|Title of Invention||
METHOD OF REDUCING ACRYLAMIDE LEVELS IN FOOD PRODUCTS
|Abstract||The invention provides a method of reducing acrylamide levels in a food product comprising providing a food product that has increased glycine levels and/or administering glycine to the product prior to the final preparation of the product. The invention also provides the use of glycine to reduce acrylamide formation in a food product..|
|Full Text||TITLE: METHOD OF REDUCING ACRYLAMIDE IN FOOD PRODUCTS
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The invention relates to methods and compositions for reducing acrylamide produced by cooking, heating or processing in food products such as French fries.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The discovery of acrylamide in foods for human consumption (1-4) initiated many subsequent investigations related to the issue of its presence in foodstuffs, toxicity and possible precursors. Acrylamide is a rodent carcinogen and neurotoxin (5). Two preliminary reports indicated the absence of a substantial link between acrylamide and human cancer (7,8). Acrylamide is thought to be generated from food components during heat treatment as a result of the Maillard reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars (6). It is considered that all amino acids contribute to acrylamide formation with asparagine being the major contributor. Researchers are investigating the possibilities of reducing the acrylamide content in foods. However, there are difficulties in modifying the chemistry of uncooked foods. It is difficult to adjust the quantities of chemicals that naturally occur in foods, particularly where the chemicals are amino acids, such as asparagines, which are essential building blocks of plants. Amino acids are very abundant in cells and are assambled proteins, which are responsible for plant cell structure and function. It is difficult to obtain foods that have modified amino acids chemistry but retain favourable taste, smell, color, texture and chemical properties. (6,9).
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present inventors determined that introducing glycine in a potato matrix prior to the final preparation of the product results in a significant decrease in acrylamide formation in the cooked product.the final preparation of the product. The invention also provides a food additive composition comprising glycine and a carrier, and the food additive composition is useful to reduce acrylamide levels in a food product.Other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description. It should be understood, however, that the detailed description and the specific examples, while indicating preferred embodiments of the invention, are given by way of illustration only, since various changes and modifications within the spirit and scope of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art from this detailed description.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Embodiments of the invention will now be described in relation to the drawings in which:
Figure 1 is a graph showing the influence of glycine and lysine in reducing acrylamide in model aqueous systems of glucose and asparagine.
Figure 2 is a graph showing the reduction in acrylamide in reconstituted 3/8 french fries as influenced by the application of a SAPP/Gycine dip at various points in the process.
Figure 3 is a graph showing the effect of dipping potato cakes in glycine solutions on acrylamide formation.
Figure 4 is a graph showing the inhibiting effect of different glycine concentrations on acrylamide formation in potato cakes.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The present inventors have demonstrated that the presence of acrylamide can be greatly reduced if the food sample is treated with a glycine solution. Accordingly, the present invention provides a method of reducing acrylamide levels in a food product comprising (a) providing a food product that has increased glycine levels and/or (b) administering glycine to the food product prior to the final preparation of the product. The present invention also
Gly and G) as well as all derivatives of glycine that also reduce acrylamide evels.Derivatives include for example, those molecules in which free amino groups have been derivatized to form amine hydrochlorides, p-toluene sulfonyl groups, carbobenzoxy groups, t-butyloxycarbonyl groups, chloroacetyl groups or formyl groups. Free carboxyl groups may be derivatized to form salts, methyl and ethyl esters or other types of esters or hydrazides. Free hydroxyl groups may be derivatized to form O-acyl or O-alkyl derivatives.Administering glycine to the food product "prior to the final preparation of the product" means that the glycine is either present as an ingredient in the starting food product or that the glycine is administered in a processing step that precedes the final cooking or preparation of the product, prior to consumption by the end user. Thus, the glycine can be administered in a processing step prior to converting the food product to a ready-to-eat form. The majority of acrylamide is generally produced in the final preparation step such as baking, frying and heating. Therefore, the glycine will be present or added prior to the final preparation step that occurs at the home of the consumer or at a restaurant or other commercial establishment. For a potato-based product, the glycine can be added at any step during the processing as described in Example 2. In a preferred embodiment, the glycine is added after the potatoes are blanched, although the glycine can be added at any step including after the product is frozen but prior to the cooking of the frozen product by the consumer.The step of "administering glycine" can include any mode of administration that results in a food product with increased glycine levels. In one embodiment, the glycine is added to the food product during the processing or preparation of the food product. The glycine can be added in any form and by any means including dipping the product, coating the product, spraying the product, dusting the product, or soaking the product.
The glycine can also be present in an ingredient used in the processing or
the food product starts off in the process with high glycine levels and glycine does not have to be added as an ingredient in the process. In such a case, the food product may be one with naturally high glycine levels or the food product may be artificially or genetically altered to produce or contain high glycine levels.The glycine can be added in any amount that is sufficient to reduce acrylamide in the finished product. Preferably, glycine is added in an aqueous solution in an amount of at least 0.01% w/w, more preferably from about 0.1% to about 5% w/w of the total aqueous solution.The glycine can be prepared as a solution, preferably an aqueous solution. In a preferred embodiment, the glycine is prepared in a sodium acid pyrophosphate solution. The glycine solution may also contain other ingredients, for example other functional ingredients including other amino acids such as lysine.The food product can be any food product that generates acrylamide upon cooking, heating or processing. Generally, the food product will be a food that is cooked at high temperatures such as by frying, baking, grilling microwaving or roasting. Examples of such food products include, but are not limited to, potato products (such as french fries, potato chips, oven baked potatoes, rosti, potato crisps, potato cake, potato sticks); battered products (such as fish, chicken and french fries); breads (such as baked bread, crisp bread, toasted white bread, toasted pumpernickel, bagels); cereals; cookies; crackers; coffee; soup mixes; pretzels; roasted almonds; peanut butter; cocoa; and baby food. In a preferred embodiment, the food product is a potato product, more preferably, a French fry.Accordingly, the present invention provides a method of reducing acrylamide levels in a potato product comprising:providing a partially processed potato product;
(a) administering glycine to the partially processed potato product;
(c) cooking the potato product, wherein the levels of acrylamide in the cooked potato product are lower as compared to the levels in a similar product that has not been treated with glycine.
The term "partially processed potato product" means that the potato product is in a form that is not ready for final preparation for consumption. The term includes potato products that have undergone the initial processing steps such as slicing, blanching, par frying and/or freezing. In a preferred embodiment, the partially processed product is a frozen French fry.
Another embodiment of the invention is a food additive composition comprising glycine and a carrier, and the use of the food additive composition to reduce acrylamide levels in a food product. The carrier includes an oil or water based solution, and in a preferred embodiment the carrier is an aqueous solution. In another embodiment, the food additive composition is a dipping composition, a coating composition, a spraying composition, an aerosol composition, a dusting composition or a soaking composition.
French fry color can be determined, for example, in accordance with the United States Department of Agriculture Color Standard for Frozen French Fried Potatoes, which is used in classifying color of frozen French fried potatoes, or other similarly fried products. Glucose is currently applied to the surface of potato strips in order to yield a desired level of brown color development during the processing of French fries. The inventors have observed that samples treated with glycine are darker in color. Therefore, the administration of glycine has an added benefit and could replace or be used in combination with compounds like glucose used for color management.
The following non-limiting examples are illustrative of the present invention:
EXAMPLES Example 1
Reduction in the formation of Acrylamide by the presence of Glycine: Aqueous model systems: PROCEDURE Sample preparation:
15 g of test solution comprised of 20% (w/w) glucose, 2.1% (w/w) Asn and either 2.0% (w/w) Glycine or Lysine were prepared by slowly adding the appropriate amount of blended solids to 35°C mixing citrate buffer at pH 6. A solution of Glu/Asn alone, at the same concentration, acted as the control. Once hydrated, solutions were cooled to ~ 25°C, pH measured and adjusted if necessary with conc. NaOH or HCI to pH 6. Heating of samples:
Solutions (5.50 g) were weighted into small flat 6cm diameter Pyrex dishes and placed in 65°C drying oven (Binder FED 115, Germany) at 100% air velocity for 60min. Set temperature was adjusted as required. After completion, the samples were removed from the oven and heated (see below). Dried samples were heated at 180°C for 15 min then transfer to a desiccator. The resulting cooled residues were sealed, packaged and sent for Acrylamide analysis.
The presence of glycine had a large effect (~62%) on the formation of acrylamide in a model system. Lysine also had a similar effect, however, to a lesser degree. It will be readily apparent that the compositions and methods described herein are readily adapted to use lysine and glycine or alternatively lysine alone.
Example 2Glycine dip and the application point reduce acrylamide formation inreconstituted trench friesPreparation of Glycine solution:Glycine solutions (2.1% (w/w) were prepared in 0.8% SAPP (sodium acid pyrophosphate) by adding solids to 25°C SAPP solution and mixing until fully hydrated. Five 8L solutions were prepared and held at room temperature until needed. Preparation of French Fries:
Potato samples were processed using a laboratory simulation of an industrial process followed by a finish fry. A known amount of raw material was peeled, cut into 9.5 x 9.5 mm wide strips, blanched for 15 min at 75°C, dipped in the 0.8% sodium acid pyrophosphate solution for 60 sec at 65°C (pH 5.1), dried to a set weight loss, pre-fried (Frymaster H17, LO, USA) in partially hydrogenated soy bean oil at 180°C for 75 sec, chilled to 10°C, blast frozen (Gram KPS 30, Swanley, UK) and stored in polyethylene bags at -25°C. This procedure represented the standard process.
Treating samples with glycine involved dipping the strips in a 0.8% SAPP/ 2.1% glycine (w/w) solution for 5 sec at the following points in the process and proceeding to the next step in the process:
1. After blanching: solution 65°C
2. After drying: solution 65°C
3. After frying: solution 65°C
4. After frying and cooling to room temperature: solution 25°C
5. After sample is frozen, followed by refreezing: solution ~ -1°C
For each application point, a paired control was prepared which involved dipping the strips in only SAPP for the same time and temperature.
To simulate final preparation, frozen pre-fried strips were fried at 180°C for 3.5 min and subsequently chilled and blast frozen to facilitate preparation
for acrvlamide analvsis
Dipping strips for 5 sec in a SAPP/glycine solution decreased the formation of acryalmide in the reconstituted product. The point of application also reduced acrylamide, suggesting maximizing the effect of glycine is dependent on the structure of the strip before freezing. Example 3
Glycine dip reduces acrylamide in potato cakes
Potato cakes were dipped in a 1% solution of glycine and heated at 200°C for 25 min. Those treated with glycine had significantly lower acrylamide levels, see Figure 3. This confirms that there is either a competitive route which involves other Maillard products being formed in preference to acrylamide, and involves glycine, or acrylamide reacts with the product of Maillard browning.
Example 4Low concentration of glycine dip reduces acrylamide
Potato cakes made with dehydrated potato flakes were prepared with varying concentrations of glycine added to the water used to hydrate the flakes (fig.4). The results clearly showed the effect of glycine concentration on the degree of acrylamide reduction in the oven baked potato cake even at relatively low levels of glycine addition.
Example 5Application Point reduces acrylamide in potato cakes
Potato cakes are made with varying concentrations of glycine added to the samples at different points in the process of making the potato cakes. As in example 2, potato samples are processed using a laboratory simulation of an industrial process followed by a finish fry. A know amount of raw material is peeled and formed into potato cakes. These samples are treated with glycine involving dipping the cakes in various concentrations of glycine solution for 5 sec at the following points in the process and proceeding to the next step inAfter frying: solution 65°C
3. After frying and cooling to room temperature: solution 25°C
4. After sample is frozen, followed by refreezing: solution ~ -1°C
For each application point, a paired control is prepared, which involves dipping the strips in a control solution for the same time period and temperature. Glycine reduces acrylamide in potato cakes.
Example 6 Glycine dip improves color of products
Potato products are made with varying concentrations of glycine added to the samples at different points in the process of making the products. Potato samples are processed using a laboratory simulation of an industrial process followed by a finish fry as in examples 2 and 4. Samples are treated with glycine by dipping the strips in various concentrations of glycine solution for 5 sec at the following points in the process and proceeding to the next steps in the processes as described in examples 2 and 4.For each application point, a paired control is prepared, which involves dipping the strips in a control solution for the same time period and temperature.The color of the French fries is determined, for example, in accordance with the United States Department of Agriculture Color Standard for Frozen French Fried Potatoes. According to this standard the color and appearance of the French Fries are compared to a color and appearance chart provided in the Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes, Third Edition, 1972, 64-1. Alternatively, a color measurement device such as an Agtron device can be used to measure color of product on a scale of 0 to 100 based, for example, on reflective properties. The potato cakes and French fries treated with glycine showed improved color (i.e. darker color compared to an untreated sample).While the present invention has been described with reference to what presentlv considered to be the preferred examples, it is to be understood invention is intended to cover various modifications and equivalent arrangements included within the spirit and scope of the appended claims.All publications, patents and patent applications are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety to the same extent as if each individual publication, patent or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference in its entirety.FULL CITATIONS FOR REFERENCES REFERRED TO IN THE SPECIFICATIONTareke, E.; Rydberg, P.; Karlsson, P.; Eriksson, S.; Tornqvist, M.
Acrylamide: A cooking carcinogen? Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2000, 13, 517-
1. Tareke, E.; Rydberg, P.; Karlsson, P.; Eriksson, S.; Tornqvist, M. Analysis
of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs. J. Agric. Food
Chem. 2002, 50, 4998-5006.
2. Rosen, J.; Hellenas, K-E. Analysis of acrylamide in cooked foods by liquid
chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Analyst 2002, 127, 880-882.
3. Ahn J.S.; Castle L; Clarke D.B.; Lloyd A.S.; Philo M.R.; Speck D.R.
Verification of the findings of acrylamide in heated foods. Food Addit.
Contam. 2002; 19, 1116-1124.
4. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, IARC Monographs on
the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. 1994, Vol. 60, 389-433.
5. Mottram, D.S.; Wedzicha, B.L. and Dodson, AT. Acrylamide is formed in
the Maillard reaction. Nature 2002, 419, 448-449.
6. Pelucchi, C.; Franceschi, S.; Levi, F.; Trichopoulos, D.; Bosetti, C.; Negri,
E.; La-Vecchia, C. Fried potatoes and human cancer. Int. J. Cancer 2003,
7. Mucci L.A.; Dickman P.W.; Steineck G.; Adami H.O.; Augustsson K.
Dietary acrylamide and cancer of the large bowel, kidney, and bladder:
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1. A method of reducing acrylamide levels in a food product comprising administering glycine to the food product prior to the final preparation of the product, thereby reducing acrylamide formation in the food product.
2. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the food product comprises a potato product, a battered product, a bread, a cereal, a cookie, a cracker, coffee, a soup mix, a pretzel, a roasted almond, peanut butter, cocoa or baby food.
3. The method as claimed in claim 2, wherein the potato product comprises a potato, a French fry, a potato chip, an oven baked potato, rosti, a potato crisp, a potato cake or a potato stick.
4. The method as claimed in claim 2, wherein the battered product comprises battered fish, a battered chicken or a battered vegetable.
5. The method as claimed in claim 2, wherein the bread comprises baked bread, crisp bread, toasted bread or a bagel.
6. The method as claimed in any one of the claims 1 to 5, wherein the glycine is administered in an aqueous solution.
7. The method as claimed in claim 6, wherein the glycine is present in an amount of at least 0.01% w/w of the total solution.
8. The method as claimed in claim 6, wherein the glycine is present in an amount of 0.1% to 5% w/w of the total solution.
9. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein glycine is administered to the food
product by dipping, coating, spraying, dusting or soaking.
10. A method as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the food product
comprises a French fry.
11. The method as claimed in claim 1, further comprising preparation of the final product by cooking the potato product, wherein the levels of acrylamide in the cooked potato product are lower as compared to the levels in a similar product that has not been treated with glycine.
12. The method as claimed in claim 11, wherein the glycine is administered to the potato product after a preparation step selected from the group consisting of:
(e) frying and cooling to room temperature; and
13. The method as claimed in claim 11 or 12, wherein the potato product comprises a potato, a French fry, a potato chip, an oven baked potato, rosti, a potato crisp, a potato cake or a potato stick.
|Indian Patent Application Number||1846/DELNP/2006|
|PG Journal Number||35/2012|
|Date of Filing||04-Apr-2006|
|Name of Patentee||MCCAIN FOODS LIMITED|
|Applicant Address||107 MAIN STREET, P.O. BOX 97, FLORENCEVILLE, NEW BRUNSWICK E7L 1B2, CANADA|
|PCT International Classification Number||A23L 1/015|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/CA2004/001614|
|PCT International Filing date||2004-09-13|