|Title of Invention||
GASIFIER REACTOR INTERNAL LINING
|Abstract||A gasifier internal refractory lining which is made from a sintered material comprising at least 45% by weight of chromium oxide (Cr2O3) and at least 1% by weight of zirconium oxide, at least 20% by weight of said zirconium oxide (ZrO2) being stabilized in the cubic and/or quadratic form.|
|Full Text||The invention concerns a gasifier reactor internal lining.
There is known in the art in particular a gasifier used to gasify coal. The coal
gasification process, that has been known in the art for around fifty years, is currently
experiencing strong growth because it can be used, starting from highly diverse
hydrocarbon materials, for example coal, petroleum coke, and even heavy oils to be
recycled, to produce synthesis gases serving as an energy source and as basic compounds
for the chemical industry. This process also eliminates unwanted components, for example
NOx, sulfur or mercury, before discharge into the atmosphere.
The principle of gasification consists in controlled partial combustion, under
pressure and in a steam or oxygen atmosphere, at a temperature from approximately
1000°C to approximately 1600°C.
There exist different types of reactor, known as "gasifiers", with fixed, fluidized
or driven beds. These reactors differ in the mode of introduction of the reactants, the
manner in which the fuel and the oxidizer are mixed, the temperature and pressure
conditions, and the method of evacuating liquid residual slag or ash resulting from the
The article "Refractories for Gasification" published in the journal "Refractories
Applications and News", Volume 8, Number 4, July-August 2003, written by Wade Taber
of the Energy Systems department of the Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics Division,
describes the structure of a gasifier internal lining. The gasifier is coated with various
layers of refractory products capable of withstanding the conditions of temperature,
pressure and chemical environment to which they are subjected during gasification. The
layers of refractory products thus protect the metal interior wall of the gasifier from heat
and from corrosion by gases and slag.
The refractory product at the hot face is more particularly subjected to erosion
and chemical attack by ash or slag, which leads to the infiltration of compounds from the
liquefied ash or slag into the pores of the refractory product. As a result of erosion and
thermal cycling, this infiltration can cause spalling of the lining, and finally to shutting
down of the reactor.
To increase the service life of refractory linings, researchers have attempted to
increase their thickness. However, this solution has the drawback of reducing the usable
volume of the gasifier and therefore its yield.
James P. Bennett, in the article "Refractory liner used in slagging gasifiers"
published in the journal "Refractories Applications and News", Vol 9, Number 5,
September/October 2004, pages 20-25, explains that the service life of current gasifier
refractory linings, in particular in air-cooled systems, is very limited despite their high
content of chromium oxide. He mentions in particular the report by S.J. Clayton, G.J.
Stiegel and J.G. Wimer "Gasification Technologies, Gasification Markets and
Technologies - Present and future, an Industry Perspective", US DOE report DOE/FE
0447, July 2002.
There is therefore a requirement for a refractory lining adapted to resist the
corrosion encountered in gasifiers more effectively and more durably than prior art
The object of the invention is to satisfy this requirement.
According to the invention, the above object is achieved by means of a gasifier
internal refractory lining having at least one region of a sintered material containing at
least 45% by weight of chromium oxide (Cr2O3) and at least 1%, preferably at least 2 %,
and more preferably at least 3 %, by weight of zirconium oxide (ZrO2), at least 20%,
preferably at least 30 %, by weight of said zirconium oxide (ZrO2) being stabilized in the
cubic and/or quadratic form.
As will emerge in more detail in the remainder of the description, surprisingly,
the presence of at least 1% zirconium oxide of which at least 20% by weight is stabilized
in the cubic and/or quadratic form reduces infiltration and attack by slag without
degrading the other functional properties of the lining.
Said lining material of the invention preferably has one or more of the following
- At least 60% of the zirconium oxide is stabilized in the cubic and/or quadratic
- Said material contains at least one dopant, stabilizing or not stabilizing the
zirconium oxide, selected from CaO, MgO, Y2O3 and TiO2, the preferred dopant being
CaO. The content of calcium oxide (CaO) of said material is preferably less than 1,0 % by
weight. The dopant preferably stabilizes the zirconium oxide, at least in part.
- The content of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) is greater than 4.5%, preferably greater
than 6% by weight, and/or less than 7% by weight.
- The content of chromium oxide (Cr2O3) is greater than 60% by weight and
preferably greater than 80% by weight.
- Said material has an aluminum oxide (Al2O3) content greater than 1% by
weight, preferably greater than 2% by weight, and/or less than 10% by weight, preferably
less than 5% by weight, preferably less than 3.5% by weight.
- Said material has a silica content greater than O.5% by weight, preferably
greater than 1% by weight, and/or less than 3% by weight, preferably less than 1.5% by
- The sum of the contents of oxides of chromium (Cr2O3), zirconium (ZrO2),
aluminum (Al2O3), silicon (SiO2) and calcium oxide (CaO) is greater than 95%, preferably
greater than 98%, by weight, the other constituents of the product being impurities. The
impurities conventionally comprise iron essentially in the form of Fe2O3 and oxides of
alkali metals such as Na2O and K2O. Such contents of impurities are not considered to call
into question the advantages obtained from using the material.
- The structure of the material features a granulate of chromium oxide bound by a
matrix comprising grains including zirconium oxide and a dopant selected from CaO,
MgO, Y2O3 and TiO2, the dopant, stabilizing or not stabilizing the zirconium oxide, the
percentage of zirconium oxide contained in said grains being greater than 1%, preferably
greater than 2.5%, by weight relative to the weight of the material. The dopant content in
the grains containing zirconium oxide and a dopant is preferably from 1% to 8% by weight
relative to the weight of said grains. Preferably, this dopant content is greater than or equal
to 3% and/or less than or equal to 6%.
- Preferably, the dopant is selected from CaO, MgO and Y2O3, preferably from
MgO and CaO. The prefered dopant is CaO.
- The material takes the form of a layer applied to the interior wall of a reactor of
the gasifier or of an assembly of blocks arranged to protect said wall. The whole of the
layer or all the blocks of the assembly preferably consist(s) of a material such as that
In the present description, all percentages are percentages by weight unless
The composition of the slags in gasifiers typically consists of SiO2, FeO or Fe2O3,
CaO and Al2O3. It may also include other oxides derived from products feeding the
reactor. The base index B = (CaO + MgO + Fe2O3)/(Al2O3 + SiO2) is typically about O.6
and the ratio C/S = CaO/SiO2 is typically O.4, the contents being expressed as percentages
Wang Zhe, as reported in the paper "Application of ZrO2 in high Cr2O3 low
cement castable refractories for Refuse Melter" published in the proceedings of the 8th
Biennial UNITEC Congress "Worldwide Conference Refractories ECO Refractory For
The Earth" held from 19-22 October 2003 in Osaka (Japan), studied the behavior of
products with high chromium oxide and aluminum oxide contents, containing no silicon
oxide, in relation to corrosive slags encountered in furnaces for incineration of domestic or
industrial waste. The addition of a highly stabilized zirconia in cubic form representing
from 3.2% to 6.4% of the total composition is described as unfavorable to resistance to
dissolution by the slags cited in the above publication. However, incineration furnace slags
are very different from those of gasifiers, as they have the following characteristics: B
index of approximately 1.2; C/S ratio of approximately 1.5.
A lining must be adapted to the corrosive conditions that it encounters. Thus it
cannot be expected that a lining known to be resistant to certain corrosive conditions will
be equally resistant when subjected to other corrosive conditions. Thus it is found that
materials conforming to the invention include the materials described by Wang Zhe as
ineffective for waste incineration furnaces. Surprisingly, the inventors have discovered
that these materials are effective in an application to a gasifier lining.
In applications such as glassmaking furnaces or iron and steel furnaces, as
described in the patent EP 0 404 610, for example, there are known in the art products
consisting of zirconium oxide and chromium oxide. These products contain zirconium
oxide in a proportion from 1% to 9% by weight relative to the total composition.
According to the above patent, it is essential that at least 80% of the zirconium oxide be in
the monoclinic form, monoclinic zirconium being described as the "key ingredient" for
improving resistance to thermal shocks. Surprisingly, in the light of this teaching, the
inventors have discovered that, in the application to a gasifier lining, the presence of
zirconium oxide stabilized to at least 20% is, on the contrary, advantageous.
Zirconium oxide can be stabilized by means of a stabilizing dopant and/or by heat
treatment at very high temperature (typically greater than 1700°C). According to the
invention at least 20% by weight of the zirconium oxide is stabilized in the cubic and/or
A dopant selected from CaO, MgO, Y2O3 and TiO2, acting or not acting as a
stabilizer, is preferably present in the lining material of the invention.
The refractory lining material of the invention consists of one or more granulates,
i.e. particles having a particle size greater than 150 µm, surrounded by a binder matrix.
The granulates may have diverse chemical compositions, in particular they can
consist of chromium oxide, the total content of chromium oxide of the material being at
least 45% by weight.
The binder matrix comprises grains, i.e. particles having a particle size less than
150 µm, including zirconium oxide and a dopant. According to the invention, the
zirconium oxide alone present in these grains preferably represents more than 2.5% of the
total weight of the material. In these grains, the dopant may have the function of
stabilizing the zirconium oxide or not. The binder matrix may further comprise other
grains, in particular grains of zirconium oxide with no dopant.
The lining of the invention may be fabricated in the form of a layer obtained from
a non-worked product or in the form of an assembly of refractory blocks.
To fabricate a lining in the form of a layer, a base mixture is prepared of particles
of chromium oxide and zirconia, and possibly other oxides, in proportions determined as a
function of the composition of the required material. The dopant may be added to the
mixture and/or be included with the zirconia, as a stabilizer. Forming additives may be
added to facilitate use, preferably in a proportion of less than 7%.
The manner of determining the proportions of the constituents of the base mixture
is well known to the person skilled in the art. In particular, the person skilled in the art
knows that the chromiµm, aluminum and zirconium oxides present in the base mixture are
found in the sintered refractory material. Certain oxides of this material can also be
introduced by the additives. The composition of the base mixture may therefore vary, in
particular as a function of the quantities and the nature of the additives present.
The chromium oxide may be added in the form of a mixture of sintered or fused
chromium oxide particles. The aluminum oxide may be added in the form of a mixture of
calcined or reactive particles of alumina, or even of white corundum. The zirconium oxide
may be added in the form of commercially available unstabilized zirconia and/or in the
form of stabilized zirconia, for example zirconia from Unitec, in powder form.
A powder is made up of particles of which 90% by weight have a particle size
less than 150 µm.
The base mixture preferably includes at least 0.2% by weight of stabilized
The base mixture preferably includes:
- at least 60% of a particular mixture based on oxides of which at least 90% by
weight consists of particles having a particle size greater than 150 microns but less than
- less than 40%) of a mixture of particles, at least 90% by weight of the particles
having a particle size less than 150 µm;
- less than 7% of one or more forming additives well known to the person skilled
in the art.
The base mixture is preferably homogenized and conditioned. A mixture of this
kind is advantageously ready for use and may be applied to the interior wall of the reactor,
for example by casting, vibrocasting or spraying, as a function of requirements and with
great flexibility, and then sintered in situ during preheating of the reactor, to produce a
refractory lining of the invention. Sintering occurs at atmospheric pressure, in an oxidizing
atmosphere and at a temperature from 1300°C to 1600°C.
To fabricate a lining of the invention, it is equally possible to assemble sintered
blocks or prefabricated blocks which are then sintered in service when the reactor is
To fabricate a sintered block, a fabrication method may be used that includes the
following successive steps:
a) preparing a charge,
b) forming said charge in a mold,
c) casting said charge in the mold or compacting the charge by vibration and/or
pressing and/or pounding of said charge in the mold to form a preform,
d) removing the preform from the mold,
e) drying said preform, preferably in air or a moisture-controlled atmosphere, and
preferably so that the residual moisture content of the preform is from 0 to O.5%,
f) firing said preform in an oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature from 1300°C to
1600°C to form a fashioned refractory product, or a sintered "refractory block".
Like the base mixture described above, the charge includes oxides determined as
a function of the final composition of the block, precursors thereof and temporary forming
The steps a) to f) are steps conventionally employed in the art to fabricate
In step a), the manner of determining the quantities of the constituents of the
refractory product is well known to the person skilled in the art. In particular, the person
skilled in the art knows that the chromiµm, aluminum and zirconium oxides present in the
starting charge are found in the fabricated refractory product. Certain oxides may also be
introduced by the additives. For the same quantity of constituents of the sintered refractory
product, the composition of the starting charge may therefore vary, in particular as a
function of the quantities and the nature of the additives present in the charge.
The additives may be added to the starting charge to ensure that it is sufficiently
plasticized during the step b) of forming it and to confer sufficient mechanical strength on
the preform obtained at the end of the steps d) and e). Non-limiting examples of additives
that may be used are:
- organic temporary binders (i.e. binders that are eliminated wholly or in part
during drying and firing steps), such as resins, derivatives of cellulose or lignone,
polyvinyl alcohols; the quantity of temporary binder is preferably from O.1% to 6% by
weight relative to the weight of the particular mixture of the charge;
- forming agents such as stearates of magnesium or calcium;
- hydraulic binders such as CaO aluminate cement;
- deflocculating agents such as alkaline polyphosphates or methacrylate
- sintering promoters such as titanium dioxide or magnesium hydroxide;
- clay type additives that facilitate use and assist sintering; the above additives
introduce alumina and silica and a few oxides of alkali or alkaline-earth metals, even iron
oxide, depending on the type of clay.
The above quantities of additives are not limiting on the invention. In particular,
the quantities conventionally used in sintering processes are appropriate.
The mixing of the various constituents of the charge continues until a
substantially homogeneous mass is obtained.
In the step b), the charge is formed and disposed in a mold.
In the step c), in the case of forming by pressing, a specific pressure of 400 to
800 kg/cm2 is appropriate. Pressing is preferably effected uniaxially or isostatically, for
example by means of a hydraulic press. It may advantageously be preceded by an
operation of manual or pneumatic ramming and/or of vibration.
The drying of the step e) may be effected at a moderately high temperature. It is
preferably effected at a temperature from 110°C to 200°C. It conventionally takes from ten
hours to one week, depending on the format of the preform, continuing until the residual
moisture content of the preform is less than O.5%.
The dried preform is then fired (step f)). The firing time, from approximately
three days to approximately 15 days from cold to cold, varies as a function of the materials
but also as a function of the size and the shape of the parts. The firing cycle is preferably
effected in the conventional manner, in air, at a temperature from 1300°C to 1600°C.
Surprisingly, the fashioned refractory product obtained at the end of the step f)
has proved particularly resistant to the stresses encountered inside gasifier reactors, in
particular to infiltration by fused ash or slag.
To fabricate a prefabricated block, the process steps a) to e) described above are
used, but at least part of the firing step f) is effected after assembling the blocks in the
The blocks are assembled by means of appropriate expansion joints, using
techniques well known to the person skilled in the art.
The following examples provide a non-exhaustive illustration of the invention.
The following raw materials were used for these examples:
- particulate mixture of chromium oxide, with a purity of 98% Cr2O3 by weight,
and consisting of at least 90% by weight of particles having a size greater than 20 microns
but less than 20 mm,
- pigmentary chromium oxide powder (>98% of Cr2O3) whose median diameter
(D50) is less than 2 microns,
- calcined or micronized alumina powder with a median diameter of 5 microns,
- monoclinic zirconia powder from ZIRPRO having the characteristics set out in
table 1 below (powder P1),
- additives: magnesium or calcium stearates, temporary binders (derivatives of
cellulose or lignone), chemical binders (phosphoric acid, derivatives of aluminum
- stabilized zirconia powder from UNITEC, with the characteristics set out in
table 1 below (powder P2),
clay with a content of alumina >30%.
In a first step a), the raw materials were mixed and 3% water added. This was
followed by the process steps:
b) forming the charge in a mold,
c) compacting the charge in the mold at a pressure of 600 kg/cm2 to form a
d) removing the preform from the mold,
e) drying the preform, in air, to obtain a residual moisture content of the material
less than or equal to 0.5%,
f) firing said preform in an oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature from 1400°C to
1600°C to form a fashioned refractory product.
The contents of aluminµm, chromiµm, silicon and calcium oxides in the sintered
final product were calculated from the chemical composition of the raw materials used for
the starting charge.
Observation of the microstructure of the products of the invention shows that they
consist of a granulate of chromium oxide surrounded by a binder matrix that contains, for
the products 2 to 5, grains of ZrO2-CaO. Microprobe analysis identifies the content of the
elements of the grains of ZrO2-CaO coming from the powder P1 or P2.
The density and open porosity were measured on the products before any
corrosion had occurred and in accordance with the standard ISO 5017.
Further measurements were effected on products subjected, after the step f), to
corrosion representative of the service conditions suffered by the hot face of gasifier
linings. This corrosion was obtained in the following manner. Samples of the product to be
tested with a size of 25 x 25 x 180 mm3 placed in a furnace crucible were immersed in
fused slag at a temperature of 1600°C for four hours in an argon atmosphere. The samples
were rotated at a speed of 2 rpm.
The slag used contained in particular:
SiO2: approximately 30-50%
A12O3: approximately 10-20%
CaO: approximately 10-20%
The base index B of this slag, i.e. the (CaO + MgO + Fe2O3) / (SiO2 + A12O3)
mass ratio, was typically of the order of O.6. The CaO/SiO2 mass ratio was of the order of
The following were evaluated: corrosion indicator, depth of penetration of the
CaO of the slag, zirconia depletion, and value of residual modulus of rupture in bending
after a thermal shock test.
The corrosion indicator is equal to the following ratio:
100 x loss of section of the sample of the product tested at the atmosphere / slag triple point
loss of section of the reference sample at the atmosphere / slag triple point
the loss of section resulting from the corrosive attack by the slag described above and from
the resulting dissolution of the refractory product.
The corrosion indicator is therefore 100 for the reference product and a value
lower than 100 indicates better corrosion resistance than the reference product.
The depth of penetration of the CaO of the slag was measured by means of a
microprobe on a metallographic section.
The maximum depth to which the zirconia constituting the refractory had been
attacked and dissolved by the slag was measured by means of a microprobe. This depth is
referred to as "depletion".
As the lining of the invention may be subjected in service to high stresses
following thermal shocks, the inventors also measured the change in the modulus of
rupture in bending of the products subjected to a thermal shock.
The residual modulus of rupture in bending after a thermal shock test was
evaluated in accordance with the standard ISO 5014. It is listed as "Residual MOR" in
The table 2 below summarizes the results obtained.
Composition No. 1 is the reference composition.
Table 2 indicates that:
o The addition of stabilized zirconia containing CaO (compositions 2-3-4-5-6)
reduces the depletion of zirconia, i.e. attacking of the zirconia by the slag.
o The presence of more than O.5% silicon oxide is not harmful to corrosion
o The presence of aluminum oxide may be favorable to resistance to calcium
oxide infiltration, as is indicated by comparing compositions 2 and 3.
o The calcium oxide added in particular by the source of the zirconia is not
particularly harmful to the required properties.
o The products of the invention have better corrosion resistance than the
o Composition 3 offers the best compromise for the required properties and is
preferred over all the others.
As is now clear, the lining of the invention advantageously reduces infiltration
and attack by the slags encountered in gasifier reactors, without other functional properties
thereof being degraded.
Of course, the present invention is not limited to the embodiments described,
which are given by way of illustrative and non-limiting example.
WE CLAIM :
1. A gasifier internal refractory lining having at least one region of a sintered
material containing at least 45% by weight of chromium oxide (Cr2O3) and at least 1% by
weight of zirconium oxide, at least 20% by weight of said zirconium oxide (ZrO2) being
stabilized in the cubic and/or quadratic form.
2. The refractory lining as claimed in claim 1, wherein at least 60% of said
zirconium oxide is stabilized in the cubic and/or quadratic form.
3. The refractory lining as claimed in claim 1 or claim 2, wherein it contains at
least one dopant, stabilizing or not stabilizing the zirconium oxide, selected from CaO,
MgO, Y2O3 and TiO2.
4. The refractory lining as claimed in claim 3, wherein the dopant is CaO.
5. The refractory lining as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein the content
of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) is greater than 6% by weight and/or less than 7% by weight.
6. The refractory lining as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein the content
of chromium oxide (Cr2O3) is greater than 80% by weight.
7. The refractory lining as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein it has an
aluminum oxide (Al2O3) content greater than 1% by weight and/or less than 10% by
weight and/or a silica content greater than O.5% by weight and/or less than 3% by weight.
8. The refractory lining as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein the structure
of said material features a granulate of chromium oxide bound by a matrix comprising
grains including zirconium oxide and a dopant selected from CaO, MgO, Y2O3 and TiO2,
said dopant stabilizing or not stabilizing said zirconium oxide, the percentage of
zirconium oxide contained in said grains being greater than 2.5% by weight relative to
the weight of said material.
9. The refractory lining as claimed in claim 8, wherein the dopant content in
said grains is from 1% to 8% by weight relative to the weight of said grains.
1O. The refractory lining as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein the
material takes the form of a layer applied to the interior wall (26) of a reactor (14) of said
gasifier or of an assembly of blocks arranged to protect said wall (26).
ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE
GASIFIER REACTOR INTERNAL LINING
A gasifier internal refractory lining which is made from a sintered material
comprising at least 45% by weight of chromium oxide (Cr2O3) and at least 1% by weight
of zirconium oxide, at least 20% by weight of said zirconium oxide (ZrO2) being stabilized
in the cubic and/or quadratic form.
|Indian Patent Application Number||3795/KOLNP/2007|
|PG Journal Number||32/2012|
|Date of Filing||08-Oct-2007|
|Name of Patentee||SAINT-GOBAIN CENTRE DE RECHERCHES ET D'ETUDES EUROPEEN|
|Applicant Address||LES MIROIRS, 18 AVENUE D'ALSACE - F-92400, COURBEVOIE-FRANCE|
|PCT International Classification Number||C04B 35/12,C10J 3/74|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/FR2006/000540|
|PCT International Filing date||2006-03-10|