operating system, as
readily or nearly as readily as running one of the pieces of software on one physical
system and running the other piece of software on another physical system.
For example, with the contexts, a single piece of equipment that serves two
private networks can have the same IP address on both private networks and can react
differently to an incoming message depending on which network issued the message.
Private networks may share an IP address by happenstance or by design, or as
a result of address scarcity. In the latter case, on the Internet, it may be difficult or
expensive to gain use of a substantial amount of routable address space (address space
that is use to communicate directly on the Internet). As a result, a private network is
sometimes used as an alternative to a large block of routable address space. The
private network multiplies an IP address much as a private office telephone system
with extensions multiplies a single main public telephone number, wherein computers
on the private network can intercommunicate using Internet protocols without
necessarily involving the Internet itself, much as users of the private office telephone

system can intercommunicate without necessarily involving the public telephone
In the case of virtualization, a single piece of equipment may be reachable at
the same address on two different private networks much as, for example, a voicemail
system may be reachable at the same telephone extension (e.g., extension 110) from
two separate private office telephone systems. An incoming communication at the
single piece of equipment is handled differently depending on which private network
sent the communication, much as an incoming call arriving at the voicemail system at
the telephone extension is handled differently depending on which private office
telephone system originated the call. In both cases it can be critical to avoid
Conventionally, the Linux operating system cannot serve two private networks
as the voicemail system serves the two private office telephone systems. By
virtualization as described below, the Linux operating system can participate in two or
more different private networks and avoid mishandling even when the same addresses
are used on the private networks. For virtualization, in many or all of the places inside
the operating system kernel that deal with IP networking, an element is added to many
or all appropriate data structures to indicate, e.g., by context number, the appropriate
context for handling data such as an incoming data packet
In a specific implementation, the element holds the context number in every
relevant, data structure inside the kernel, including a routing table, and every packet
that is processed by the system is tagged with a context number so that as the packet
goes through the system, the system keeps track of the context with which the packet
is associated. The Linux operating system allows multiple instances of the routing
table; each context has its own routing table and each routing table is associated with a

context number. Each interface to the system is associated with a context number so
that when a packet comes into the system, the system is able to determine the context
to which the packet belongs. Each data structure that is part of the kernel's interface
to an application is associated with a context number. Thus, for example, an abstraction known as a socket that an application uses in order to use networking is
associated with a context number so that the system can determine the context to
which a socket being used by an application belongs.
As a result, in at least some implementations, the system can have a single
instance of the operating system that operates in multiple contexts, based on
contextualization/virtualization in the kernel, so that the system can run application
code that was generically written for Linux or any Unix like operating system, with
few or no modifications to the application code.
The distributed host differs from virtualization in that the distributed host
allows the host implementation for one Internet Protocol (IP) address to be spread
across multiple, loosely coupled processors running separate instances of the operating
system, so that the processors implement a single IP host Accordingly, combined
processing power can be used for one IP host, which may allow results that are not
practical or possible using only the processing power available on one processor.
Unlike a scheme under which the computer system is caused to behave as
multiple hosts, the distributed host is compatible with an existing configuration or
existing protocols that require actions to be done on one host. The distributed host can
be used with an existing configuration such that, for example, a customer need not
change the general design of the customer's implementation. In particular, in at least
some implementations, the distributed host system can run application software that
was written for Linux or another Unix style environment with few or no modifications

to the application software. Accordingly, the distributed host system allows
incorporation of value added or extended features into the system, including by
porting existing software which is already able to run on Linux or another Unix type
operating system.
With respect to a specific implementation, the modifications to the Linux IP
implementation fall into two broad categories:
(1) For virtualization, support for virtual routers and virtual hosts to allow an
individual operating system instance to support both router (forwarding) and host
functions of IP as if it were multiple operating system instances, i.e., support for
multiple distinct IP address spaces, even if the spaces overlap numerically, as distinct
(2) For distributed hosts, support for distributed IP hosts, to allow offering
services on different Transport Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol
(UDP) ports of the same host from different operating system instances.
Conventional Linux includes support for multiple routing tables, which is all
or nearly all that is necessary for virtualized forwarding support However,
conventional Linux does not support for virtualized host functions. Specifically,
conventional Linux does not provide a way for a process or socket to select its virtual
router context nor a way for two or more different processes to bind the same
address/protocol/port (in different virtual router contexts). The following
modifications (Fig. 5) add such support.
A field is added to the proc structure or an appropriate substructure (the proc
structure is the kernel data structure which is instantiated per-process and contains
kernel process state information) that stores the default virtual router context of the
process (step 1010). Kernel process creation code is modified as appropriate to make
the field heritable, such that the default virtual router context of a process will be, at

its time of creation, whatever the default virtual router context of its parent was when
its parent used fork0.or clone0. Also, the code that sets up the initial system process,
init, is modified to make sure that init will use a default virtual router context which is

automatically created at boot time.
A field is added to the appropriate per-socket data structure for Internet
protocol family (TCP, UDP, and raw IP) that indicates the virtual router context of the
socket (step 1020). Socket creation code is modified so that, on creation, the field is
populated from the default virtual router context for the process.
Support is added for setting the default virtual router context of a process (e.g.,
as a procfs extension) (step 1030).
Support is added for setting the virtual router context of a socket (e.g., as a
setsockopt) (step 1040).
Support is added for creating and deleting virtual router contexts (e.g., as-a
procfs or netlink extension) (step 1050).
Support is added for associating interfaces with virtual router contexts (e.g., as
a procfs or netlink extension) (step 1060).
Packet ingress processing code for TCP, UDP, raw IP sockets, and Internet
Control Messaging Protocol (ICMP) is modified to cause its determination of the
socket with which an ingress packet is associated consider the virtual router context of
the packet's ingress interface (step 1070).
Packet egress processing code for TCP, UDP, and raw IP sockets is modified
to cause the selection of the routing table to use for egress packets consider the virtual
router context of the socket sending the packet (step 1080).
In the case of distributed host, the distributed host functionality allows
processes running on different operating system instances to bind different sockets on

the same host (IP address). In at least one specific implementation, the following
approach may be taken.
For ingress packets where the network processor (NP) subsystem can
determine that a certain processor will be the consumer of that packet, the packet is
sent to that processor.
For ingress packets where the NP subsystem cannot determine that a certain
processor will be the consumer of that packet, the packet is sent to all processors (e.g.,
via Media Access Control (MAC) broadcast).
When a processor receives a packet that the processor determines is not for it
(but that could be for a different processor), the processor ignores that packet and
makes no effort to respond to that packet in any way.
For each (distributed) host, one particular processor is designated as the lead
processor for that host That processor has the duty of processing and responding to
packets that correspond to the host as a whole and not to any specific "connection" or
"port", e.g., some (but not all) ICMP packets and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
requests. All other processors ignore such ingress packets.
Processing for egress packets from a distributed host is essentially unchanged
from processing for egress packets for a normal host
For testing and simulation (without the NP subsystem) functionality is added
to allow the lead processor for a host to forward (by MAC broadcast) packets not
destined for itself to other processors. In-DP technology, the functionality is less like
classic forwarding (since, e.g., TTL is not decremented) and more like bridging.
The following kernel changes (Fig. 6) are used to implement the distributed
host function as described above.

An extension (e.g., a procfs or netlink extension) is added to allow designating
whether or not a particular interface is the lead interface for a distributed host (step
TCP and UDP ingress code is modified to avoid making any response to
packets arriving for a port that is not locally bound (step 2020).
ICMP ingress code is modified such that, for any ICMP packet that is
correlated with a specific port or flow, that packet is ignored unless that port is bound
or that flow exists locally and such that, for any ICMP packet that is global to the host
(e.g., echo request), only the host's lead interface processes the packet (step 2030).
ARP code is modified such that non-lead interfaces do not respond to ARP
requests (step 2040).
Code is added to the ingress path to support the forwarding/bridging described
above for operation without an NP subsystem (step 2050).
More particularly with respect to kernel IP virtualization, all IP packet buffers
(skbuffs) within the kernel are tagged with a context number. The context number of
a packet being processed is determined by one of two mechanisms:
(1) A packet that enters the kernel via a network interface is tagged with the
context number that has been configured into the interface. The following code in
ip_rcv() (net/ipv4/ip_input.c)-tags the buffer for any IP packet being introduced by a
network interface:
if (dev «= &loopback_dev) {
if (in_dev) {
} else {
skb->vr_index=0; /*XXX not
very good but there's probably no
option. I'm not sure if it

ever happen anyways that a
would get here from a device
*without an

in_device structure*/

(2) A packet that enters the kernel via an application socket is tagged with the
context number that has been configured into the socket (by default, this is the default
context number of the application that created the socket) as it is being prepared for
output. Relevant software code is mainly in net/ipv4/ip_output.c. The following is an
example from ip_build_xmit():
skb->vr_index = sk->vr_index;
In the listings above, skb is a pointer to an skbuff structure; sk is a pointer to a
socket structure. In addition, vr_index fields to both structures to accommodate
When the kernel needs to deliver a packet to a user process, it takes the
packet's context number into account when making the determination of the process
to which to deliver the packet. The following is an example from software code that
makes the determination for a TCP packet:
sk = tcp_v4_lookup(
skb->nh.iph->saddr, th-

ntohs(th->dest), tcp_v4_iif(skb));
The listing above is from tcp_v4_rcv() in net/ipv4/tcp_ipv4.c.
CONFIG_NET_IP_VIRTUAL is defined when the kernel is being built with IP
virtualization support. As shown, an additional argument is prepended to the
argument list of tcp_v4_lookup when virtualization is in use. Further,
tcp_v4_lookup() allows a determination of the socket that will consume a packet,
and performs a lookup in a hash table. When virtualization is in use, the context,
number of the packet (skb->vr_index) is used as an element of the key when
performing the lookup. In this way, for example, two different packets which
otherwise have identical characteristics (source address, source port, destination
address, destination port) but belong to different contexts can be directed to two
different sockets.
When the kernel is performing an IP forwarding lookup (e.g., when acting as a
router or when delivering a packet that originated with a local application to a remote
destination), that lookup is also made taking the packet's context into consideration.
In particular, a different routing table is used for each packet. For virtualization, the
following code is added to fib_lookup0 (in net/ipv4/fib_rules.c), which performs
many or most route lookups: .
if (r==(&main_rule)) {
if {(vrr_vr_index_min) | |
(vr>r->r_vr_index_max)) {
printk(fib_lookup - bad
VR index!\n");

if ((tb = fib_get_table({r- >r_table)+vr)) == NULL)
} else {
In the listing above, vr is an additional argument to fib_lookup that is
prepended to the argument list when CONFIG_NET_IP_VIRTUAL is defined. The
call to fib_get_table0 takes a routing table number; support for virtualization makes
use of Linux's existing ability to support multiple routing tables. When
contextualization is in use, the context number is used to compute the routing table
number. The remainder of fib_lookup0 operates on the routing table returned by the
call to fib_get_table().
Further with respect to implementing distributed host functionality on Linux,
"cluster" below refers collectively to a group of systems implementing a single.
distributed host At least one specific implementation depends on the following.
Each kernel participating in a distributed host is able to determine whether or
not it is the "leader" of that distributed host, and, if not, which system is the "leader"
for that distributed host The "leader" of a distributed host is a system designated
(e.g., uniquely) to perform certain services for the whole distributed host. In general,
this is used for those services that cannot themselves be reasonably distributed. This
information is maintained on a per-interface-address basis, e.g., within the in_ifaddr
For those protocols to be distributed on a per-port or per-connection basis
(e.g., UDP and TCP), the actual protocols are modified such that, when a packet
arrives at the set of systems implementing the distributed host, it can be determined
exactly which system will process that particular packet In general, accordingly, a
database is maintained with entries indicating which ports and/or connections are

being handled on which system. This may be accomplished by implementing an
interface between the kernel and a user process that has some similarities to a
"rtnetlink" interface used by user processes that implement routing protocols. In
particular, such an interface notifies the user process of requests by other user processes to bind0 ports and accept() connections. The user process using this
interface is responsible for synchronizing the database with remote hosts in the cluster,
or at least with the leader of the distributed interface. In at least most cases, functions
such as tcp_v4_rcv() and udp_rcv(3 are modified to look up, for each incoming packet,
whether that packet should be processed or ignored and/or sent to another member of
the cluster.
In at least some implementations, for some protocols (e.g., ARP), it is
sufficient simply to handle all requests on the leader system and always ignore
requests reaching non-leader systems. For ARP, this may be accomplished by
modifying arp_rcv() to check whether or not the packet being received corresponds to
an address for which the local system is the leader. For the leader case, the packet
may be processed normally. For the non-leader case, the packet may be ignored or
sent to another member of the cluster.
For some protocols (e.g., ICMP and perhaps IGMP, if IP multicasting is
supported in a distributed way), received packets are handled differently in the
distributed host environment For ICMP, each packet other than an echo request may
be sent to all systems in the cluster implementing the distributed host and then each
system may determine the action, if any, to take based on that packet. Echo requests
are processed by the leader system. Other ICMP packets are generally handled by
each system in the same way as if the system were not part of a distributed host. The

precise handling of ICMP packets in a distributed host environment depends on the
specific implementation.
The origination of ICMP error packets by systems within a distributed host
cluster is modified with respect to how they are generated when no distributed host
facility is in use. Specifically, "ICMP unreachable" messages may be generated only
by the leader system. At least some other ICMP messages may be generated by non-
leader systems in the cluster, depending on the specific implementation.
Other embodiments are within the scope of the following claims. For
example, one or more of the features above may be implemented in object code or
executable code. One or more of the features above may be implemented for use with
only certain communications, such as incoming communications only, or outgoing
communications only, or real-time communications only, or high priority or high
datarate communications only. An operating system may be provided with one or
more of the features as built-in functionality.


1. A method for use in managing resources for IP networking, the method
adding a field to an operating system kernel software procedure, the
field referencing a virtual router context; and
modifying packet processing software code to cause the packet
processing software code to execute in accordance with the virtual router
2. The method of claim 1, comprising creating a first and a second virtual
router context.
3. The method of claim 2, wherein the first and the second virtual router
contexts each include a separate routing table.
4. The method of claim 1, comprising associating a data structure that is
part of the kernel's interface with a virtual router context.
5. The method of claim 1, comprising modifying the kernel process
creation code to make the field referencing a virtual router context heritable.
6. The method of claim 1, comprising tagging a packet with a context
7. The method of claim 1, wherein packet processing software code
selects a routing table based on the virtual router context before sending a
8. The method of claim 1, comprising modifying the operating system
kernel to designate a lead operating system kernel for a distributed host,
wherein the distributed host includes a plurality of processors that are
assigned one Internet Protocol (IP) address so that the plurality of processors
implement a single IP host.

9. A gateway platform residing in a communication network comprising: a storage medium, in communication with at least one processor,
an operating system instance whose kernel is adapted to include a
field to indicate an appropriate virtual router context within the gateway
platform to handle an incoming data packet; and
packet processing code that determines the virtual router context of the
ingress packet received at the gateway platform, and selects a routing table
based on the virtual router context before sending a packet.
10. The gateway platform of claim 9, wherein the at least one processor
implements a distributed host, where one or more processors are assigned
one Internet Protocol (IP) address so that the one or more of processors
implement a single IP host.
11. The gateway platform of claim 9, wherein the single IP host is
compatible with existing protocols.
12. The gateway platform of claim 9, wherein the gateway platform
supports voice and data services on one or more mobile wireless networks.
13. The gateway platform of claim 9, wherein the kernel uses the context
number of a packet in order to deliver a packet to a process.


Resources for IP networking are managed. A field is added to an
operating system kernel software procedure. The field references a virtual
router context (1020). Packet processing software code is modified to cause
the packet processing software code to execute in accordance with the virtual
router context (1070).







701-KOLNP-2005-(18-01-2013)-DESCRIPTION (COMPLETE).pdf




701-KOLNP-2005-(19-05-2009)-FORM 13.pdf





701-KOLNP-2005-FORM 13.pdf

701-KOLNP-2005-FORM 18.pdf

701-KOLNP-2005-FORM 3.pdf

701-KOLNP-2005-FORM 5.pdf






701-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-FORM 1.pdf

701-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-FORM 2.pdf

701-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-FORM 3.pdf

701-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-FORM 5.pdf





Patent Number 255636
Indian Patent Application Number 701/KOLNP/2005
PG Journal Number 11/2013
Publication Date 15-Mar-2013
Grant Date 12-Mar-2013
Date of Filing 21-Apr-2005
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
PCT International Classification Number G06F 15/173
PCT International Application Number PCT/US2003/031675
PCT International Filing date 2003-10-06
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 60/416,151 2002-10-04 U.S.A.