|Title of Invention||
EXTRUDED POLYOLEFIN FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF CELLULAR MATERIAL
|Abstract||Extruded polyolefin characterized by a high foamability number compared to known polyolefins suitable for foam applications.|
|Full Text||FORM 2
THE PATENTS ACT, 1970
(39 of 1970)
THE PATENTS RULES, 2003
(See Section 10; rule I 3)
"EXTRUDED POLYOLEFIN FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF
BOREALIS TECHNOLOGY OY of the address: P.O. Box 330, FIN 06101 Porvoo,
The following specification particularly describes and ascertains the nature of this invention and the manner in which it has to be performed:
Extruded Polyolefin for the Manufacture of Cellular Material
The present invention relates to extruded polyolefin, in particular extruded polyolefin beads suitable for technical foam applications and protective 5 packaging. Furthermore, the present invention is related to the use of the extruded polyolefin for foamed articles.
In the recent years, there have been efforts undertaken to replace foamed polystyrene by foamed polypropylene products. It is known that foamed
10 polypropylene products possess chemical inertia, heat resistance, stiffness and impact resistance characteristics far superior to those of foamed poly-styrene. Therefore, there is an increasing demand using foamed polypro¬pylene in application fields where the foamed polystyrene cannot be used or in fields where the foamed polystyrene is widely used, such as for exam-
15 ple in insulation and in packaging, but does not completely satisfy the de-mands of the uses in terms of performance. For the technical foam applica-tion and the protecting packaging, the natural requirements for the used polymers are their foamability, high stiffness and high impact strength. One essential requirement that an extruded polyolefin achieves these desired 20 requirements is a relatively low density of the foamed products. Especially foamed articles with a high impact strength and being simultaneously rather light, are achieved in cases where these products have only a closed cell structure. There is a prejudice in literature that these products can only be achieved when the used extruded polyolefin has a high melt strength. 25
Therefore, it is the object of the present invention to provide an extruded
polyolefin suitable for technical foam applications and protective packag¬
ing which are an alternative to the known products characterized by a high
The finding of the present invention is to provide an extruded polyolefm with a high foamability number.
Hence, the present invention is related to an extruded polyolefln having 5
a) MFR2 of 0.01 to 1.00 g/10 min and
b) a foamability number (FN) of higher than 0.25 N, whereby the
foamability number is defined by the integral wherein is
the stretch ratio and F is the force given in cN recorded as a function of
10 the stretch ratio
Surprisingly, it has been found that such an extruded polyolefin possesses a good foamability, high stiffness and high impact strength.
15 It has been in particular found that there is a correlation of minimum foam den-sity and foamability number FN, i.e. with a high foamability number, very low foam density articles can be obtained (see Fig. 2).
The foamability number is determined from the area under the Rheotens-20 curve, i.e. the integral defined by the force given in cN as a function of the stretch ratio The Rheotens test, as used for this invention, to obtain the Rheo-tens-curve as inter alia given in Figure 1 is explained in detail in the experimental section. Preferably, the foamability number (FN) is higher than 0.3 N, more pref-erably higher than 0.4 N and most preferably higher than 0.45 N. In a preferred 25 embodiment, the foamability number is 0.5 N or higher.
However, not only the foamability number of the extruded polyolefm must be rather high but also the molecular weight'of the extruded polyolefin must be in the range as given above. More preferably, the MFR2 is in the range of 0.1 to 0.6
g/10 min, still more preferably in the range of 0.2 to 0.4. In a preferred embodi-ment, the MFR2 is of about 0.25 g/10 min. The melt flow rate (MFR) is an indi-cator of the molecular weight of the polymer used. The melt flow rate mainly depends on the average molecular weight This is due to the fact that long mole-5 cules render the material a lower flow tendency than short molecules. An in-crease in molecular weight means a decrease in the MFR-value. The melt flow rate (MFR) is measured in g/10 min of the polymer discharged through a defined dye under specified temperature and pressure conditions and the measure of the viscosity of the polymer, which, in turn, for each type of polymer is mainly influ-10 enced by its molecular weight but also by its degree of branching. The melt flow rate measured under a load of 2.16 kg at 230°C (ISO 1133) is denoted as MFR2.
Preferably, the extruded polyolefin has a melt strength lower than 3 cN. More preferably, the melt strength is lower than 2 cN and most preferred, the melt 15 strength is lower than 1.6. In a preferred embodiment, the melt strength is about 1.5 cN.
The advantage of having low melt strength is (a) such polymers are easy to make in reactor processes without modification and (b) the cell nucleation is more pro-20 nounced, i.e. the foam is more fine-cellular (see P. Spitael and Ch. W. Macosko, Polymer Engineering and Science, November 2004, Vol. 44, No. 11).
. ;■ >
The melt strength is measured by the Rheotens experiment. The Rheotens ex-periment is a quasi-isothermal fiber spinning experiment. A polymer melt pres-25 sured in a capillary dye is stretched under the action of a constant draw-down force until rupture of the filament. With the data obtained from such an experi-ment an extension diagram can be generated which describes the elongational behavior of the polymer melt A good elongational behavior is needed for many
polymer processes like blow molding or film blowing Also the rupture stress of
30 a polymer melt can be calculated with the data obtained from the Rheotens ex-
periment. A high rupture stress is of importance for many industrial applications. In general, the melt strength and the drawability depend on the material proper-ties of the melt and on the processing conditions of the experiment. The exact conditions under which the extruded polyolefin according to this invention have 5 been measured can be deducted from the experimental section.
Moreover, it is preferred that the extruded polyolefin has a crystallization tem-perature Tc in the range of 110 to 135°C, more preferably, in the range of 115 to 130°C. The crystallization temperature Tc has been measured with DSC accord-10 ing to ISO 3146 with a heating/cooling rate of 10°C. The advantage of a polymer with a crystallization temperature in the range of 110 to 135°C, more preferably in the range of 115 to 130oC if that it has found that these polymers are par-ticularly stiff.
15 In addition, it is preferred that the foamed article of the extruded polyolefm shall have a rather high crystallinity. A highly structured (crystal) polymer has im¬proved optical and mechanical properties.
Therefore, the extruded polyolefm shall preferably comprise an a-crystallization 20 nucleating agent and/ or a β-crystallization nucleating agent, whereby the crystal-lization nucleating agent is not from a metal salt. Preferably, the nucleating agent is present in an amount of 0.0001 to 1.00 wt%, more preferably in the amount of 0.001 to 0.50 wt%. Nucleating agents of polyolefrn are substances with the abil-ity to act as substrates for crystal formation by epitaxy thus increasing the num-25 ber of nuclei of the system. Thereby, the nucleating agents improve the crystaili- zation behavior in processing, i.e. decreasing the tycle time or increasing the line speed, increase the crystallinity in the final product and, additionally, influence the optical and mechanical properties in terms of improved stiffness (with a-crystallization nucleating agents) or toughhess(with β-crystallization nucleating 30 agents).
Any suitable a-nucleating agents known in the art can be used. However, it is preferred to use l,3:2,4-bis-(3,3-dimethyl-benzylidene)-sorbitol. A fur-ther a-nucleation method, herein referred to as "BNT" is a special reactor 5 technique, where the catalyst is pre-polymerized with monomers like vinyl-cyclohexan (VCH). This method is described in greater detail in e.g. EP 0 316 187 A2. For the purpose of this invention. BNT is referred to as an a-nucleating agent.
10 In particular suitable β-nucleation agents are quinacridone type compounds, especially quinacridone, dimethylquinacridone and dimethoxyquinacridone; quinacridonequinone type compounds, especially quinacridonequinone, a mixed crystal of 5,12-dihydro(2,3b)acridine-7,14-dione with qumo(2,3b)acridine-6,7,13,14-(5H,12H)-tetrone as disclosed in EP 0 177
15 961 and dimethoxyquinacridonequinone; and dihydroquinacridone type
compounds, especially dihydroquinacridone,
di-methoxydihydroquinacridone and dibenzodihydroquinacridone.
Still further suitable β-nucleating agents are dicarboxylic acid salts of met-20 als from group IIa of periodic table, e.g. pimelic acid calcium salt and suberic acid calcium salt.
Preferably, the extruded polyolefin is a polypropylene. Even more pre-ferred, the polyolefin is a linear polypropylene, i.e. having a branching in-
25 dex g' of 0.95 to 1.00, more preferable of about 1.00. The branching index g' is defined as g'=[IV]br/[IV]lin in which g' is the branching index, [IVbr] is the intrinsic viscosity of the branched polypropylene and [IV]lin is the intrinsic viscosity of the linear polypropylene having substantially the same weight average" molecular weight as the branched polypropylene.Thereby,a low
30 g'-value is an indicator for a high branched polymer. In other words, if the
g'-value decreases, the branching of the polypropylene increases. Reference is made in this context to B.H. Zimm and W.H. Stockmeyer, J. Chem. Phys. 17,1301 (1949). This document is herewith included by reference.
5 The intrinsic viscosity needed for determining the branching index g' is measured according to DIN ISO 1628/1, October 1999 (in Decalin at 135°C)
The polypropylene may be a linear propylene block-copolymer.
10 It is in particular preferred that the extruded polyolefln comprises a propyl-ene matrix and an ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR). The type of polypro-pylene matrix is not restricted to a specific one, as long as the matrix ful-fills, together with the ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR), the above-mentioned requirements. Hence, each homopolymer or copolymer can be
15 used. In case a copolymer is used, the comonomer content, however, shall be less than 3 wt%. Preferably, the comonomer is ethylene.
The choice of ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) must conform with the re-quirements to be achieved, i.e. an extruded polyolefin with a rather high
20 foamability number. Hence, an ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) is needed having a high propylene amount, i.e. with a low amount of ethylene. There-fore, it is preferred that the ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) has an ethyl-ene content of lower than 50.0 wt%, more preferably in the range of 10.0 to 50,0 wt% and most preferably, in the range of 20.0 to 40.0 wt%. In a pre-
25 ferred embodiment, the ethylene content is about 33.0 wt%.
Furthermore, the total amount of ethylene used in the polypropylene, more pref-erably in the polypropylene comprising propylene matrix and the ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR), shall be preferably less than 15.0 wt%, more preferable 30 in the range of 4.0 to 12.0 wt%, still more preferably in the
range of 5.0 to 10.0 wt%. In a preferred embodiment, the total ethylene content is about 9.0 wt%.
Furthermore, to achieve an extruded polypropylene suitable for the manu-5 facture of an article having a low foaming density, the polypropylene ma-trix and the ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) must be kept in a specific range. Accordingly, the extruded polypropylene does not have more than 30 wt% of the ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR). Therefore, the amount of polypropylene matrix must range from 70 to 95 wt%, preferably in the 10 range of 70 to 85 wt%. In turn, the ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) must be in the range of 5 to 30 wt%, preferably in the range of 15 to 30 wt%.
Further, the extruded polyolefin, in particular the extruded polypropylene as described above, is in a form of beads.
The extruded polypropylene is preferably produced by combining the poly-propylene matrix in the form of powder or granules, the ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and the crystallization nucleating agent, if present, in a melt mixing device.
Melt mixing devices suitable for the preferred process are discontinuous and/or continuous kneaders, twin screw extruders and single screw extrud-ers with special mixing sections and co-kneaders. The residence time must be chosen such that a sufficiently high degree of homogenization is
The polypropylene matrix may be produced by a single or multi-stage process polymerization of propylene or propylene and an a-olefin and/or ethylene such as bulk-polymerization, gas phase polymerization, slurry po 30 lymerization, solution polymerization or combinations thereof using con-
ventional catalysts. A homo- or copolymer can be either made in a loop re-actor or in a combination of loop and gas phase reactor. Those processes are well-known to one skilled in the art.
5 A suitable catalyst for the polymerization of the propylene polymer matrix is any stereo-specific catalyst for propylene polymerization which is capa-ble of polymerizing and copolymerizing propylene and comonomers at a temperature of 40 to 100°C and at a pressure from 10 to 100 bar. Ziegler-Natta catalysts as well as metallocene catalysts are suitable catalysts. 10
One skilled in the art is aware of the various possibilities to produce pro-pylene homo- and copolymers and will simply find out a suitable procedure to produce suitable polymers which are used in the present invention.
15 An ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) may be produced by a known polym-erization process such as solution, suspension and gas phase polymerization using conventional catalysts. Ziegler-Natta catalysts as well as a metallo-cene catalyst are suitable catalysts.
20 A widely used process is the solution polymerization. Ethylene, propylene and catalyst systems are polymerized in an excess of hydrocarbon solvent. Stabilizers and oils, if used, are added directly after polymerization. The
solvent and unreacted monomers are then flashed off with hot water or steam, or with mechanical devolatilization. The polymer, which is in crumb 25 form, is dried with de-watering in screens, mechanical pressures or drying ovens. The crumb is formed into wrapped balls or extruded into pellets.
The suspension polymerization process is a modification of bulk polymeri-zation; The monomers and catalyst system are injected into the reactor
filled with propylene. The polymerization takes place immediately, forming crumbs of polymer that are not soluble in propylene.
Flashing off the propylene and comonomer complete the polymerization 5 process.
The gas phase polymerization technology consists of one or more vertical fluidized beds. Monomers and nitrogen in gas form along with catalyst are fed to the reactor and solid product is removed periodically. Heat of reac-10 tion is removed through the use of the circulating gas that also serves to fluidize the polymer bed. Solvents are not used thereby eliminating the need for solvent stripping, washing and drying.
The production of ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) is also described in 15 detail in e.g. US 3,300,459, US 5,919,877, EP 0 060 090 Al and in a com¬pany publication by EniChem "DUTRAL, Ethylene-propylene Elastomers", pages 1 to 4 (1991).
Alternatively, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR), which is commercially 20 available and which fulfills the indicated requirements, can be used.
Alternatively, the propylene polymer matrix and the ethylene-propylene rubber may be produced in a series of reactors, i.e. starting with the pro-duction of the propylene matrix in a loop reactor and transferring the pro-25 duction into a gas phase reactor where the ethylene-propylene rubber is po-lymerized.
Furthermore, the present invention also comprises a foam produced from the extruded polyolefin as described above or from extruded polyolefin. 30 bead as mentioned above. Thereby, it is preferred that the foam has a den-
sity lower than 400 g/m3, more preferably lower than 250 g/m3 and most preferred lower than 180 kg/m3.
Additionally, the present invention is concerned with articles comprising the extruded polyolefin and/or extruded polyolefm beads and/or a foam as defined above. Furthermore, the invention is also concerned with the use of the extruded polyolefin as defined above to produce the foamed articles.
Methods Foamability Number:
In order to measure the Foamability Number, a high pressure capillary rheometer (Type: Rheograph 2002, Gottfert Werkstoff-Prufmaschinen GmbH, Buchen, Germany) was used to extrudate polymer strands, which were stretched by means of a Rheotens melt tension apparatus (Type: 7197, Gottfert Werkstoff-Priifmaschinen GmbH). The haul-off force F in depend-ence of draw-down velocity v is recorded. The test procedure is performed in a standard climatized room with controlled room temperature of 23 °C. The temperature of the rheometer was set at 200°C. A capillary of 20mm length and 1 mm diameter was used. The acceleration of the wheels of the Rheotens was set-to 0.012 cm/s2 for all the measurements. The diameter of the barrel was 12mm. The polymer was allowed to melt for 4 minutes. The extrusion rate of the strand is 0.0217 mm/s (equivalent to an apparent shear rate of 25s-1). The length of the spinning line was 104mm. The haul-off force F (in N) is measured against the stretch ratio " This way a curve is obtained. The maximum force is called "Melt Strength". The area under curve of the force vs. stretch ratio until break of the fiber is taken as Foamability Number (FN).
The density has been measured according to the Archimedes principle 5 through determining mass (m) and volume (V) of the specimen and calcu-lating its density (d) accordingly (d=m/V).
Tensile properties such as tensile modulus, tensile stress at yield, tensile strain at yield, tensile strength, tensile strain at tensile strength, and tensile strength at break have been measured analogue to ISO 527 in extrusion di-rection. 15
Foaming with Butane:
A tandem foam extrusion setup is used in this study. It consists of a 5-hp extruder drive with a speed control gearbox (Brabender, Prep Center), a
20 first 3/4" extruder (Brabender, 05-25-000) with a mixing screw (Brabender,
05-00144) of 30:1 L/D ratio, a second 1 1/2 " extruder (Killion, KN-150)
with a built-in l5 hp variable speed drive unit with a 18:1 L/D ratio. The
other systems include a positive displacement pump for butane injection, a
diffusion enhancing device containing static mixer (omega, FMX-84441S),
25 a gear pump (Zenith, PEP-11 1.2 cc/rev) where the volumetric displace-ment is properly controlled by the motor, a heat exchanger for cooling the polymer melt that contains homogenizing static mixers (Labcore Model H-04669-12), a cooling sleeve for the precise control, of die temperature. The first extruder is used for the plastication of the polymer resin while the sec-
ond extruder is responsible for mixing and initial cooling of the polymer melt. The gear pump controls the polymer melt flow rate and the heat ex-changer further homogenizes and cools the melt. Two filamentary dies (L/D = 0.3/0.040 and 0.5/0.040 inch) were used in this study. The polypropylene 5 material pellets blended with 0.8 wt% talc were first fed into the barrel through the hopper and were completely melted by the screw rotation. Then a metered amount of butane was injected into the extrusion barrel by a positive displacement pump and mixed intensively with the polymer melt stream. When the gas was injected into the extrusion barrel, screw gener-
10 ated shear fields to completely dissolve gas in the polymer melt via convec-tive diffusion. The single-phase polymer/gas solution went through the gear pump and was fed into the heat exchanger where it was cooled to a desig¬nated temperature. The cooled polymer/gas solution entered the die and foaming occurred at the die exit through a process of thermodynamic insta-
15 bility induced via rapid pressure drop. The melt and die temperatures were synchronized and adjusted to 170°C.
Foaming with Carbon Dioxide:
A single screw foam extrusion setup was used Extrusion experiments have 20 been carried out using a single screw extruder (Barmag AG, Remscheid, Germany) with a diameter of 60 mm and a processing length of 40 D. It is equipped with a screw which is designed especially for the use in foam ex-trusion (Berstorff GmbH, Hannover, Germany)- After melting and homoge-nising the polymer, liquid C02 is injected into the extruder barrel using a 25 dual head membrane pump (LEWA GmbH, Leonberg, Germany) at a length of 16 D. The last 11 D of the process length are designed as a water tem-pered cylinder extension, which ensures an effective cooling of the melt and a precise control of the melt temperature. To improve the homogeneity of the polymer/gas solution, an additional static mixer (SMX-75, Sulzer. 30 Chemtech, Winterthur, Switzerland) is mounted between extruder and ex-
trusion die. The melt is thermostated to 175°C and formed out using an an¬nular die with an outlet diameter of 50 mm. The cellular extrudate is cali¬brated by pulling it over a cooling mandrel with a diameter of 175 mm, fol-lowed by slitting and winding. In order to improve the foam structure, a 5 ' fixed amount of nucleating agent has been added - as is normally done in industrial foam production (Hydrocerol CF20E, Clariant Masterbatch GmbH, Ahrensburg, Germany).
Example 1 (Comparison)
10 An essentially linear polypropylene homopolymer with a MFR of 3.1g/10min, a melt strength of 0.020 N (2 cN) and a Foamability Number FN=0.1 N is extruded in contact with 5wt% butane. The final density of the cellular material is 450 kg/m3. Low density foam is not achieved.
15 The foamability number of regrind material has been found to be identical to the raw material.
Example 2 (Comparison)
20 An essentially linear polyolefln material as used in example 1 with a melt strength of 0.02 N (2 cN) and a Foamability Number FN=0.1 N is extruded in contact with 0.80wt% carbon dioxide. The final density of the cellular material is 420kg/m3. Low density foam is not achieved. The foamability number of regrind material has been found to be identical
25 to the raw material.
Example 3 (butane, without nucleating agent)
An essentially linear impact polypropylene has an MFR of 0.25g/10min, the total ethylene content is 9wt%, the crystallization temperature is 115oC 30 The ethylene content in the xylene soluble fraction is 33wt%. The intrinsic
viscosity of the xylene soluble fraction is 3.1dl/g. The tensile modulus of the rigid (un-foamed) material is 1150MPa. Used material, which has a melt strength of 0.015 N (1.5 cN) and a Foamability Number FN=0.5 N is extruded in contact with 5 wt% butane. The final density of the cellular ma-terial is 40 kg/m3. The tensile modulus of final parts, made from the cellu-lar material is 60 MPa. The foamability number of regrind material has been found to be identical to the raw material.
Example 4 (carbon dioxide, without nucleating agent)
The raw material of example 3 is extruded in contact with 0.8 wt% carbon dioxide. The final density of the cellular material is 170 kg/to3. The tensile modulus of final parts, made from the cellular material is 240 MPa. The foamability number of regrind material has been found to be identical to the raw material.
Example 5 (butane, with alpha nucleant)
A raw material as in example 3, but alpha nucleated using BNT, was used. Such prepared material had a crystallization temperature of 120°C. It was foamed with butane and a cellular material of a density of 40 kg/m3 was obtained. The tensile modulus of final parts, made from the cellular rnate-rial, is 80MPa. The foamability number of regrind material has been found to be identical to the raw material.
Example 6 (carbon dioxide, with alpha nucleant)
The raw material of example 4 is foamed with carbon dioxide, subsequently quenched in a liquid The cellular material shows a density of 170kg/m3 The tensile modulus of fmal parts, made from the cellular material is
290MPa. The foamability number of regrind material has been found to be identical to the raw material.
Example 7 (butane, with beta nucleant)
The raw material of example 3 is mixed with 2000 ppm Ca-Pimelate acting as beta nucleating agent and foamed with butane, subsequently quenched in a liquid. The cellular material shows a density of 40 kg/m3 The tensile modulus of final parts, made from the cellular material, is 36MPa. The 10 foamability number of regrind material has been found to be identical to the raw material.
Example 8 (carbon dioxide, with beta nucleant)
15 The raw material of example 3 is mixed with 2000 ppm Ca-Pimelate acting as beta nucleating agent and foamed with carbon dioxide, subsequently quenched in a liquid. The cellular material shows a density of 170kg/m3. The tensile modulus of final parts, made from the cellular material is 220MPa. The foamability number of regrind material has been found to be
20 identical to the raw material.
The results of the examples are summarized in the following table.
[cN] FN [N] Nucleation Density Tensile
ExamDle 1 2 0.1 No 450
Example 2 2 0.1 No 410
Example 3 1.5 0.5 No 40 60
ExamDle 4 1.5 0.5 No 170 240
Example 5 1.5 0.5 Alpha 40 80
Example 6 1.5 0,5 Alpha 170 290
Example 7 1.5 0.5 Beta 40 36
Example 8 1,5 0,5 Beta 170 220
Extruded linear potypropyiene having
a) MFR2, measured according to ISO 1133 under a load of 2.16 kg at 230 °C, of 0.01 to 1.00 g/10min and
b) a foamability number (FN) of higher than 0.25 N whereby the
foamability number is defined by the integral wherein is the
stretch ratio and F is the force given in cN recorded as a function of the stretch ratio
c) a branching index g' of 0.95 to 1.00.
Extruded linear polypropylene according to claim 1 having a melt strength lower than 3 cN.
Extruded linear polypropylene according to claim 1 or 2 having a crystallization temperature Tc, measured with DSC according to ISO 3146 with a heating/cooling rate of 10 °C, of 110 to 135°C.
Extruded linear polypropylene according to any one of the claims 1 to 3 comprising a α-crystallization nucleating agent and/or a β-crystallization nucleating agent.
Extruded linear polypropylene according claim 4, whereby the linear polypropylene is a linear propylene block-copolymer.
Extruded linear polypropylene according to claim 5, whereby the polypropylene has an ethylene content of less; than 15 wt%.
Extruded linear polypropylene according to any one of the claims 5 and 6, whereby the polypropylene comprises a polypropylene matrix and an ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR).
8. Extruded linear polypropylene according to claim 7, whereby the ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) has an ethylene content of less than 50 wt%.
9. Beads comprising an extruded linear polypropylene according to any one of the claims 1 to 8.
10. Foam comprising an extruded polyolefin of one of the preceding claims 1 to 8.
11. Foam according to claim 10, wherein the foam has a density lower than 400 kg/m3.
12. Article comprising an extruded linear polypropylene according to any one of the claims 1 to 8 and/or beads according to claim 9 and/or a foam according to any one of claims 10 to 11.
13. Use of extruded pololefin according to any one of the claims 1 to 8 or beads according to claim 9 to produce a foamed article.
14. Extruded linear polypropylene substantially as herein foregoing description and the accompanying drawings.
Dated this 4th day of August 2008.
The Controller of Patents The Patent Office' Mumbai
|Indian Patent Application Number||1676/MUMNP/2008|
|PG Journal Number||15/2012|
|Date of Filing||05-Aug-2008|
|Name of Patentee||BOREALIS TECHNOLOGY OY|
|Applicant Address||P.O. BOX 330, FIN 06101 PORVOO,|
|PCT International Classification Number||C08L23/10|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/EP2007/000599|
|PCT International Filing date||2007-01-24|