|Title of Invention||
"A FULE FOR COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE"
|Abstract||A fuel for compression ignition engine comprising ethanol in a range of 10-60 percent and methyl ester of rice bran oil with a range of 90 to 40 percent|
|Full Text||FIELD OF INVENTION
This invention relates to a fuel for compression ignition engine
Background of the Invention
The present energy crisis, aroused due to continuous depletion of scarce fossil fuels, has resulted in a rise in global prices of crude petroleum. Such a rise in fuel prices affects the economy of many countries. Apparently vegetable oils have been gaining worldwide attraction as an alternative energy source because they are environmentally-friendly and renewable in nature. Moreover, it operates well in a conventional diesel engine with very few or no engine modification and can also be blended with diesel while still achieving reduction in emissions.
Several vegetable oils are being produced in India. However, it is desirable to give priority to those oils, which are not being used for human consumption in practice. Among vegetable oils rice bran oil can be used as CI engine fuel because rice-wheat is the main crop which is cultivated in most part of India. Rice bran is obtained from the outer layer of brown rice. It is the most valuable by product of the rice milling.
Rice bran oil and its ester have been used satisfactorily for partial replacement of the diesel fuel. The high carbon residue and ash content, acid value, viscosity of vegetable oil and its ester causes several problems in engine i.e. choking of the nozzles, carbon deposition on the piston head and engine parts. This problem can be avoided by using the blend of ester of rice bran oil with alcohol.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION
An object of this invention is to propose a novel biofuel for use as a source of energy for CI engine.
Another object of this invention is to propose a novel biofuel as a source of energy for CI engine containing rice bran oil methyl ester and ethanol.
Yet another object of this invention is to propose a novel biofuel as a source of energy for CI engine which provides a reduction in brake specific fuel consumption.
Further another object of this invention is to propose a novel biofuel as a source of energy for CI engine, which provides an improvement in brake thermal efficiency.
Yet another object of this invention is to propose a novel biofuel as a source of energy for CI engine, which reduces exhaust emissions and is environment friendly.
DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION
According to this invention there is provided a biofuel comprising a blend of rice bran oil methyl ester and ethanol.
Rice bran oil is a vegetable oil which contains mainly oleic, linoleic and palmitic acid. Due to higher percentage of oleic and linoleic acid rice bran oil has high viscosity.
It was converted into ester i.e. biodiesel so as to reduce its viscosity. It was transesterified using methanol such as (molar ratio 5:1) in presence of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) catalyst such as (0.33 percent of oil weight) in order to obtain ester of rice bran oil, the biodiesel then obtained were mixed with ethanol to prepare the blends. The engine performance tests on selected blends were conducted on Kirloskar make, 3.73 kW, 552.92cc, single cylinder, water cooled, direct ignition diesel with a compression ratio of 16.5:1. Performance tests included measurement of engine parameter viz. brake power, engine speed, fuel consumption, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency at different brake load condition using rice bran oil methyl ester and ethanol in different blending ratio.
Ethanol has been singled out as the most prospective alcohol fuel. It is a biologically renewable resource, can be easily produced by fermentation, is non-corrosive, is non-toxic and has higher heat of combustion and less volatility. Ethanol has some detergent properties that reduces buildup of carbon deposits on injectors, which keeps engine running smoothly and
fuel injection systems clean for better performance. Less deposition of carbon and therefore reduced abrasive wear in the cylinders was observed due to greater combustion efficiency obtained. Different fuel mixtures like ethanol-diesel blend, diesel-vegetable oil, alcohol-vegetable oil, alcohol-diesel-vegetable oil, ester of vegetable oil-diesel etc have been used as fuel for CI engines. Cetane number of vegetable oil is higher than diesel. Use of biodiesel oil and ethanol has never been used before as fuel in CI engines. The concept of employing alcohol especially ethanol with ester of vegetable oils as a fuel in engines is totally new and revolutionary. Since there is no use of diesel, it may be treated as 100 per cent replacement of diesel.
Experiment conducted by blending rice bran oil methyl ester with ethanol indicated that brake thermal efficiency of the engine improves from 7 to 18% as compared to pure diesel oil if a mixture of 10-30% Rice bran oil methyl ester and 90-70% ethanol is used.
While fuel consumption of 80:20 blend was less than 3 percent than that of diesel (1.28 1/h), other blends had more fuel consumption which varied from 0.47 to 17.34 per cent.
The brake power generated by 90:10 and 80:20 blends were same as that of diesel and other biofuel, but it varied slightly with other blends.
Carbon monoxide emission decreased drastically by 97-99 percent while using theses blends than diesel. Unburnt hydrocarbon emission also decreased by 7.7-54 percent. The case with Nitric Oxide (NO) and Nitrogen dioxide (NOa) or say NOX gases are different. NO emission was found extremely higher than. Blends with 10, 20 and 30 percent ethanol emitted 5.5-3 percent more NOa while other blends showed reduction in NOa gas. Also, heat content of the fuel blends were found less than that of diesel. It varied from 15.2 to 34.8 percent. However phase separation was observed when the ambient temperature of the surrounding reached near 6-7°C.
Table 1 reveals the fuel properties of fuel blends.
Table 2 shows the performance of fuel blend at full load when used as a a fuel in CI engine.
TABLE 1: FUEL PROPERTIES OF FUEL BLENDS AS COMPARED WITH DIESEL
(Table Remove)TABLE 2: PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT FUELS AT FULL LOAD OF ENGINE (Kirloskar AVI) (RBOME- Rice Bran Oil Methyl Ester)
(Table Remove)ADVANTAGES/IMPROVEMENT OVER PRIOR ART
Experiments were conducted by blending rice bran oil ester with ethanol in different proportions. There are many advantages/improvements of using blends of using rice bran oil methyl ester and ethanol over diesel and other biodiesel fuels.
The engine not only developed similar power but also consumed less fuel than diesel when run on rice bran oil methyl ester and ethanol blends. The exhaust and lubricating oil temperature oil temperature were found to be less due to presence of ethanol. In terms of exhaust emission there were mixed results. Percentage of carbon monoxide (CO) and unburnt hydrocarbon (UBHC) were either less or comparable with diesel. While the NOX emission was higher than that of diesel but lesser than other biofuels. Also as the percentage of ethanol in the blends increased the NOX gases decreased. Carbon deposition on the cylinder head was found to be less than when run on rice bran oil methyl ester-ethanol blends then diesel. Also carbon residue in the blends was found less than that of biodiesel. Moreover, the thermal efficiency of the engine was more than that of diesel.
It is to be understood that the formulation of the present invention is susceptible to modifications, adaptations, changes by those skilled in art. Such modifications, adaptations, changes are intended to be within the scope of the present invention, which is further set forth under the following claims: -
1. A fuel for compression ignition engine comprising
a. ethanol in a range of 10-60 percent and
b. methyl ester of rice bran oil with a range of 90 to 40 percent
|Indian Patent Application Number||2662/DEL/2006|
|PG Journal Number||36/2012|
|Date of Filing||12-Dec-2006|
|Name of Patentee||G.B. PANT University of Agriculture and Technology|
|Applicant Address||UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY, PANTNAGAR-263 145, UTTARANCHAL, INDIA.AN INDIAN NATIONAL|
|PCT International Classification Number||A23D9/02; C11B3/14|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|